Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Palackého Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky Translation of English Culturally Specific Expressions into Czech

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1 Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Palackého Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky Translation of English Culturally Specific Expressions into Czech Diplomová práce Olomouc 2011 Marie Trundová

2 Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Palackého Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky Převod reálií anglicky mluvícího světa při překladu do češtiny Translation of English Culturally Specific Expressions into Czech Diplomová práce Autor: Bc. Marie Trundová, Anglická filologie Vedoucí práce: Mgr. Markéta Janebová, Ph.D. Olomouc 2011

3 Prohlašuji, že jsem tuto diplomovou práci vypracovala samostatně a uvedla úplný seznam citované a použité literatury. V Olomouci dne i -

4 Acknowledgements First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisor Mgr. Markéta Janebová, Ph.D. for the patient guidance and help she provided me during my work on this thesis and for her advice and comments on my drafts, which served as a strong motivation for me. Further, I would like to thank my family that I could work in a relaxed and comfortable atmosphere because without their support and understanding this thesis could have never been finished. - ii -


6 List of abbreviations Sources of examples (for full citations see Bibliography p. 108) An. DDIr. En. GB HHIr. IrCz. IrEn. KV LL OL QV ScCz ScEn. V VB Anglie by Terry Deary Irsko by Terry Deary England by Terry Deary Great Britain by Michael Leapman Ireland by Terry Deary Irsko by Tim Perry Ireland by Tim Perry Královna Viktorie by Christopher Hibbert Loathsome London by Terry Deary Ohavný Londýn by Terry Deary Queen Victoria: A Personal History by Christopher Hibbert Dějiny Skotska edited by Jenny Wormald Scotland: A History edited by Jenny Wormald Victorians by Ann Kramer Velká Británie by Michael Leapman In-text references to the sources of examples consist of an abbreviation referring to the source they are taken from and a page number. There are no other symbols used in the examples but, where relevant, culturally specific expressions which are commented upon are underlined. - iv -

7 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Theoretical Part Introduction Translatological Methods and Their Use for Translation of Culturally Specific Expressions Sources of Examples in Chapters Translatological Methods Transposition Modulation Equivalence Adaptation and Related Methods Cultural Equivalent Borrowing Calque Literal Translation Use of a More General Word Paraphrase and Related Methods Componential Analysis Recognised Translation Conclusion The Role of the Anglo-American Culture in Our Globalised World and the Influence of This Situation on Translation Practical Part Translation Characteristics of the Translated Text Culturally Specific Expressions Commentary on the Translated Text Government and Organisations Places Social Culture Culture Proper Material Culture Conclusion... 91

8 APPENDIX ONE APPENDIX TWO APPENDIX THREE APPENDIX FOUR... 1 Résumé Bibliography List of Pull-out Appendices

9 INTRODUCTION Every translation, regardless of its content, can be seen as a meeting point of at least two cultural backgrounds. As Levý (1969, 68) states, every language is influenced by the culture of its speakers by the manner they segment the world and the way they name these segments. Thus, in different languages, even the same extralinguistic reality can be described from various points of view. This gap, however, becomes even greater when the extralinguistic experience of the speakers differs. This thesis therefore deals with the translator s difficult task to span the gap between the cultural backgrounds of the source and the target language, or as Hervey and Higgins put it to perform a transfer from one culture to another (1992, 28). The translation of culturally specific expressions is, of course not an easy task but at the same time, it is a great challenge and a strong motivation for interesting work. The main goal of this work is to specify the relationship between Anglo-American culture and Czech culture by analysing methods used for rendering culturally specific expressions in a translation which forms a part of this thesis. The thesis consists of a theoretical and a practical part. The theoretical section includes an overview of approaches to the issue of culturally specific items and their translation. Most attention is paid to opinions of Mona Baker, Peter Newmark, Sándor Hervey and Ian Higgins, Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet and Lawrence Venuti. The aim of this chapter is to compare the approaches of renowned scholars and to create a system of methodical terminology, which can be used for the translation analysis in the practical part of the thesis. Further, the theoretical part discusses the role of a cultural identity and influence of Anglo- American culture on the rest of our globalised world (the Czech Republic included) and the impact of this situation on translation of culturally specific expressions (Venuti 1995, 1). Translation methods of the theoreticians mentioned above are then applied in the practical part of the thesis, which contains translated text with a commentary. The text for translation was chosen according to the frequency of culturally specific expressions it includes so that there is enough linguistic material - 1 -

10 for an analysis. Particular translatological problems are discussed and translation methods identified with the aim to specify which methods are used most often. The final step is to draw connection between the influence of Anglo-American world on Czech culture and the methods used for translation of English culturally specific expressions in the translated text

11 THEORETICAL PART 1. Introduction The Czech title of this diploma thesis is Převod reálií anglicky mluvícího světa při překladu do češtiny, which is a translatological problem itself. However, the description of the translation process used here can help to define the subject matter of the thesis. A Czech monolingual dictionary Nový akademický slovník cizích slov defines reálie as the amount of all facts, findings or information completing the image of a particular period, culture or geographical region or a life style 1 (Kraus et al. 2005). So in relation to translation, it concerns all texts which include such information. On the other hand, Oxford English Dictionary Online describes the English term realia as real things or actual facts, esp. as distinct from theories about or reactions to them; objective or experiential data or as facts, objects, and material from everyday life used as teaching aids (2011). When this definition is compared to the Czech one, the only thing they have in common is that both terms refer to facts and information from real life, but otherwise they are false friends. It is thus obvious that Czech reálie and English realia are not equivalents at the semantic level and therefore the phrase culturally specific expressions is used as the English translation. Besides semantic difference, which itself is a valid reason not to use the terms as equivalents, they also differ stylistically, but this characteristic is not relevant for the specification of the thesis topic and therefore it does not have to be discussed here. The definitions introduced above help to outline the topic of this thesis (reálie) and exclude areas which the thesis does not cover (realia). However, some more specification is still needed because the thesis does not deal with all types of culturally specific expressions of the English language. The focus of this work is the lexical and semantic sphere, more precisely expressions and phrases denoting objects or abstract entities which are specific for the Anglo-American world (e.g. place names, holidays, local dishes, etc.). The practical part of this 1 my own translation - 3 -

12 thesis also includes translation of a publication on Victorian Britain. Thanks to the type of the translated text, attention can be also given to expressions connected to this historical period. So not only geographically bound expressions, but also historically bound ones are the subject of the thesis. To further specify the types of expressions which are dealt with in this dissertation, Newmark s approach to this topic should be mentioned. In his work on translatology, Newmark introduces his categorisation of culturally specific expressions, which is also based on the system of classification used by E. A. Nida. Newmark distinguishes five major groups: (1) ecology (animals, plants, local winds, mountains, plains, ice, etc.), (2) material culture (food, clothes, housing, transport and communications), (3) social culture (work and leisure), (4) organisations, customs, ideas (political and administrative, religious and artistic) and (5) gestures and habits (1988, ). Newmark s categories are also used for classification of the culturally specific expressions which appear in the translated text included in this thesis. The main topic of the text for translation is the life and development of British society during the reign of Queen Victoria. So most of the culturally specific expressions from the text belong to groups (2) (4). Problems encountered during translation of culturally specific expressions are caused by differences in the extralinguistic reality in the countries of the source and target language or by differences in the perception of reality. If an object or situation does not exist in the target culture, there is naturally no expression which would describe it. Therefore, translators of texts which include this type of information often have to cope with the situation of zero equivalence. This concerns for example the expression ragged schools (V, 24), which were 19 th century schools built by philanthropists for poor children, whose parents could not afford to pay for the schooling. In Czech, there is no expression for these institutions because basic education was compulsory and free in 19 th century Austria-Hungary. A similar problem is the translation of rate (V, 19) a special type of local tax, paid in the past by people owning a building in an area or the translation of the first postage stamp used in the Great Britain Penny Black (V, 41). Each of these problems needs a different strategy for translation, which must be chosen not only according to the expressions but also according to the cotext in which they are used

13 The aim of the theoretical part of this thesis is therefore to discuss the methods used for translation of expressions belonging to the categories mentioned by Newmark (above). It is very important to specify which culturally specific expressions are and which are not the subject of this dissertation because, taken to the extreme, every source text is culture-bound, regardless of its content. What is not the subject of the discussion, are grammatical constructions typical for the English speaking world; figures of speech (typical English similes, metaphors, personifications or synecdoches), idioms, English proverbs, sayings, nursery rhymes, the lyrics of folk songs and riddles, tongue twisters, typical jokes, clichés, chants or catch phrases. All of the items mentioned above are also culturally specific, but each of them would be a good topic for another thesis so they are not further discussed here. This of course does not mean that they cannot occur in the translated text but they are not dealt with in the commentary. However, there is another culturally specific aspect which should be mentioned here and which is connected to the target language. As J. House points out, not only is the source text bound to the culture of its language, but also the translation process itself is tied to the conventions of the target language (2006, 344). Also this connection can be seen as culturally specific, even though it is such a complex relationship that its theoretical study goes beyond the scope of a thesis. Therefore, it is not treated as a separate topic here, but it is automatically taken into consideration in the practical part, both during the translation and in the commentary 2. 2 For a list of abbreviations used in the commentary and the theoretical part see p. iv - 5 -

14 2. Translatological Methods and Their Use for Translation of Culturally Specific Expressions Although translatology started to refine as a discipline as late as in the twentieth century, it comprises a large number of approaches and theories. The choice of approaches which are mentioned in this chapter is mostly influenced by their relevance to the main topic of this dissertation the translation of culturally specific expressions. The major linguists whose works are included in this chapter are Mona Baker, Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet, Sándor Hervey and Ian Higgins, and Peter Newmark. 2.1 Sources of Examples in Chapters Similarly, the examples which demonstrate particular methods are selected according to their relevance to the theme of this thesis. One of the sources from which the examples are taken is a guide book Ireland by Tim Perry, published in 2008 and translated by Lenka Svobodová. It is one of Eyewitness Travel Guides published by Dorling Kindersley, whose books have a distinctive style and structure. Similarly, the translated text which is a part of the dissertation is from an Eyewitness reference book so its structure and language adhere to the same standards. Another Eyewitness Travel Guide quoted in this chapter is Great Britain by Michael Leapman published in 2005 and translated by Lenka Svobodová and Jozef Koval in Guide books are usually highly descriptive and informative but written in a reader friendly style. They address the reader directly, suggest activities and use expressions with a strong (mostly positive) connotative meaning to attract the reader s attention and encourage her to visit the places. Moreover, Eyewitness Travel Guides include a lot of illustrations, maps and diagrams with detailed commentaries. The text is divided into three columns with short titled paragraphs, which also include graphic symbols. Generally, translators of travel guides often use the original names of places and buildings to help the readers find them in the foreign country. Also the translators of Eyewitness Travel Guides adopted this approach and prefer using - 6 -

15 English names e.g.: City, Southwark (londýnské čtvrtě) (VB, 109), Lake District (VB, 355), Galway Oyster Festival (IrCz., 50), Millstreet Indoor International exhibiční skoky na koni (IrCz., 29). The translators work was also restricted by the graphic style of the books which had to be retained and therefore the length of the source and the target text had to be equal. Further examples are taken from a biography Queen Victoria: a Personal History by Christopher Hibbert, which was published in 2000 and translated by Tereza Horáková in The main reasons for this choice were the genre of the book (general non-fiction) and the fact that it focuses on Victorian Britain, which is also the topic of the translation in this thesis. This work is written in the style of popular science, but is closer to the style of newspapers and magazines than to the scientific one. It focuses more on interesting and piquant details that objective facts and uses strong expressions to keep the reader s attention. The translator also had to deal with many quotations of other works and commentaries, which were reportedly said by Queen Victoria s contemporaries. However, there are no in-text references to help the translator find the source. Although this is a non-fiction work, its aim to entertain sometimes seems to be preferred to the informative value of the text. This is a feature shared with works of fiction, in which culturally specific expressions are usually a part of the setting and play a minor role. Therefore their translation does not have to be as detailed as it is in the following work. It is a book entitled Scotland: a History, which was edited by Jenny Wormald, published in 2005 and translated by Markéta Šerá in Similarly to the sources mentioned above, this book is non-fiction and deals with topics from the history of Great Britain. Therefore it includes a high number of expressions connected to British culture and history, among which it is easy to find examples relevant to the topic of this thesis. Scotland: a History is a work by thirteen scholars who according to Lynch write accessibly and with style (2007, 130). So the book style bears features of both scientific style and the style of general non-fiction. It is a highly informative style, which was taken into consideration during the translation process too. The translation of a culturally specific expression is often followed by the original in brackets: schválení proslulého zákona o vzdělání (Education Act) (91), Edinburská - 7 -

16 filozofická společnost (Edinburg Philosophical Society) (162), dudák z pluku královských horalů (Black Watch) (236). The text translated as a part of this thesis is taken from a book for young readers and therefore some more sources for examples were chosen. These are books from a series of Horrible Histories by Terry Deary, which were all translated by Robert Novotný. Namely: Loathsome London (2005) Ohavný Londýn (2005), Ireland (2000) Irsko (2005) and England (2004) Anglie (2004). The style of these books is most informal of all the sources, which had to be retained in the translation too. Besides, the works include a high number of puns and allusions, which were sometimes more difficult to render than culturally specific expressions themselves. Unfortunately, most of the humour was lost in translation see example (1), but some pieces of the translated text are even better than the original see example (2). The following examples are dialogues written in speech bubbles as a part of the book illustrations. (1) takes place in 1846 after an Irish rebellion which ended in Battle of Widow MacCormac s Cabbage Garden : (1) A: (reading a newspaper) Revolt in cabbages. B: (making a disgusted grimace) Yeah, they are, aren t they. (HHIr. 146) A: Revolta v zelí. B: Jo, podle toho to taky dopadlo. (DDIr. 144) Example (2) is a dialogue between two birds flying over London during the Great Fire and commenting on a dead bird that is falling to the ground: (2) A: Roasted raven? B: Ovened dove. (LL, back cover) A: Rorýs na roštu? B: Pečenej holub. (OL, back cover) - 8 -

17 2.2 Translatological Methods Since classical Rome, the dichotomy between literal and non-literal or free translation has been one of the main concerns of translators. In Newmark s opinion, the translator should stick to literal translation for ordinary pieces of text as long as the result is idiomatic (1988, 75). However, during translation of culturally specific texts, literal translation is often not the best solution or it might be even impossible to use. In relation to non-literal translation, Hatim and Munday mention translation shifts (first mentioned by John Catford) and define them as the use of translation equivalent other than the formal correspondent [ ] for a specific SL element (2004, 28). As culturally specific text usually includes a high number of specific SL elements, translation shifts are very likely to be often used for their translation. The main problem of investigating translation methods is that scholars terminology is not unified in this field and that they often have different opinions on what procedures each term covers. Even the term translation shifts is not always used in the same way. Newmark sees it as an equivalent to transposition, while Vinay and Darbelnet s opinion on transposition is different Transposition Vinay and Darbelnet describe transposition as a process during which the word class of an expression changes and they consider it to be probably the most common structural change undertaken by translators (1995, 36). Although their study is based on comparison of English and French, transposition is very common in English-Czech translation too. The main reason for this situation is the fact that English is a nominal language, while Czech speakers prefer the use of verbs to nominal or verbonominal phrases, as can be seen in this example: (1) the Vikings failed to gain control of the island (IrEn., 31) Vikingům se sice nikdy nepodařilo ostrov ovládnout (IrCz., 31) - 9 -

18 Here, the English verbonominal phrase to gain control is replaced by Czech lexical verb ovládnout. Two other examples of transposition can be found in the translation of the following noun phrase: (2) a lush green island, full of thatched cottages (IrEn., 15) bujný zelený ostrov s množstvím domků s doškovými střechami (IrCz., 15) The first transposition here is change of the English adjective full into the Czech noun množství. Such a shift naturally results in change of prepositions too. The other transposition in example (2) is replacement of the English adjective thatched by a Czech attribute in the form of a prepositional phrase s doškovými střechami. Besides the change of word classes, also the position of the modifiers changes from premodification (thatched) to postmodification (s doškovými střechami). Vinay and Darbelnet further describe situations in which the word class shift is accompanied by addition of some other expressions. This subcategory of transposition is called supplementation (1995, ). It is also used in example (2), where the adjective thatched is replaced by a noun phrase directly referring to the part of a house which is thatched (střecha). The following example shows translation of a culturally specific expression for which supplementation is used: (3) Cole was [ ] closely concerned with the inauguration of the penny post (QV, 210) Cole [ ] se zajímal o zavedení placené poštovní služby za jednotnou cenu jedné pence (KV, 218) In this example, the translator had to solve the problem of zero equivalence and at the same time she wanted to describe the English expression in detail so that the Czech reader is provided with detailed information. Here, however, the description might be too detailed because the penny post is not the main topic of the text and is mentioned only as one of many of Henry Cole s activities. For this

19 reason, it would have been quite sufficient to translate the penny post simply as britská pošta. In Newmark s opinion, transposition comprises not only a word class change, but also other grammatical changes. He mentions the change from passive to active and the other way round, changes in word order and most importantly, changes resulting from differences in the grammatical systems of the source and target language (1988, 85-86). According to Knittlová, main grammatical problems in translation between Czech and English arise in connection with voice, modality and the use of condensation, which is very frequent in English sentences. Concerning cultural specificity, Knittlová points out the differences in number for addressing people (ty, vy) and the difference in the construction of appositions (the city of London město Londýn) (2000, 94 95). It is often very difficult to decide about the degree of familiarity between people and to choose the appropriate way of addressing. As the following example shows (excerpt form a dialogue between Queen Victoria and her mother), even the communication between close relatives can be difficult to translate: (4) Not when you have eight, Mama. the Queen had said. (QV, 401) Ne, když jich máš osm, matinko, opáčila královna. (KV, 410) Here the translator mistakenly applied rules for communication valid in a contemporary Czech family and forgot that this conversation took place in a 19 th century aristocratic family. In the 19 th century, Czech children used vykání when addressing to their parents no matter what the social position of the family was. Therefore a better translation of a conversation between Queen Victoria and her mother would be Ne, když jich máte osm, matinko,, even though the speaker is the Queen herself Modulation As a translation method similar to transposition, Vinay and Darbelnet introduce modulation. What changes during this procedure is not the word class but the point of view from which a situation or an object is described. According to Vinay and Darbelnet a modulation can be either optional or obligatory and

20 another categorization divides modulations to lexical and syntactic ones. However, the authors point out that it is sometimes rather difficult to distinguish between the categories. The qualities of a particular expression place it to a certain position on the scale but the boundaries of the scale are not sharp (1995, 36 37, 88 91, ). Concerning Newmark s division of methods, his concept of transposition partially overlaps with Vinay and Darbelnet s modulation because Newmark sees grammatical changes during translation as transpositions (1988, 55). Vinay and Darbelnet distinguish the following types of lexical modulation: a shift between 1. the abstract and concrete, 2. one part and the whole, 3. one part and another, 4. the cause and effect, 5. means and result; 6. intervals and limits (or duration and date, distance and destination), 7. reversal of the point of view or of the terms, 8. sense modulation, 9. modulation of the form, aspect and usage, 10. geographic modulation and 11. the change of a comparison or 12. a symbol (1995, 88 91). However, according to the authors, types 1 7 and 11 can be either lexical or syntactic modulation, which only confirms their statement that the classification of modulated expressions is very difficult. Here are three more types of modulation, which Vinay and Darbelnet consider syntactic: negation of the opposite, change of active to passive (and the other way round) and change of space for time (1995, ). Yet even this classification is disputable because, besides grammatical negation, there is also lexical negation, which can be modulated. This possibility is demonstrated by the following example: (1) [ ] Law [ ] had done little to ameliorate the miseries of the destitute (QV, 199) Zákon [ ] jen málo zlepšil zoufalou situaci nemajetných (KV, 208) The following example illustrates a shift from the general or abstract to concrete in the title of the first chapter in a guide book: (2) Discovering Ireland (IrEn., 10) Objevujeme Irsko (IrCz., 10)

21 Here a non-finite verb phrase, which is a form often used in English titles, is replaced by a Czech verb in first person singular present tense form. The English title introduces the content of the following chapter in rather general terms. On the other hand, the Czech translation uses a form of a verb typical for the titles of how-to books, which encourages the reader to take action. Thus the translation changes the title from a vague piece of information into an appeal to the reader. It makes the reader the subject of the verb and an active participant in the flow of the following text. The following example shows one of the most common modulations used for translation from English into Czech: (3) The mine is run by my manager. (En., 137) Důl provozuje můj manažer. (An., 137) In example (3), English passive is translated as a sentence in the active voice. Due to a relatively fixed word order in English, passive forms are used more often in English that in Czech. Consequently, this type of modulation is very often used for English-Czech translations. Vinay and Darbelnet s transposition and modulation are generally recognised and long established translatological methods. For this reason, they are mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, even though the scholars did not specify them as methods intended for dealing with zero equivalence or translation of culturally specific expressions Equivalence The third of Vinay and Darbelnet s methods to be mentioned is equivalence. The source of equivalence here is the fact that a particular expression or phrase describe an identical situation or represent the same sound but by a different transcription (e.g. interjections or onomatopoeia). The authors point out that this translation strategy is also very often used for translation of idioms, proverbs and clichés (1995, 38). However, they warn that equivalence can be used

22 only if the situation it describes is known either globally or in broad outline (1995, 257). The following example shows translation of an English fixed phrase describing Irish festivals: (1) a common thread is music (IrEn., 48) společným jmenovatelem je hudba (IrCz., 48) In English, the expression thread is often used to denote a sequence of events or ideas continuing through the whole course of anything just as it is here in connection with festivals (OED Online, 2011). The image of a thread as an element connecting something is used in Czech too but it is less common than in English and with different syntax: táhne se jako (červená) nit. Another aspect of equivalence mentioned by Vinay and Darbelnet is allusion. It is often very difficult to translate references to various historical and cultural facts of the source language because these are often unknown in the target culture. In this case, Vinay and Darbelnet s term equivalence covers a wider scale of translation procedures, which must be chosen according to particular context. According to the authors, the key for their choice is the source language situation for which they are used (1995, 255). So it is not the historical fact or literary work they refer to but the context in which these references are made. This should be the main criterion for the choice of an equivalent allusion in the target language. However, in some cases the allusion does not have to be replaced or much changed because the English and Czech cultural backgrounds partially overlap. As examples, it would be best to use the Bible and Shakespeare s works, which, according to Crystal, are the most common sources of quotations in English (1995, 62). Both English and Czech nations have Christian roots so the Bible is not alien to either of them. However, Czech attitude to religion is rather sceptical (or too critical) and therefore the knowledge of biblical text in our country is limited in comparison with the English nation. So there seems to be no problem with the presence of a biblical quotation in a translated text but with its recognition by Czech readers. Therefore the quotation or allusion can be left unchanged, but it

23 needs to be introduced as one. It should be pointed out that the text includes a quotation from the Bible although this remark should not be unnatural. It is sometimes enough to make only a slight change in the text or just add an explanatory expression. The source text in the following example mentions biblical characters but the translator failed to introduce them as such (the text describes Queen Victoria s plans for a séance): (2) She [the Queen] was said to have objected to the idea of King David being presented to her because of his disgraceful treatment of Uriah the Hittite (QV, 293) Údajně protestovala proti seznámení s králem Davidem kvůli jeho hanebnému jednání s Uriášem Chetitským (KV, 301) For the English reader, it seems to be enough to mention King David together with Uriah the Hittite to make it clear which King David is in question. Even though the English reader does not need to remember the whole story, she can easily understand that these two are biblical characters and that there was a conflict between them. To achieve the same effect on the Czech reader and not to disturb the structure of the text, it would be enough to add premodification to one of the characters, such as biblický král David. Unfortunately, the Czech translator did not imply the context from which the characters are taken, which can complicate full understanding of the text by the Czech reader. Similarly to the Bible, the knowledge of Shakespeare s works is not as extensive in the Czech environment as it is among English native speakers. However, most of Czech readers have at least a vaque notion of the playwright and his work. Therefore, in the case of less known citations, the same strategy which is described in connection with the Bible can be adopted. Vinay and Darbelnet s equivalence is, however, criticised by both Newmark (1988, 90) and Knittlová (2000, 14) as a rather imprecise term. In translation theory equivalence is mostly used to define the relationship between a piece of source and target text. Therefore, to call a translation method equivalence may be misleading. Besides, it is not always clear which procedures it covers and which belong to other Vinay and Darbelnet s methods, regardless of the authors

24 claim that their system of seven translation methods includes all translation procedures (1995, 31). Consequently, the term equivalence is not used in translation commentary in the practical part of this thesis and the fact that this method of Vinay and Darbelnet s comprises a large scale of translation procedures is compensated by the use of Newmark and Baker s terminology, which is more detailed Adaptation and Related Methods The issue of allusions is also related to the following translation method, which Vinay and Darbelnet call adaptation. They describe it as a special type of equivalence for situations which have no counterparts in the target language. Consequently, another situation, which is familiar to the target language culture, has to be used (1995, 39). The authors suggest adaptation as the solution for rendering culturally specific items, for which no other translation method seems to be appropriate. They, however, point out that this method is very dangerous because it changes the whole concept of the source text and often requires additional changes at other places in the text (1995, 39). A translation shift similar to Vinay and Darbelnet s adaptation is introduced by Hervey and Higgins too. They use the term cultural transplantation, which is, similarly to transplantation of an organ, a very complex and dangerous procedure. For this reason the authors do not recommend to use it very often because it can have impact on the whole text just as Vinay and Darbelnet s adaptation. Hervey and Higgins warn that an extreme case of cultural transplantation can result in rewriting the whole text (e. g. the setting and characters in a work of fiction) (1992, 30 31). Such a radical change demands a talented translator, whose skills match the abilities of the source text author. The following example shows a cultural transplantation, which was used for rendering puzzles into Czech. This example is taken from the children s book Loathsome London mentioned in 2.1 and it is an excerpt from an imaginary letter. In the source text, the letter is written by a young London policeman in the 1830s, who scrambled some of the disgusting words (85) concerning a crime and execution of criminals

25 (1) Crowds flocked to see the BAD STONE OILED floor. Ladies climbed the steep steps into the loft even though it meant showing their UNWED REAR. Watching the horror was a young writer called CHILDREN S CAKES! He said it was the most disgusting thing he s ever seen. Me? Enjoyed it! Your loving son Edmund (LL, 85) The translator changed the author of the letter for a young Czech man Pepa who went off to work in England and wrote some parts of the letter in English not to shock his mother: (2) Do Cato Street se hrnuly davy lidí, aby spatřily BLOOD- STAINED chodník. Dámy lezly po strmých schodech nahoru na tu půdu, i když to znamenalo, že jim bylo vidět UNDERWEAR. Tu hrůzu sledoval i mladý spisovatel Charles Dickens! Řekl, že to bylo to nejnechutnější, co kdy viděl. A já? Mně se to líbilo! Z daleké ciziny tě zdraví tvůj milující syn Pepa (OL, 85) The translator decided to avoid making Czech puzzles by leaving some expressions untranslated. Although it is obvious that the translator wanted to make his work easier, it is difficult to criticize his decision because no one knows all the factors which influenced it. So he replaced an imaginary English character with a Czech counterpart by which he introduced a new concept more familiar to the reader. Moreover this shift enabled him to make additional changes in the text and thus create puzzles for Czech readers. Even though the idea of a Czech working as a London policeman in the 19 th century is rather bizarre, the source letter is unrealistic too. It is written in the style of contemporary informal letters, and the aim of the scrambled letters is obviously to draw the young readers attention to them and not to avoid shocking an old lady (see (3) below). For this reason the adaptation has not affected the quality of the text much

26 (3) Dear Mum, Still enjoying life as a London policeman a Bow Street Runner. I have the full inside story of the Cato Street Plot. I ve just changed some of the disgusting words because I know that you re a weak old lady and I don t want you to be shocked. (LL, 84) Although this translation shift concerns culturally specific expressions, it is not likely to be often used in the translation which is a part of the thesis. There are two major reasons for this. First, this method is in Vinay and Darbelnet s own words the extreme limit of translation (1995, 39) so it should be avoided as much as possible and the second reason is the text itself. It is an excerpt from a general non-fiction book Victorians (a publication on Victorian England) so the culturally specific expressions include the main information. It is thus obvious that if the situations they describe were changed for their Czech counterparts, the publication would become useless. This is also stressed by Baker, who introduces a similar procedure called cultural substitution and defines it as replacing a culture-specific item or expression with a target-language item which does not have the same propositional meaning but is likely to have a similar impact on the target reader (1992, 31). According to Baker, the aim of the translated text plays a decisive role in relation to the use of cultural substitution (or in Vinay and Darbelnet s words adaptation). Baker also points out that it is very important how much freedom is given to translators by the translation tradition in their culture (1992, 31). For the purposes of this dissertation, Vinay and Darbelnet s term adaptation will be used for the translation shift mentioned above. As opinions of scholars are not unified in connection with this method, it is important to specify what exactly is meant by adaptation in this thesis. The term, as it is used in the practical part, refers to replacing a source language element with a target culture counterpart, which causes additional changes in the target text

27 2.2.5 Cultural Equivalent A less drastic method is introduced by Newmark, who calls its result a cultural equivalent (1988, 82 83). This method concerns culturally specific expressions for which the translator chooses a target culture equivalent which does not share all semantic properties but the differences are tolerable. Here again, the purpose of the text and the role an expression plays in the context are the most important criteria. The following examples show well used cultural equivalents: (1) the introduction of the Scottish Leaving Certificate examinations in 1888 (ScEn., 196) zavedení maturitních zkoušek v roce 1888 (ScCz., 185) (2) Eat some tasty pork stew. (En. 158) Dejte si k jídlu dobrý vepřový guláš. (An. 158) (3) kids were given a job as a trapper (En. 133) děti zastávaly práci dveřníků (An. 133) The following two methods, namely borrowing (or cultural borrowing) and calque, are often used for rendering culturally specific expressions too Borrowing Vinay and Darbelnet mention borrowing as one of their seven translatology methods. This is another weak point of their theory because the boundary between a new borrowing, used as a translation method and a loanword which have become a part of the target language vocabulary is not sharp. Vinay and Darbelnet themselves admit, that some well-established, mainly older borrowings are so widely used that they are no longer considered as such (1995, 32). For this reason Hervey and Higgins s term cultural borrowing should be preferred in this thesis (1992, 31)

28 Regardless of the discrepancy in terminology, all authors agree that this method is a common strategy for dealing with expressions which have no counterpart in the target language. For this reason it is often used for translation of culturally specific expressions and Baker adds that also for translation of modern concepts and buzz words (1992, 34). This procedure has to face two major obstacles in its realization the phonological and morphological differences of the source and the target language. These differences are naturally greater if the languages in question do not belong to the same family or did not influence each other in the past. However, even if they do fulfil these criteria, another problem might arise from the alphabet, as in the case of Slavonic languages. So cultural borrowing between for example Czech and Russian is complicated by the difference between the alphabets even though the languages belong to the same family. On the other hand, the period of nearly four hundred years (and in the borderland even longer) of Czech-German bilingualism in our country created the right environment for cultural borrowing and calque. Unlike the pairs of languages mentioned above, Czech and English do not belong to the same language family nor did they influence each other as much as for example French and English did. Therefore the process of borrowing between Czech and English is more complicated. As this diploma thesis concerns translation from English into Czech, rendering of Czech expressions into English does not have to be discussed here but attention should concentrate on English loanwords in the Czech language. The assimilation of English loanwords into Czech takes place in two major areas, which were mentioned above (morphology and phonology). Complications in the sphere of morphology mainly result from the typological difference of the languages (English as a mostly analytical and Czech a synthetic language). If a translator borrows an English noun or adjective, she has to decide whether it should be categorised and declined according to the Czech system of declinations (e.g. Kensingtonský palác KV 24, herold KV 65, toryové KV 417, presbyteriánský ScCz. 151), or its nominal form should be used for all cases (e.g. haggis KV 331, Canterbury ScCz. 41, dávky cain-conveth ScCz. 61, Home Rule ScCz. 188)

29 An area which has stimulated a lot of discussion lately is also modification of foreign female surnames by adding the Czech suffix -ová. In official documents, women of Czech origin have to use only the form of their surname, they have officially chosen. On the other hand, the forms of foreign surnames in texts translated into Czech can vary. Even though the Institute of the Czech Language promotes the use of suffixes, many translators and other language users prefer to leave foreign surnames in their original form. Concerning the sphere of phonology, Czech is a language with mostly spelling pronunciation, while English pronunciation is not a spelling one any more and includes many irregularities. The level of assimilation of a particular English loanword is therefore reflected by the degree to which Czech spelling (or on the contrary Czech pronunciation of English spelling) has been adopted for it and by the degree to which it has become subject to Czech inflection system. A considerable number of loanwords from the last two decades have no established written form and also their pronunciation is not unified. So for example English word workaholic is most often spelled workoholik but, according to the Institute of the Czech Language website, there are also two other variants: workaholik or workholik (2008). Similarly, it is difficult to specify which form of an unprecedented cultural borrowing is correct or incorrect. Moreover, if an expression is borrowed, it is not certain whether it will assimilate and start to be used by speakers of the target language. The level of assimilation of a loanword also directly influences the comprehensibility of the text, in which it is used. Hervey and Higgins stress that a loanword can be used only if its meaning is clear. Less known or ad hoc loanwords have to be defined by the surrounding text so that they do not confuse the reader (1992, 31). The authors further point out that loanwords often appear in texts on history or social or political matters (1992, 31) just as the one from which the following example is taken (a publication on Scottish history): (1) he promoted [...] economy by [...] founding royal burghs (including Berwick,...) (ScEn., 41) zakládal opevněná města (burghs; včetně Berwicku,...) (ScCz., 40)

30 Example (1) shows a less known loanword, which is used only for this text, and which is not very likely to assimilate into the target language. Therefore the specification of its meaning is essential. Here, an apposition is used to specify the term translated into Czech and the loanword is also printed in italics to distinguish it clearly from the rest of the text. The meaning of the loanword is thus defined by the context and any confusion is avoided. Baker also suggests adding an explanation to a loanword, at least when it is mentioned in text for the first time (1992, 34), as it is demonstrated in the following example: (2) autonomní postavení skotské církve (Kirk) (ScCz., 78) The cultural borrowing above is used for the first time in the book and therefore it is added as an apposition in brackets. Thanks to this it can be used more freely in the following chapters (all examples are taken from ScCz.): (3) Je paradoxní, že našel klíčového spojence právě v Kirku, (112); neoblomně trvali na čistotě svého Kirku (114); Karel a arcibiskup Laud se nijak netajili tím, že chtějí poangličtit Kirk (124); nesnášel pastory z Kirku (131) The process of cultural borrowing is also connected to the problem of false friends. Both Vinay and Darbelnet and Mona Baker point out that many false friends are the result of older borrowing (1995, 32; 1992, 25 26). The properties of a loanword (semantic, stylistic and also grammatical) can change considerably throughout time. Baker further specifies that most of these changes are unpredictable and cannot be dictated (1992, 25). The development of a language is in the hands of its users and it is influenced by many factors, which can be either linguistic or extralinguistic or both

31 2.2.7 Calque The following method to be discussed, which also brings new items to a lexicon, is calque. Hervey and Higgins define calque as an expression that consists of TL words and respects TL syntax, but is unidiomatic in the TL because it is modelled on the structure of a SL (1992, 33). Calque is likely to be often used for translation of culturally specific expressions because many of them lack an equivalent in the target language. Newmark prefers the term through-translation to calque and points out that this method is often used for translation of names of international organisations (1988, 54). He also warns that it is safer to use only recognised calques (1988, 55), while Vinay and Darbelnet state that translators are more interested in new ones (1992, 33). Vinay and Darbelnet divide calques into lexical and structural ones. According to them, lexical calques introduce a new way of denoting an object but respect the syntax of the target language. On the other hand, using a structural calque, the translator follows the source language structure and uses the same construction in the target text (1995, 32). As an example of a lexical calque chosen from culturally specific expressions, the following translation can be discussed: (1) the spring bank holiday weekend in May (IrEn., 48) jarní bankovní prázdniny o květnovém víkendu (IrCz., 48) Here, the juxtaposed nouns spring and bank are, in Vinay and Darbelnet s terms, transposed into adjectives jarní and bankovní. Thanks to this, the literal meaning of the expressions is retained but the translation does not violate the structure of the target language. On the other hand, the word class of holiday stays unchanged in the Czech translation even though it belongs to premodification of the noun weekend in the English text. While in the English version, weekend is the head of the noun phrase, víkend in the translation becomes a part of the Czech attribut o květnovém víkendu. (20) is an example of a well balanced lexical calque combined with transposition so that the source structures are followed and the calque does not sound unnatural

32 On the other hand, structural English-Czech calques do not usually sound natural, as is demonstrated by the following example: (2) Trinity College, [ ] allows access to its spectacular Old Library (IrEn., 10) Trinity College, [ ] umožňuje přístup do své Staré knihovny (IrCz., 10) Here, the translator follows the original structure and copies word classes too strictly so the result looks artificial. Even if the translator had wanted to retain the same subjects in both texts, a much better translation for allows access to its library would have been má zpřístupněnou knihovnu. (To include svou in the Czech translation is not necessary because the Czech verb má makes it obvious that the library belongs to Trinity College.) However, the best solution seems to be a translation, which departs from the original structure even more: stará knihovna v Trinity College, [ ] je otevřená pro veřejnost. Similarly, a structural calque from the example below follows the nominal tendency of English, which sounds unnatural in Czech: (3) This reluctance of Lord Raglan s to use expressions of either enthusiasm or alarm, and his reliance on the bare figures (QV, 227) Neochota lorda Raglana používat nadšené či varovné výrazy a jeho spoléhání na nic neříkající fráze (KV, 235) Besides the need for a more appropriate translation of alarm and bare figures, it would be better to use a Czech subordinate clause, e.g. a to, že se spoléhá na strohé cifry. Such translation would be idiomatic and would not strike the reader by its clumsiness. So even tough the calques from examples (19) and (20) are not completely ungrammatical, they are not very good ones. As Hervey and Higgins put it: one should definitely avoid unintentional calquing resulting from too slavish a simulation of the grammatical structure of the ST, which, unfortunately, is the case of the examples above (1992, 34)

33 As mentioned above, Vinay and Darbelnet see their translatological methodology as a comprehensive system including all translation procedures. However, an analysis of the methods has shown that there is still room for improvement. Therefore some more methods have to be added to make their list complete and usable for the practical part of the thesis Literal Translation At the beginning of this chapter, literal translation is mentioned as an approach which is not very likely to be often used for translation of culturally specific expressions. It does not need much commentary either because it concerns pieces of text for which direct equivalents are easily found in the target language. It is however important to define the difference between a calque and literal translation. Vinay and Darbelnet stress that using literal translation, the translator renders the piece of source text by grammatically and idiomatically appropriate TL text and that adherence to the linguistic servitudes of the TL is very important. On the other hand, by calquing the translator follows principles of the source text and thus introduces new concepts in the target language. Literal translation works with direct equivalents while calque is used as a solution for zero equivalence Use of a More General Word Several useful methods for dealing with zero equivalence of culturally specific expressions are introduced by Mona Baker. Besides her methods mentioned above, she suggests using a more general word, which is according to her one of the commonest strategies [ ] particularly in the area of propositional meaning (1992, 26). In fact, this method can be seen as a subcategory for Vinay and Darbelnet s modulation. However, as it is mentioned above, modulation covers a rather wide range of procedures and for this reason the use of a more general word and paraphrase will be treated as separate methods in this thesis. In the following example an English culturally specific expression is replaced by its more general Czech counterpart:

34 (1) And who only get nine bob For a most unpleasant job. (En., 132) Za práci nanejvýš nechutnou Jenom pár drobných dostanou. (An., 132) Here the translator tried to translate a song and retain rhyme, so he needed to maintain balance between a literally translation and creating rhymes. Unfortunately, he was not much successful in writing good verse the example shows his best lines, rhyming in the rest of the song is either based on the same grammatical endings or the verses do not rhyme at all. However, in a non-fiction book informativity of the text should be preferred to its artistic value, so the translator s approach cannot be seen as a wholly wrong one. For translation of nine bob, he uses a more general expression pár drobných because there is no direct equivalent in Czech. However, the source text includes a footnote, explaining that nine bob was 45p for a week s job washing bottles and further addressing the young reader: You wouldn t even wash your parents car for that, would you? (En., 132) This note is omitted in the target text, although the translation shift used above gives no reason for this change. The footnote could have been adapted according to the piece of text it refers to (pár drobných) and according to the target readership, e.g.: Dělnice dostávaly 45 pencí (asi 12,- Kč) za týden mytí lahví. Za to bys nešel ani umýt auto vašim, že? Paraphrase and Related Methods Concerning further methods, Baker speaks about paraphrase using an unrelated word (1992, 38). Newmark mentions paraphrase too, but his concept is not quite equal to Baker s one (1988, 90). He sees it only as a method that can help to improve the quality of a not well written source text, which does not include all necessary information (1988, 90). On the other hand, Baker s paraphrase is based [ ] on unpacking the meaning of the source item (1992, 38), which in Newmark s terminology results in a functional or descriptive equivalent (1988, 83 84). In Newmark s view, these methods are appropriate for translation of culturally specific expressions with no direct counterparts in the

35 target language. The translation then consists of general or culture-free (Newmark, 1988, 83) words describing the referent or its function, as in the following example: (1) he killed the savage hound of Culainn the Smith by slaying it with a hurling stick (IrEn., 26) zabil [ ] psa kováře Chullaina hokejkou na pozemní irský hokej (IrCz., 26) A hurling stick is another case of zero equivalence among culturally specific expressions. In (1), the translator uses a partial synonym (hokejka), which cannot be seen as culturally specific in the Western civilisation, to which both British and Czech culture belong. However, this word needs to be further specified and therefore description of its function is added. (1) is an example of what Baker calls a paraphrase while in Newmark s terminology it would be classified as a functional equivalent Componential Analysis For translation of expressions with no direct equivalents in the target language, Newmark further suggests componential analysis (1988, 90). In this approach, a source language word and its potential target language equivalent are divided into their semantic components, which are then compared (Newmark, 1988, 114). According to Newmark, this analysis shows which sense components the expressions share, and those which are missing at the target expression have to be added (1988, 114). So although Newmark treats componential analysis as a translation method similar to paraphrase or functional equivalent, it might be better to put it in another category. According to Newmark s description, componential analysis would be good to precede and influence the choice of a translation method. According to Newmark, the structure of a componential analysis is decided by the features of the source text and also by the target reader s characteristics (1988, 119). If the precise meaning of the translated expression does not play an important role in the text, the meaning does not have to be described in much

36 detail. Similarly the better known an expression is to the target readership the less detailed translation is needed Recognised Translation Although it is important for a translator to be creative, the equivalents of some culturally specific expressions are strictly given. Newmark recommends using a recognised translation especially for institutional terms (1988, 89). He admits that official translations are not always the best ones but not to use them would be confusing for the readers and can be considered incorrect. Newmark also suggests commenting on low quality official translations in footnotes or glosses, but this practice is possible in very few text-types. Recognised translation should be also used for quotations, however, it is sometimes difficult to find out whether a particular piece of text was translated before or to decide, which translation to use if there are more versions. So for example the Great Exhibition is referred to as either Velká výstava (KV, 218) or Světová výstava (VB, 56), but the latter expression is used more often. Similarly Emily Brontë s Wuthering Heights was first published as Bouřlivé výšiny in 1912, then as Vichrné návrší in 1958, but the most often used translation is the latest one Na Větrné hůrce from On the other hand, Jack the Ripper is known only as Jack Rozparovač and British Empire is never translated as císařství or říše but always as Britské impérium (despite the changing connotations of the Czech word impérium). 2.3 Conclusion The text above includes an analysis and comparison of translation methods. Approaches of several scholars are discussed but not all of them show appropriate for the translation commentary in the practical part of this thesis. Moreover, their use of terms is not unified. For this reason it is important to specify the terminology used for the purposes of this thesis: (1) transposition change of the word class; (2) modulation change of the point of view (lexical and grammatical); (3) adaptation replacement of a culturally specific element (e.g. a joke, a pun) in the text with a target culture equivalent, which demands additional

37 changes in the text; (4) cultural equivalent replacement of a culturally specific expression with a target culture equivalent, which does not cause any other alternations in the text; (5) cultural borrowing use of a source language expression, which might be partially adapted according to the phonology and morphology of the target language; (6) calque literal translation of set phrases, collocations, compounds or names consisting of general words; (7) paraphrase description of source language expression semantic components; (8) use of a more general word a hyperonym, a less expressive word, a partial synonym; (9) recognised translation use of a generally accepted translation of an expression, a term or a quotation in a form as it was previously translated. This terminology will be applied in the practical part of the thesis with the aim to specify which methods are most often used for translation of culturally specific expressions from the analysed text. Therefore it includes only methods, which are likely to be used in this context and for translation of expressions which mostly do not have direct Czech counterparts

38 3. The Role of the Anglo-American Culture in Our Globalised World and the Influence of This Situation on Translation It seems to be characteristic of humankind that in each nation, scientific approach or historical period, there is a tendency for narcissism; and the history of English speaking countries is no exception. Once a conquered nation themselves, the British later hurried to bring the light of civilisation to many poor, primitive nations, which made them even poorer. Well aware of these mistakes, the Western world, headed by English speaking countries again, hope that they have finally adopted the right attitude towards the rest of the world. Even though this opinion bears marks of narcissism too, it would be difficult to live in our sceptical postmodern world without the feeling that at least our intentions are good. Snell-Hornby, sees the right attitude in a concept she calls cultural identity, according to which a social group, not lacking self-esteem, is able to exist in harmony with and to communicate with other, neighbouring identities in the world around (2006, 129). The presence of self-awareness is very important in this approach, because without knowledge about the values of one s own culture, it is difficult to approve of any others. Self-esteem is definitely not missing in the English speaking world, but there is a danger that it might be too strong and influence the rest of the world too much. Many other languages, including Czech, solve the rapid development of technology and also other changes in the society by borrowing from English. New objects and situations need to be named, but there is also a strong tendency to prefer English expressions to their Czech equivalents. According to Tárnyiková, English loanwords (Wow!, být in/out, cool) or their hybrids (soráč, vyfakovat) are most often used in speech of the young generation who want to imitate the life-in-the-big-city atmosphere (2009, 206). Although these tendencies of Czech language users have many critics, Nekvapil claims that most of the Czech population do not think that the Czech language is in danger or that the situation is worth much consideration (2007, 37). The situation also offers considerable advantages to translators from English, even though they might be worried about the situation and future of Czech. The fact that the Anglo-American culture is well known to Czechs (mainly through films and TV

39 series), makes translation much easier. Moreover, many cultural expressions have established Czech equivalents (Den díkůvzdání, papeženec, labouristé, puritán, reverend, konstábl). According to Venuti, foreign translated texts also help to widen the reader s horizons and make them familiar with the diversity of world cultures (1998, 104). This function of translation puts a great responsibility on the translator. Unfortunately, the general public, and even some translators themselves, underestimate this role. Venuti actually describes the translator as invisible to the reader, writer of the original text and, from some aspects, even to the reviewer of the translation (1995, 1 5). Although Venuti mainly comments on the Englishspeaking world, in other countries, including the Czech Republic, the work of translators is often underestimated too. If a translator makes a mistake in a legal document the consequences can be disastrous. On the other hand, a bad translation of, for example, a work of fiction can even go unnoticed by the reader. The consequences of such translation on the cultural development of the target readership are not considered important, but they can be far-reaching. By her work, a translator introduces a foreign culture and shapes an image of it in the minds of the target audience. This image should be objective and respect the original culture, so that the reader is not deprived of the richness of the source text. However, if there is a tendency in translation practice to ignore important aspects of source texts, the awareness of and respect to other cultures suffer. This concerns every translation because every text reflects cultural background it comes from. However, the more culturally specific expressions the text includes, the more cautious the translator has to be to depict the source culture objectively. In Venuti s opinion, the cultural identity of a nation is also influenced by their publishing policy. He thinks that the literature in English speaking countries provides very little material introducing the cultural diversity of the world (1995, 15). He criticises that English translations of foreign works often prefer readability to originality. Consequently, this attitude creates cultures in the United Kingdom and the United States that are aggressively monolingual, unreceptive to the foreign, accustomed to fluent translations that invisibly inscribe foreign texts with Englishlanguage values (1995, 15)

40 On the other hand, Venuti describes the rest of the world as overwhelmed by English best-sellers, hastily translated into other languages to make as much profit as possible. Also de Swaan, who comments on the present language situation in the European Union and especially in the newly admitted countries, points out that most of the imported books come from the English speaking world (2007, 8). So, despite the English speaking countries hope that their attitude to the rest of the world is tolerant and open at last, Venuti is sceptical. In fact, he proves that the world of business and commerce controls the cultural development of the world just as it did during the colonial period (1998, 165). Also Snell-Hornby observes that the role of English has changed from lingua franca into that of an oppressive language. Nowadays, many people have to learn and use English if they want to lead a full life in the society they were born in (2006, 140). Even though many people do not want to admit it, this situation concerns Czech native speakers too. Nekvapil points out that many multinational companies, which have branches in the Czech Republic, prefer English for communication even though their headquarters are not in an English speaking country. Further he mentions that an increasing number of Czech universities open parallel courses in Czech and English and that, it is by no means unusual for students at Czech technical universities to write their diploma theses in English (2007, 39). So while the familiarity of Czech people with English culture makes a translator s work easier, the increasing demand for knowledge of English might bring more job opportunities for English teachers than translators. Concerning translation into English, Venuti stresses that it is dominated by transparency and by what he calls domestication (1995, 5 6). The first quality is closely connected with the problem of a translator who is invisible. Venuti points out that a tendency to create translations as reader-friendly as possible (adjusting the original to the cultural values of the target readership without respecting important features of the original) makes the reader feel that she is not reading a translation at all (1995, 5). Similarly domestication which, instead of introducing the reader to new concepts, replaces them with target culture ones (1995, 5). According to Venuti, these methods are very convenient for publishers and other businessmen. So they continue to produce large numbers of readable texts and let them stunt intellectual growth of the English reading public because it is profitable (1995, 16). It is thus

41 obvious that while the Anglo-American culture spreads via various channels to the rest of the world (the Czech Republic included), it is not working the other way round. Venuti views domestication as a controversial method, which in some ethnics, can even support fundamentalist tendencies (1998, 189). However, he is realistic and stresses that domesticating strategies sometimes have to be used and, paradoxically, can have alienating effect, i.e.: indicate the foreign origin of the text (1998, 189). This concerns for example the situation of zero equivalence. An expression or situation which is absent in the target environment needs to be rendered in a way understandable to the target audience. There are various strategies for solving this problem (translatological methods were dealt with in the previous chapter), some of which include a feature signalling that the original text comes from a foreign culture. Such method is used in the following example of translation, taken from a biography of Queen Victoria: (1) On another evening, after quadrilles and Roger de Coverley, the Queen proposed (Hibbert 2000, 146) Jiného večera zase královna po čtverylkách a staroanglických lidových tancích navrhla, (Hibbert 2004, 153) Here, the translator needed both to span the gap of zero equivalence on the linguistic level and describe an item from extralinguistic reality which is not well known or often experienced in the target environment. Therefore, the translator decided to use the hyperonym (lidový) tanec with premodification staroanglický, which explicitly reminds the reader about the origin of the dance and thus of the source text itself. Although borrowing retains even more foreign flavour in a translation, it could not be used in this text because the Czech reader would mistake the name of a dance for the anthroponym from which it originated. So the domesticating alternations here do not concern better or worse readability of the text but its comprehensibility. Therefore, they are inevitable but at the same time they do not deny the foreign origin of the text; on the contrary, they emphasise it. As a translatological approach which increases awareness of the diverse world cultures and thus forms the identity of the target culture too, Venuti introduces foreignization (1995, 24). According to Venuti, domestication, which now

42 dominates the Anglo-American world of translation, should be fought by this opposite practice (1995, 309). The aim is not to produce incomprehensible translations just to retain as much of the foreign culture concepts as possible. But the purpose is to respect the complexity of source texts and to challenge the narcissistic self-confidence of the English speaking world. If translation into English is, according to Venuti, dominated by domestication, translation from English should be logically dominated by foreignization. The situation, however, is more complicated and to restore balance, it is not enough to strive for domestication in every translation from English. A good translator knows that the translation procedure is influenced by many factors (linguistic and, especially in culturally specific texts, by extra-linguistic) and that the best solution is very often a middle-path. Although Hervey and Higgins (1992) speak about compromise in connection with culturally specific texts, this expression is deliberately avoided by the author of this thesis because it might connote a too submissive approach to a foreign text. In translation it is important to respect the source text and its cultural features but at the same time not to damage the target culture and its identity. All these aspects were taken into consideration during translation of the text which forms a part of this thesis so that the result is beneficial to its readers and the Czech culture

43 PRACTICAL PART 4. Translation Victorians Viktoriánská Anglie 3 Vláda královny Viktorie Královna Viktorie nastoupila na trůn v roce Vládla víc než 63 let a je nejdéle vládnoucí britskou panovnicí. Její dva přímí předchůdci nedělali zrovna čest svému úřadu a Viktorie byla odhodlaná navrátit trůnu důstojnost. Aktivně se podílela na řízení státu a spolu se svým milovaným manželem Albertem byli vzorem rodinného života celému národu. Období její vlády bylo obdobím velikých změn: britské impérium bylo největší říší na světě, mělo nevětší námořnictvo a nejvyspělejší průmysl. Když Viktorie v roce 1901 zemřela, byla ztělesněním britské moci a lidé ji velice milovali. Doba její vlády je známá jako viktoriánské období a Britové té doby jako viktoriáni. Život princezny Malá princezna Viktorie vyrůstala v Kensingtonském paláci v Londýně. Matka ji zahrnovala přehnanou péčí, ale vychovávala ji přísně. Neustále na ni někdo dohlížel a měla jen málo přátel. Své dětství později popsala jako poněkud melancholické. Mladá královna Když bylo Viktorii deset let, dozvěděla se, že je dědičkou trůnu a řekla na to: Budu dobrá královna. Když se královnou stala, bylo jí jen osmnáct, ale ujala se svých povinností s chutí a odhodláním. Jen za několik hodin poté se zúčastnila prvního oficiálního setkání s předními politiky. 3 For a more detailed reference see Bibliography page

44 Povinnosti královny Viktorie byla konstituční monarcha. To znamená, že nemohla rozhodovat ve státních záležitostech. Skutečnou politickou moc měl v rukách parlament a královniny povinnosti byly spíše obřadní. Ale Viktorie úzce spolupracovala s ministry a obzvlášť se zajímala o rozvoj britského impéria. Rodinný život Viktorie a Albert měli devět dětí, pět dcer a čtyři syny. Těhotenství bylo pro Viktorii náročné, ale považovala za svou povinnost zanechat následníky trůnu. Vážila si rodinného života, a pokud jim to královské povinnosti dovolily, trávili s Albertem co nevíce času s dětmi. Život jejich rodiny, která vždy držela pospolu, vzbuzoval obdiv britské veřejnosti. Viktorie měla 37 vnoučat a mnoho z nich se vdalo nebo přiženilo do některého z královských rodů v Evropě. Viktorie a státníci Během vlády královny Viktorie se vystřídalo deset ministerských předsedů (viz str. 42). Jeden z jejích nejoblíbenějších byl vikomt Melbourne, který byl ministerským předsedou, když nastoupila na trůn. Stal se jejím významným politickým poradcem a dobrým přítelem. Útočiště na hradě Když se Viktorie stala královnou, přestěhovala se do Buckinghamského paláce, ale nepokládala ho za vhodný domov pro své děti. Ve 40. letech 19. století s princem Albertem koupili a nechali opravit dvě další rodinná sídla: zámek Osborne House na ostrově Wight a hrad Balmoral na Skotské vysočině. Po Albertově smrti trávila Viktorie většinu času v Balmoralu, kde truchlila doprovázena svým nejvěrnějším sluhou, Skotem Johnem Brownem

45 Královna Viktorie Viktoriin život zahrnuje skoro celé 19. století a její jméno je s touto dobou úzce spojené. Přes své děti a vnoučata byla spřízněna skoro se všemi královskými rody v Evropě (viz str. 42) Narození 24. května: Viktorie se narodila v Kensingtonském paláci v Londýně. Když její otec, vévoda z Kentu zemře, dohlíží na její výchovu matka se svým poradcem sirem Johnem Conroyem Královna 20. června: Viktorie se stává královnou po smrti svého strýce, Williama IV. Je jeho jedinou dědičkou a o rok později je jako devatenáctiletá korunovaná ve Westminsterském opatství v Londýně Manželství 10. února: Viktorie si bere svého německého bratrance Alberta, vévodu ze Saxe- Coburgh-Gotha. Jejich šťastné manželství trvá 21 let Královna vdovou Albert umírá na tyfus. Viktorie má zlomené srdce a na třináct let se stáhne z veřejného života, což ale Britové nesou nelibě. Po zbytek života chodí Viktorie v černém Císařovna indická Začátkem 70. let 19. století se Viktorie vrací do veřejného života podporována ministerským předsedou Disraelim. Zapojuje ji do zahraniční politiky a v roce 1876 jí parlament uděluje titul císařovna indická

46 1897 Diamantové výročí Královna Viktorie, která je v tu dobu již připoutána na vozík a trpí revmatismem, slaví 60 let na trůnu. Je na vrcholu slávy a má příbuzné ve všech královských rodech Evropy Královna umírá 22. ledna: Viktorie umírá na svém sídle Osborne House ve věku 81 let. Je pohřbena vedle Alberta na hradě Windsoru v hrabství Bekshire. Británie a celé impérium truchlí nad jejím odchodem. Obrázky: Balmoralský hrad byl královnino oblíbené sídlo Viktorie se zúčastnila prvního zasedání státní rady jen několik hodin poté, co se stala královnou První průmyslový národ Do roku 1837 procházela Británie velikým průmyslovým rozvojem. Průmyslová revoluce začala v druhé polovině 18. století a přinesla s sebou nové stroje a nové zdroje energie, tedy především páru. Parní stroje zastaly práci spousty dělníků a výroba se přesunula do továren, kde se zboží vyrábělo ve velkém. Vznikla nová průmyslová odvětví, nová povolání (viz str. 43) a objevily se nové výrobky. Změny neprobíhaly ve všech průmyslových odvětvích a oblastech Británie stejně rychle, ale během Viktoriánského období se rozvoj urychlil. Došlo ke změnám ve společnosti a Británie se stala prvním a nejvyspělejším průmyslovým národem světa. Život v továrně Před průmyslovou revolucí se látky vyráběly doma ručním předením a tkaním, říkalo se tomu domácký průmysl. S mechanizací se výroba textilu přesunula do přádelen a továren. Nejvíce přádelen na bavlnu vzniklo v hrabství Lancashire,

47 zatímco v hrabství Yorkshire se nejčastěji stavěly přádelny na vlnu. Byly to ponuré tovární haly s řadami strojů, u kterých pracovaly ženy a děti. Parní buchar od Williama McConnella (obrázek) Světová výstava Během prvních 15 let 19. století se z Británie stal největší průmyslový národ světa. Volně obchodovala se zbytkem světa a těšila se období nevídaného hospodářského rozmachu, které trvalo až do 70. let 19. století. Británie vyvážela zboží do celého světa, takže se jí začalo říkat dílna světa. Princ Albert chtěl seznámit veřejnost s úspěchy průmyslové revoluce, a proto se rozhodl uspořádat Světovou výstavu. Konala se v roce 1851, byla to první mezinárodní výstava a významná pocta úspěchům viktoriánské doby. Královská podívaná 1. května 1851 zahájili princ Albert a královna Viktorie Světovou výstavu. Konala se v londýnském Hyde parku v Křišťálovém paláci postaveném zvlášť pro ni. Trvala šest měsíců a slavila výjimečný úspěch. Jeden novinář ji popsal jako největší podívanou, všech dob. Davy návštěvníků Světovou výstavu navštívilo více než šest milionů lidí. Ve dnech, kdy bylo vstupné jen za šilink, byly ulice přecpané lidmi a kočáry, takže výstava honě vydělala. Princ Albert chtěl podporovat užitečné znalosti, a proto se vydělané peníze použily na stavbu nových muzeí, vyšších škol a koncertní síně Royal Albert Hall. Hory vystaveného zboží Návštěvníci Křišťálového paláce se pozastavovali nad množstvím vystavených předmětů, něco takového ještě nikdo nikdy neviděl. Stánky, kterými se mohlo volně procházet, vystavovaly nejnovější zemědělské a průmyslové vynálezy. K vidění byl dokonce i model liverpoolských přístavních doků nebo železáren v Coalbrookdalu

48 Průmysl všech národů Přestože víc než polovina vystaveného zboží byla z Británie, Světová výstava byla schválně naplánovaná jako mezinárodní měla vystavovat průmyslové výrobky všech národů. Zúčastnilo se jí přes vystavovatelů z celého světa a do Londýna se sjeli návštěvníci z mnoha států. Nejvíce pozornosti upoutal francouzský pavilon a také čínský stánek (nahoře). Dělnický život Pracující muži Kvůli mechanizaci zanikly některé typicky mužské profese jako ruční tkaní na stavu. Od 50. let 19. století se začala objevovat nová pracovní odvětví jako třeba kotlářství, lodní stavitelství a strojírenství. Muži pracující v těchto odvětvích byli společně s horníky a železničními dělníky takzvaná dělnická šlechta. Nádeníci, přístavní dělníci a řetězáři byli nekvalifikovaní dělníci. Zdraví a bezpečnost Protože zákony nevyžadovaly žádná bezpečnostní opatření k ochraně dělníků, továrny a slévárny byly nebezpečná místa. Dělnická práce s sebou nesla nehody, popáleniny i zmrzačení a výpary a plyny způsobovaly nové nemoci. Lidé nedostávali žádné přídavky ani důchod, takže nezaměstnanost šla ruku v ruce s chudobou. Proto dokud lidé mohli, snažili se pracovat. Pracující ženy Ženy pracovaly jako služky, švadleny a v textilních továrnách. Tovární dělnice byly nejlépe placené a soběstačné. Přesto byly ženy hůř placené než muži a někteří muži dokoncce nechtěli, aby ženy pracovaly, protože se báli, že jim také sníží platy. Holky z třídírny Skutěčnost, že ženy pracovaly v dolech, byla pro bohaté Viktoriány děsivá. Bylo to nebezpečné, a navíc si mysleli, že není vhodné, aby muži a ženy pracovali tak blízko sebe. V roce 1842 bylo ženám a dětem zakázáno pracovat v podzemí

49 Některé ženy známé jako holky z třídírny dál pracovaly v dolech na povrchu až do 80. let 19. století a za žádnou cenu nechtěly svá místa opustit. Životní podmínky Jak se rozvíjela průmyslová města, dělnické domky se stavěly rychle a levně. Mnohé z nich byly na sebe namačkané, dotýkaly se dvorky a neměly tekoucí vodu, záchod ani koupelnu. V jedné místnosti žilo i několik rodin a lidé byli často nemocní. Vzduch znečišťoval kouř a výpary z nedalekých továren. Pokuty a mzdy V práci vládla tvrdá disciplína. Zaměstnavatelé často dávali dělníkům pokuty, třeba jen za to, že si pískali. Někteří zaměstnavatelé platili dělníky zbožím nebo poukázkami, za které mohli nakupovat jen v podnikových prodejnách. Tento přístup byl mezi dělníky velice neoblíbený. Mdlé majíc prsty a zedrané Jedny z nejhůře placených viktoriánských dělnic byly šičky, které šily pro bohaté a měly neuvěřitelně dlouhou pracovní dobu. Viktoriánský básník Thomas Hood píše ve své básni Píseň o šití, jak každá pracovala mdlé majíc prsty a zedrané/a oči krví naběhlé. 4 Šičky dřely v přeplněných dílnách (obrázek) Tovární reformy V prvním desetiletí 19. století si hodně zaměstnavatelů myslelo, že zkrácení pracovní doby nebo zlepšení pracovních podmínek by uškodilo obchodu a výrobě. Oficiální průzkum odhalil strašné pracovní podmínky a postupně přišly změny k lepšímu Tovární zákon zakazuje, aby děti mladší než 9 let pracovaly v továrnách. Zákaz nočních směn pro mladé do 18 let. 4 The citation used here is a Czech 19 th century translation of Tennyson s poem by Primus Sobotka, for a more detailed reference see Bibliography page

50 1842 Důlní úřad odhaluje hrozné pracovní podmínky. Ženy, dívky a chlapci do 10 let nesmí pracovat v podzemí Tovární zákon stanovuje, že 9 až 13letí nesmí pracovat víc než 6 a půl hodin denně a 13 až 18letí a ženy smí pracovat nejvíce 12 hodin denně. U některých strojů se musí zavést bezpečnostní opatření Desetihodinový zákon přikazuje, že ženy a mladí nesmí v továrnách pracovat víc než 10 hodin denně Série zákonů rozšiřuje platnost reforem z textilních továren i na jiná odvětví. Viktoriánská města Ve viktoriánské době se rychle rozrůstala města a zvyšoval se počet jejich obyvatel (viz str. 42). V roce 1801 žilo ve městech jen 33 procent britského obyvatelstva. Do roku 1901 to bylo 78 procent. Nejvíce se rozvíjel Londýn a průmyslová města na severu jako Leeds nebo Manchester. Množství obyvatel, kteří se přistěhovali z venkova za prací, bylo pro města velká zátěž. Protože nebylo dost domů a služeb pro veřejnost, žili lidé v hrozných podmínkách. Od poloviny století se radní snažili situaci zlepšit. Spotřební společnost S rostoucím bohatstvím a množstvím vyráběného zboží se dařilo obchodům a rozšiřovala se jejich nabídka. Výrobci začali používat reklamu a začaly se stavět obchodní domy. Mezi prvními byli Dickens and Jones a obchodní dům Harrods v londýnské ulici Brompton Road. V roce 1892 otevřeli v Manchestru svůj první obchod Marks and Spencer

51 Chudinské čtvrti a předměstí Bydlení se lišilo podle městských čtvrtí. Chudé rodiny se mačkaly ve sklepech nebo nájemních domech. Bohatší rodiny žily ve vilách nebo v nových řadových domech v lepších čtvrtích. Stále více rodin ze střední třídy se stěhovalo do okrajových čtvrtí (předměstí) a jejich členové jezdili do práce vlakem nebo tramvají. Zlepšení života ve městech Kvůli chudobě a nedostatečné hygieně řádily často v přeplněných městech smrtelné nemoci jako cholera nebo tyfus. V roce 1848 byl schválen první zákon o ochraně veřejného zdraví, podle kterého se musely zřídit místní zdravotní výbory. Postupně se stavěla kanalizace, do mnoha domácností se přivedla čistá voda a zavedlo se pouliční osvětlení a úklid ulic. V 70. letech 19. století se začaly dávat do pořádku chudinské čtvrti a nejzchátralejší domy se zbouraly. Chlouba města Od 50. let 19. století byli viktoriáni stále víc hrdí na svá města. Městští radní a místní podnikatelé stavěli krásné veřejné budovy jako radnice, knihovny nebo zřizovali veřejné parky. V každém parku byl altán pro dechovou kapelu, která o nedělích, když se rodiny vypravily do parku na procházku, vyhrávala oblíbené melodie. Hudební kapely vznikly z hornických kapel a byly obzvlášť oblíbené na severu Anglie. Bobíci na obchůzce Zločin byl ve viktoriánských městech na denním pořádku od kapsářů až po chladnokrevné vrahy jako byl Jack Rozparovač. V roce 1829 založil v Londýně sir Robert Peel jednotku městské policie. Noví policisté, známí jako peelovci nebo bobíci nosili uniformy a chodili na obchůzky po svých rajonech. Do roku 1856 měla vlastní policii většina měst. Služby veřejnosti Pro řešení problémů měst byla nutná dobře pracující samospráva. V roce 1835 byl vydán zákon o městské samosprávě a v každém městě vznikla rada, kterou volili

52 vlastníci domů ve městě. Rada mohla vybírat peníze a měla právo zřídit městskou policii a hasiče. Také měla na starosti provozní záležitosti jako pouliční osvětlení nebo bydlení. V roce 1888 a 1894 rozšířily působení městské samosprávy další zákony. Domácí anděl Domov byl pro viktoriány nade vše a rodina tvořila středobod jejich života. Protože domov a zaměstnání se od sebe čím dál více vzdalovaly, vnímali ho jako místo odpočinku od pracovních povinností. Střední vrstvy si podle vzoru královské rodiny vytvořily ideál rodinného života, který měl být klidný, harmonický a velmi spořádaný. Žena poskytovala útěchu a podporu, byla domácí anděl, jak ji popsal jeden viktoriánský básník. Tento vzor se hlavně týkal bohatších rodin, ale později se vztahoval na všechny. Ve skutečnosti ovlivňuje rodinný život dodnes. Domácí život Zábava byla důležitou částí rodinného života. Členové viktoriánské rodiny trávili spoustu hodin doma v salonu, kde přijímali hosty, a kde se scházeli, aby hráli, zpívali, hráli hry a povídali si. Domácí zábava Protože žili v době bez televize, museli se viktoriáni bavit společenskými hrami. Nejoblíbenější byly karetní hry, jako například kvarteto, slovní hry, dovednostní hry a stolní hry jako například člověče, nezlob se. Členové rodiny si také rádi předčítali z oblíbených ale vybraných románů. Viktoriánské děti Viktoriánské rodiny byly často velké, jedna rodina měla až šest nebo sedm dětí. Rodiče na ně byli přísní a stále platilo, že děti mají být vidět ale ne slyšet

53 Dětský pokoj Chůvy hlídaly děti v dětském pokoji. Den se skládal z výuky, her, procházek a jídla. Důležitá byla poslušnost. V dětském pokoji bylo plno hraček: panenky, domy pro panenky, káči, houpací koně, cínoví vojáčci a spousta knih. Vánoční veselí Právě v tomto období se staly Vánoce důležitým rodinným svátkem, jak je vnímáme dnes. Díky princi Albertovi se do Anglie dostal německý zvyk mít o Vánocích stromeček s dárky. Jeho příklad s nadšením následovaly tisíce viktoriánských rodin. První vánoční pohlednice se v obchodech objevily v roce Rozdělené úlohy V bohatých rodinách byl hlavou rodiny otec a o jeho slově se nikdy nepochybovalo. Jeho role byla chodit do práce a vydělávat na rodinu. Místo ženy bylo doma. Do roku 1882 patřil majetek vdané ženy jejímu muži. Zastávala roli dobré manželky a matky, neměla povinnost, a často ani nesměla, chodit do práce. Aby se den sváteční světil Návštěva kostela a četba Bible hrály ve viktoriánském rodinném životě důležitou roli. Každou neděli šla celá rodina do kostela a večer jim otec předčítal z Bible. Oblíbené knihy o etiketě (společenském chování) radily, jak se vhodně oblékat a jak se chovat v každé situaci. Hudební večery Každý viktoriánský salon měl piáno. Všechny mladé slečny se učily hrát a o večerech se rodina scházela u piána a zpívala oblíbené a často dojemné písně jako například Domove, sladký domove. Zatímco ženy hrály, muži obvykle zpívali. Obrázky: Stolní hra žebříky a hadi Bilboket cílem bylo chytit míček do důlku na horním konci válečku Skládačkami se bavila celá rodina Časopis s povídkou

54 Domove, sladký domove od Waltera Dendy Sadlera Viktoriánské školství Začátkem 19. století nebyly žádné státní školy a ani zákon, který by nařizoval, že děti musí chodit do školy. Existovaly soukromé (placené) školy pro bohaté a dobročinné školy pro chudé. Jen málokteré dělnické děti měly vůbec nějaké vzdělání. Někteří vzdělaní si dokonce mysleli, že kdyby se chudí naučili číst a psát, přestali by být spokojení se svým společenským postavením. Ke konci vlády královny Viktorie došla vláda k závěru, že pracující lidé také potřebují vzdělání a nařídila, že děti do 13 let musí chodit do školy. Podpora školství Chudým poskytovaly vzdělání školy církevní nebo dobročinné. Tyto školy byly buď zdarma, nebo měly nízké školné, mnoho rodičů si ale nemohlo dovolit, aby jejich děti přestaly pracovat a chodily do školy. Od roku 1833 dostávaly církevní školy granty od státu, který v roce 1870 zřídil systém státních škol, na které šly peníze z místních daní. Chudinské školy Školy pro chudé děti dávaly dohromady podivnou směsici, do které patřily i školy nedělní. Ty v roce 1780 založil jako dobročinné organizace Robert Raikes. Jejich počet se rychle zvyšoval a hnutí nedělních škol zavedlo také vyučování ve všední dny. Těmto školám se říkalo chudinské a zdarma poskytovaly základní vzdělání, jídlo a oblečení tisícům dětí, dokud je nevystřídaly školy státní. Soukromé školy Synové z bohatých rodin chodili do drahých soukromých škol, jako byl Eton, Rugby nebo Westminster (nahoře). Mnohé z nich byly založeny v 15. nebo 16. století. Žáci se učili klasické předměty jako latina a řečtina a připravovali se na roli státníků a vedoucích pracovníků. V soukromých školách vládla tvrdá pravidla a byla tam častá šikana. Škol pro bohaté dívky bylo jen málo a většinu děvčat učily guvernantky doma. Od 40. let 19. století bojovaly průkopnice jako Emily

55 Daviesová, Barbara Bodichonová a slečny Bussová a Bealeová za rovnoprávnost ve vzdělání pro dívky. Školní předměty Vzělání chudých dětí je mělo připravit na práci. Učily se číst, psát a počítat, takzvané trivium. Měli tělocvik, kterému se říkalo dril a také se učily zěměpis a dějepis. Děvčata se učila vařit a kluci měli hodiny práce se dřevem. Umění a architektura Viktoriánská architektura byla bytelná, praktická a zdobná vlastnosti, které nová střední třída nejvíce obdivovala. Viktoriánští architekti navrhovali krásná nádraží, vznosné veřejné budovy a muzea. Na stavby používali cihly a nové stavební materiály jako železo, ocel a sklo a také nové výrobní postupy. Také malířství odráželo dobová témata. Viktoriánští umělci malovali překrásnělé obrazy rodiny s dětmi i zvířaty, do detailu propracované výjevy z běžného života, nebo se inspirovali minulostí. Také fotografie poskytla nový, zajímavý způsob, jak zachytit dobu. Novogotika Architekti hledali stavební sloh, ve kterém by se odrážely obchodní a průmyslové úspěchy doby. Vybrali si gotiku, sloh který se používal ve středověku a kterému dodali jemnější klasický vzhled. Gotika představovala pro viktoriánskou střední třídu ryzí křesťanský stavební styl založený na hodnotách, kterých si sami cenili. Viktoriánské budovy Viktoriáni používali gotiku pro stavbu obytných domů, veřejných budov a nádraží. Londýnské nádraží sv. Pankráce se dodnes zachovalo jako působivý příklad viktoriánské gotiky stejně jako budovy parlamentu. Výtvarné umění Viktoriánská střední třída milovala dojemné obrazy s názvy jako Beznadějné svítání, ale také pestré obrazy každodenního života od Williama Frithe. Mezi

56 nejlepší umělce doby patří také John Everett Millais, William Holman Hunt, Edward Burne-Jones a Walter Richard Sickert. Bratrstvo prerafaelitů V roce 1848 umělci jako Millais, Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rosseti, významný kritik výtvarného umění John Ruskin a další založili Bratrstvo prerafaelitů. Malovali působivé obrazy na básnická, morální, náboženská a středověká témata. Jejich obrazy byly velmi romantické, plné světla a přírodních motivů. Hnutí umění a řemesel William Morris byl socialista a člen prerafaelitského bratrstva. Ve svých spisech a návrzích odsuzoval ošklivost, společenské bezpráví a sériovou výrobu průmyslového období. V roce 1861 založil návrhářskou firmu, kde muži i ženy vyráběli ručně a za pomoci tradičních postupů tapety, nábytek, stříbrné předměty a látky v jednoduchém stylu. Morris věřil, že lidé by měli být obklopeni věcmi, které jsou krásné i užitečné. Jeho styl se nazýval Arts and Crafts (umění a řemesla) a měl velký vliv. Obrázky: Paní z ostrova Shallot (1888) od J. W. Waterhouse Tento obraz je založen na jedné z artušovských legend Plány Výstavní zemědělské síně v Londýně Westminsterský palác, častěji známý jako budovy parlamentu, je výbornou ukázkou viktoriánské gotiky Zvon ve věži dostal přezdívku Big Ben (Velký Ben) Sociální reformy Viktoriánská společnost měla k rovnoprávnosti daleko. Rozvoj průmyslu vytvořil bohatou střední vrstvu těžící z průmyslu a obchodu. Také vznikla velká dělnická třída, ale většina dělníků žila v hrozných podmínkách. Na chudobu a lidské utrpení narážel člověk na každém kroku. Pravidelně se dělaly průzkumy sociálních problémů, ale řešení nebylo jednoduché. Někteří bohatí viktoriáni zastávali názor

57 lassiez faire neboli nechat být a mysleli, že vláda by neměla zasahovat. Sociální cítění však rostlo a zavedly se významné reformy. Soukromí dobrodinci Problémy chudých nedávaly střední vrstvě spát. Jednotliví lidé nebo církev začali pomáhat dřív, než přišla pomoc od státu. Lidé, kterým se říká filantropové, trávili svůj život pomocí chudým lidem, konali sbírky, zakládali vývařovny a ubytovny a upozorňovali na problémy chudých. Jejich práce byla často založená na náboženské víře. Náboženská armáda V roce 1865 založil metodistický duchovní William Booth, zděšený chudobou v londýnské čtvrti East End, organizaci později známou jako Armáda spásy. Byla to náboženská organizace založená na vojenských zásadách, která chudým poskytovala přístřeší, šaty a jídlo. Chudobince Někteří lidé věřili, že chudí si mohou za své problémy sami, protože dost tvrdě nepracovali. Ti, kteří se nemohli uživit, museli jít do chudobince, kde platila tvrdá pravidla. Rodiny se musely rozdělit, lidé dostávali špatné jídlo a museli dělat bezvýznamné práce. Vláda postupně zjistila, že chudí potřebují skutečnou pomoc a v roce 1908 poprvé zavedla přídavky a důchody. Boj za práva Pracující lidé neměli na začátku viktoriánského období žádná práva a žádné zastání ve vládě. Zaměstnavatelé ze střední vrstvy je brali jako pracovní sílu, která jim patřila a mohli ji využívat. Ale v průběhu století si průmyslová dělnická třída, která nabízela svůj čas a schopnosti za mzdu, uvědomila svůj vlastní význam pro viktoriánskou společnost a začala se bránit proti útrapám a vykořisťování. Dělnická třída zakládala protestní hnutí, odbory a jiné organizace, kterými se dožadovala lepších podmínek a politického zastání. Byl to běh na dlouhou trať, ale do roku 1901 se hodně změnilo k lepšímu

58 Chartizmus V roce 1838 vzniklo velké lidové hnutí chartizmus. Parlamentu byla předložena Charta lidu, ve které požadovali volební právo, tajné volby, zrušení zákona, podle kterého se mohli poslanci stát jen bohatí a vlivní lidé a další reformy. Tyto požadavky podpořily v demonstracích tisíce lidí, ale parlament je všechny zamítl. Chartizmus sice v roce 1848 zanikl, ale většina jejich požadavků byla později přijatá jako zákon. Odbory Po chartizmu se lidé rozhodli pro odbory, které měly hájit jejich zájmy v práci. Boj za právo založit odbory nebyl jednoduchý. V 50. letech 19. století zřídili kvalifikovaní dělníci (horníci, dělníci na železnici a technici) silné odbory, které mohly vyjednávat se zaměstnavateli, kteří potřebovali jejich práci. Ke konci 80. let 19. století si ti bojovnější, jako přístavní dělníci nebo dělnice z továren na sirky, vynutili zlepšení pracovních podmínek stávkami. Parlament Politickou moc měl v rukách parlament. Skládal se ze Sněmovny lordů, kteří nebyli volení, ale titul dědili, a z Poslanecké sněmovny, kam byli poslanci volení. Do 30. let 19. století bývaly volby podplacené a poslanci zastupovali jen vrstvu bohatých a vysoce postavených lidí, a ne střední nebo dělnickou třídu. Obě třídy si proto vynutily velké změny. Politické strany Dnešní britské politické strany vznikly během viktoriánské doby. Konzervativní strana vznikla ze staré politické strany toryů. Její první ministerský předseda byl sir Robert Peel. Liberální strana vznikla ke konci 50. let 19. století ze skupiny politiků, ve které se mísili členové politické strany whigů s radikály. Obě strany bojovaly o vládu a po roce 1867 zavedly velmi potřebné sociální reformy, aby si získaly voliče z dělnické třídy. V roce 1898 založil socialista Kier Hardie Nezávislou labouristickou stranu (ILP), která se do roku 1900 přeměnila na Labouristickou stranu

59 Ženy a politika Ženy se zapojovaly do činností ve všech politických skupinách. Účastnily se kampaně chartistů jejich původní požadavek bylo volební právo jak pro muže tak pro ženy a založily vlastní odbory. Ženy ze středních vrstev jako Josephine Butlerová nebo Emily Daviesová tvrdě bojovaly za práva žen. V roce 1883 získaly vdané ženy z dělnické třídy pevné zastání, když založily Jednotné sdružení žen. Díky sdružení vedly úspěšné kampaně za mateřská a další práva. Irská domovláda Irsko bylo během viktoriánské doby významným politickým problémem. Chudoba, nedostatek půdy a hladomor v letech přinesly obyvatelům, ze kterých byla většina katolíci, roky velkého strádání. V Irsku sílila touha po samostatnosti a v 70. letech 19. století začaly takto smýšlející organizace (např. feniané) žádat pro Irsko samosprávu neboli domovládu. V roce 1886 a znovu v roce 1893 předložil ministerský předseda a liberál William Gladstone návrh zákonů o irské domovládě, ale ani jeden neprosadil. Slavnosti a svátky V druhé polovině vlády královny Viktorie se většině lidí vedlo lépe než kdy dřív. Zkrátila se pracovní doba, platy se postupně zvyšovaly a ceny zboží a potravin klesaly. Od roku 1850 se továrny zavíraly v sobotu odpoledne a v roce 1871 stanovil zákon čtyři státní svátky (takzvané bankovní prázdniny ) za rok. Poprvé od změn průmyslové revoluce tak měla v 80. letech 19. století většina pracujících více peněz a volný čas na zábavu. S větším množstvím volného času se také střední vrstvy začaly věnovat novým činnostem. Rozvíjelo se divadlo, hudba, opera, sport a cestování. S dostatkem peněz a volného času se mohl ve viktoriánském období zrodit předchůdce dnešního zábavního průmyslu. Výlety k moři Díky železnici a levnému jízdnému mohli lidé jezdit na dovolenou k moři. Stále více viktoriánů podnikalo jednodenní výlety k moři, nebo, když si to mohli dovolit, zůstávali tam na týden nebo déle. Blackpool se stal prvním přímořským

60 městem, které žilo hlavně z cestovního ruchu. Další byly Scarborough, Lytham, Broadstairs a turistické oblasti v Kentu a Sussexu. Na pláži Pláže byly místa plná ruchu, kde bylo možné svézt se na oslíkovi nebo sledovat oblíbené loutkové představení s Punchem a Judy. Viktoriáni stavěli mohutná železná mola, kde se o zábavu starali pieroti (klauni) a dechové kapely. Koupání bylo oblíbené, ale podle viktoriánských mravů musely koupací šaty zakrývat celé tělo. Kabarety Milovníci hudby z řad dělníků chodili do kabaretů, nebo hráli v dechových orchestrech. Do roku 1880 bylo v Británii kabaretů přes 500. Za pár penny se mohli diváci bavit komickými scénkami, nebo si zazpívat s účinkujícími oblíbené a někdy rozverné písně. Sport pro všechny Sport se stal národním koníčkem. Kriket, rugby a golf byly velmi oblíbené a sportovci jako například hráč kriketu W. C. Grace se stali národními hrdiny. Tenis se začal hrát v roce 1874 na travnatých kurtech a první wimbledonský šampionát mužů se konal v roce Viktoriánské dědictví V roce 1901 královna Viktorie zemřela, a tím skončilo viktoriánské období. Byla to doba plná významných změn. Dospělí z roku 1837 by Británii v roce 1901 jen těžko poznali. Vyrostla velká průmyslová města, krajinu křižovaly vlaky a nechávaly za sebou dlouhé mraky dýmu, v přístavech kotvily parníky a mohutné mosty a tunely dělaly čest viktoriánskému stavitelství. Většina lidí měla lepší stravu a oblečení, byli zdravější a vzdělanější. Města byla plná obchodů, které nabízely druhy zboží, které si dříve lidé ani neuměli představit, a které se vyrábělo v britských továrnách nebo dováželo z britského impéria po celém světě

61 Poštovní služba Viktoriáni nezavedli jen vlaky, autobusy a tramvaje, ale také britskou poštu. V roce 1840 její zakladatel Rowland Hill navrhnul, aby každý, kdo posílá dopis, zaplatil předem a zavedli se první poštovní známky. První poštovní známka s podobiznou královny stála jednu starou penny a říkalo se jí černá penny. Spolupráce místo soupeření Ne všichni viktoriáni přijali průmyslovou společnost. Někteří z prvních socialistů jako například Robert Owen chtěli vybudovat novou společnost založenou spíš na kooperaci než na konkurenci. Britské Co-op supermarkety jsou nejviditelnějšími pozůstatky kooperativního hnutí. První obchody Co-op byly zřízeny ve 40. letech 19. století a měly za cíl nabízet potraviny a jiné zboží za ceny, které si pracující mohli dovolit. Smrt královny V roce 1897 oslavila Británie diamantové výročí královny Viktorie (60 let na trůnu). Do Londýna přijeli představitelé evropských států a vládci ze všech částí britského impéria, aby se zúčastnili oslav. Jen o tři roky později Viktorie ve věku 81 let zemřela. Její rakev vezli Londýnem na dělové lafetě. Ulice lemovaly tisíce smutečních hostů z Británie a celého impéria, kteří se přišli podívat na smuteční průvod. Věděli jste? Zajímavosti Anglická fráze ve světle ramp pochází z viktoriánského divadla. Na divadelní rampě, což je okraj jeviště, hořely lampy výraznějším světlem. Proto se často používaly k upoutání pozornosti na jednu z hlavních postav, jako se dnes používá divadelní bodový reflektor. Herci ale museli být velmi opatrní, aby se k lampám nedostali moc blízko, jinak by si mohli ožehnout nebo dokonce zapálit lem kostýmu

62 Viktoriánští tovární dělníci neměli budík, ale většina dělníků bydlela blízko továrny, takže je budil hluk ze spouštění kotlů nebo strojů. Některé doly a továrny však zaměstnávaly takzvané klepače, kteří měli každé ráno za úkol zabušit dělníkům na dveře, aby vstali do práce. Oblíbenou zábavou byla westernová show Buffalo Billa. V tomto čtyřhodinovém představení účinkovaly hvězdy amerického divokého západu v čele se samotným Buffalo Billem, který si vysloužil svou přezdívku, tím že zabil tisíce bizonů (anglicky buffalo ) na obživu dělníků pracujících na stavbě železnice ve Spojených státech. Spolu s ním účinkoval i velký indiánský náčelník Sedící býk a slavná ostrostřelkyně Annie Oakleyová. Show obsahovala indiánské válečné tance, přehlídku střeleckého umění a přepadení dostavníku. Mnoho míst na světě se jmenuje po královně Viktorii. Stát Victoria v Austrálii, Viktoriino jezero a vodopády v Africe, město Victoria v Britské Kolumbii v Kanadě a Viktoriiny hory na Novém Zélandu, to jsou jen někteří z nositelů jejího jména. Otázky a odpovědi Jak dostali britští vojáci přezdívku Tomíci? Tato přezdívka vznikla ve viktoriánském období. Každý odvedenec dostal příručku, do které měl vyplnit svoje jméno, věk a další údaje. K tomu jim měl pomoci vyplněný vzorový formulář, na kterém bylo použité jméno Thomas Atkins, a z něho vznikli Tomíci. Slavní Viktoriáni Viktoriánské období byla doba velkých změn a pokroku ve vědě, umění, průmyslu, politice, sociální oblasti a v mnoha dalších. Takže slavných viktoriánů byly spousty, zde se zmiňujeme jen o některých

63 Sestry Brontëovy Sestry Bronëovy, Charlotte ( ), Emily ( ) a Anne ( ), vyrostly na osamělé faře v Yorkshiru. Všechny tři psaly romantická díla. Jejich nejznámější romány jsou Jana Eyerová od Charlotte, Na Větrné hůrce od Emily a Dvojí život Heleny Grahamové od Anne. Florence Nightingaleová ( ) Ošetřovatelka, zakladatelka ošetřovatelství jako odborného ženského povolání. Vedla polní nemocnici ve Scutari během krymské války, kde zachránila život mnoha vojákům díky svému novodobému přístupu založeném na čistotě a správné hygieně. Alexander Graham Bell ( ) Vynálezce telefonu. Bell se narodil ve Skotsku, ale později se odstěhoval do USA. Začal se zajímat o přenos zvuku elektřinou a v roce 1876 si nechal patentovat první telefon. Později prováděl další pokusy v mnoha různých oblastech: fotografie, letectví a výuka nelyšících. Isambard Kingdom Brunel ( ) Jeden z největších viktoriánských stavitelů. Brunel postavil Velkou západní železnici a navrhl cliftonský visutý most v Bristolu. Také postavil tři lodě, které lámaly tehdejší rekordy: Great Western (1837) byl první záoceánský parník, Great Britain (1843) byl první parník poháněný lodním šroubem a třetí byl Great Eastern (1858). William Fox Talbot ( ) Průkopník fotografování, který v roce 1840 vytvořil první fotografie nazvané kalotypie. V letech vydal Talbot knihu Tužka přírody, která byla jako první kniha na světě s fotografiemi

64 Fotoaparát past na myši z roku 1835 který používal Fox Talbot (obrázek) Kde je možné zjistit víc Ve velké Británii jsme obklopení pozůstatky viktoriánského období. Kdo žije v Británii, může najít viktoriánské budovy blízko svého bydliště, nebo narazit na ulice pojmenované po Viktorii, Albertovi, Gladstonovi nebo vojevůdci Wellingtonovi, které se většinou pojí s viktoriánským obdobím. Další způsob, jak zjistit víc o viktoriánských předcích, je navštívit muzeum. Některé z nejslavnějších muzeí jsou vyjmenované v této kapitole nebo na straně 43, ale místní muzea také můžou mít viktoriánskou sbírku, kterou stojí za to vidět. Procházka po městě Většina britských měst má spoustu viktoriánských budov. Některé jsou veřejné budovy jako například radnice, školy nebo kostely, další jsou továrny nebo jiné průmyslové budovy. Viktoriáni po sobě taky zanechali hodně soch slavných osobností: politiků, vojevůdců a samozřejmě samotné královny Viktorie. Takže kdo bydlí v Británii, může se vydat na průzkum po okolí a zjistit, jaké viktoriánské poklady najde ve svém městě. Muzea Některá muzea jako například Viktoriino a Albertovo muzeum (Victoria and Albert Museum) v Londýně mají velké sbírky předmětů a oblečení z viktoriánského období. V muzeích, jako je bývalá továrna Queen Street Mill v Burnley nebo Muzeum Velké západní železnice (Great Western Railway Museum) ve Swindonu, jsou k vidění viktoriánské stroje v akci. Také je možné prohlédnout si viktoriánské domy ve Viktoriánském muzeu Blists Hill (Blists Hill Victorian Museum) u Telfordu nebo navštívit Muzeum velšské kultury (Museum of Welsh Life) u Cardiffu. Viktoriánské domy Kdybyste žili v britském městě, žili byste pravděpodobně blízko ulice podobné téhle lemované řadou viktoriánských domů. Možná byste ve viktoriánském domě i

65 sami žili. Toto jsou některé rysy, podle kterých se dají viktoriánské domy poznat: velké arkýřové okno na průčelí, vysunovací okna a různobarevné cihly použité k výzdobě. U vás doma Otvírák na konzervy, vysavač, elektrická žehlička a konvice jsou jen některé užitečné věci u vás doma, které vynalezli viktoriáni. V tomto období byly dokonce v domácnostech nainstalované první splachovací záchody, takže za to, že nemusíme chodit na padací záchod na dvůr, vděčíme také viktoriánům! Kam zajet Viktoriino a Albertovo muzeum (Victoria and Albert Museum) v Londýně Bývalá továrna Queen Street Mill v Burnley Muzeum Velké západní železnice (Great Western Railway Museum) ve Swindonu Viktoriánské muzeum Blists Hill (Blists Hill Victorian Museum) blízko Telfordu Muzeum velšské kultury (Museum of Welsh Life) blízko Cardiffu

66 5. Characteristics of the Translated Text As mentioned above, the translated text is taken from a publication on Victorian England by Ann Kramer published in 2003 and titled Victorians. It is a non-fiction book for young readers, which belongs to the Eyewitness series published by Dorling and Kindersley. 5 According to Czech stylistics, this text belongs to the category of populárně vědecký styl (Knittlová et al. 2010, 150), but it is difficult to find an equivalent for it in English stylistic system. Therefore, after consultation with a native speaker, it has been decided that the expression general non-fiction will be used for the purposes of this thesis. Knittlová et al. see general non-fiction as a subcategory of scientific style but adds that there is no study categorising English scientific style, which is, however, not homogeneous (2010, 166). The authors further point out that the language of various scientific disciplines varies considerably and that this does not concern only the lexical level (2010, ). According to Knittlová et al., general non-fiction shares some features with colloquial and journalistic style and even with narrative fiction (2010, 150). As the following analysis shows, the translated text really bears many features of the language of news because it is in fact a report on 19 th century Britain. Furthermore, it describes the most important events of the period and therefore narrative elements occur in the text too. The following analysis of the source text is based on Crystal and Davy s classification, which they outlined in their work Investigating English Style (1974, 15 58). According to them, stylistic analysis should be performed on the following four levels: graphetic (or phonetic), graphological (or phonological), grammatical and the last one is lexical and semantic level. However, as Simpson claims, the levels are interdependent and represent multiple and simultaneous linguistic operations in the planning and production of an utterance (2004, 5). Certainly only in combination with each other the levels can create the appropriate stylistic effect. It is also important to point out that the following analysis does not 5 In the following text, it is referred to by the abbreviation V and a page number

67 mention all stylistic features of the source text, but only those influencing its translation. Similarly to the language of news, the first two levels are very important for general non-fiction works especially if the target readers are children. The text of Victorians is divided into double-page spread chapters, each of which includes many short, titled paragraphs or subchapters. There are three levels of font based on categorisation of the subchapters according to their topic. The biggest font is used for the introductory paragraph in each chapter, which has the same role as the first (or lead ) paragraph in a newspaper article. According to Crystal, it gives a summary and introduction for the following text and it often includes words, which are used for the headline (1995, 382). Also the chapter titles in Victorians are often taken from the first paragraph 6 and their function is to summarize the chapter and to catch the reader s attention, which is, according to Crystal, the main function of a newspaper headline (1995, 382). Here are some examples of titles from the translated book: Life below stairs (V, 22), Fight for rights (V, 32), Empire-builders (V, 36). (1) Angel in the home For the Victorians there was no place like home. [ ] The woman provided comfort and support; she was the angel in the home as one Victorian poet described it. (V, 20) Text and illustrations are distributed in a half-to-half ratio and there are detailed commentaries often pointing with straight lines to particular objects in a picture. Most chapters are also provided with a timeline, which combines text and illustrations in a precise pattern (see Appendix Four). 6 See Example (1), which shows an excerpt from an introductory paragraph with all its graphetic features retained. The allusion to a poem by Coventry Patmore is used as a title (Angel in the home) and also mentioned in the paragraph

68 As it is important to copy the layout of the source text, the translator is limited in her use of condensation and especially expansion. The latter practice is, according to Knittlová et al., very common in translation generally and the more in English-Czech translation due to the different typology of the languages (2010, 45). The authors also point out that translation of culturally specific expressions often includes adding information (2010, 92 93) (e.g.: Osborne House zámek Osborne House). Due to the strict layout of the source text, this procedure could not be used very often during translation of Victorians and also the use of paraphrase was restricted. Knittlová et al. see syntax of non-fiction as less complex and the sentences shorter than in scientific text (2010, 150). Also in Victorians, most sentences do not consist of more than two clauses. Biber and Conrad further mention the use of less complex noun phrases (2009, 127). The authors comment on the language of textbooks, which is a subcategory of scientific style and comparable to children s non-fiction. Even though the number of noun phrases used in Victorians is high, their simple structure causes no complications for translation. Biber and Conrad further point out that, in the language of textbooks, active voice is preferred, while in scientific prose, passive is more frequent (2009, 128). Also the author of Victorians preferred active, thanks to which modulation changing English passive into Czech active voice did not have to be used very often during translation. The source text does not include many condensation constructions either so there was no need for frequent expansion during translation. However, some non-finite verb forms (see Example 2) are used in titles and picture descriptions where a compromise had to be reached between requirements of the Czech grammatical system and lack of space on the page. (2) Becoming Queen (V, 8) Mladá královna Journal containing short story (V, 20) Časopis s povídkou Places to Visit (V, 49) Kam zajet As Knittlová et al. point out, general non-fiction is a descriptive text type but its information density is lower than the one of scientific style because scientific terms are used less frequently. The author also points out that general non-fiction can even include expressive words (2010, 150). These do not occur in

69 the analysed text and neither do features of colloquial language (as, for example, in the Horrible Histories series mentioned in the first chapter). However, the text does include several phrases with a lower degree of formality (see Example 3) and there are no scientific expressions, which, together with its grammatical features, put the source text in the middle of the scale of formality. (3) Her two [ ] predecessors were something of a disgrace (V, 8) Její dva [ ] předchůdci nedělali zrovna čest svému úřadu In the Czech translation above, the lower degree of formality is reached by the use of zrovna in a negative sentence. A problem for the translator arises from the need to keep the text suitable for the target readership children. The role of Romance vocabulary is not equal in English and in Czech. Many words of French or Latin origin have assimilated into English more than their Czech counterparts, which are still perceived as foreign words (cizí slova). Consequently, these expressions do not have the same effect on the target reader and need to be replaced by domestic synonyms (the latter ones in the following examples): (4) Mines Commission důlní komise / důlní úřad (V, 17) social injustice sociální nespravedlnost / společenské bezpráví (V, 27) recruit rekrut / odvedenec (V, 45) profession profese / povolání (V, 47) (5) Industrialisation created a wealthy middle class (V, 30) Industrializace vytvořila / Rozvoj půmyslu vytvořil bohatou střední vrstvu (6) Victorian artists painted sentimentalized images of the family complete with children and animals (V, 26) Viktoriánští umělci malovali překrásnělé obrazy rodiny s dětmi i zvířaty

70 (7) The Victorian middle classes loved sentimental paintings with titles like A Hopeless Dawn, but also colourful paintings of everyday life (V, 27) (8) Viktoriánská střední třída měla velmi ráda dojemné obrazy s názvy jako Beznadějné svítání, ale také pestré obrazy každodenního života Unfortunately, some Romance words could not be avoided: (9) Factory reform (V, 17) Tovární reformy Art and Architecture (V, 26) Umění a architektura socialist Kier Hardie (V, 33) socialista Kier Hardie (10) All three of them wrote romantic novels (V, 46) Všechny tři psaly romantická díla. However this problem appears in the source text too. It is not consistent in using vocabulary familiar to children and explaining all difficult words. Words such as suburbs (V, 18), Gothic (V, 26) or philanthropist (V, 30) are explained but others exhibit (V, 15), butler (V. 22), ether (V, 30), patriotism (V, 41) are used without any explanatory text and they are not included in a glossary either. For this reason, the stylistic properties of the source and target text can be seen as comparable on semantic level. During the translation, it was crucial to retain the stylistic properties of the source work and produce idiomatic, reader friendly text. The translation process and methods used for it are described in the following chapter, with attention focused on culturally specific expressions

71 6. Culturally Specific Expressions Commentary on the Translated Text The following chapter includes commentary on the translated text which is a part of this thesis. Individual culturally specific expressions which occur in the text are discussed together with the methods used for their translation. The aim is to specify, which translatological methods were most often used for particular types of culturally specific expressions. Newmark divides culturally specific expressions into the following five groups: (1) ecology (animals, plants, local winds, mountains, plains, ice, etc.), (2) material culture (food, clothes, housing, transport and communications), (3) social culture (work and leisure) (4) organisations, customs, ideas (political and administrative, religious and artistic) and (5) gestures and habits (1988, ). However, analysis showed that the translated text does not include expressions belonging to the first and last category (ecology and gestures/habits). The main reasons for this are the text type (e.g. fiction is more likely to describe culturally specific gestures and habits) and the topic of the text (general history focuses on culture and events more than on nature or landscape). Besides, Newmark s categories partially overlap. For example military terminology, politics or schools can belong to group (4) because these are organisations but from the perspective of people employed by them it is work ant thus category (3). Newmark does not specify the difference between customs and habits either. Nor does he give any specific rules for categorising expressions, which can belong to more than one category. For this reason it is necessary to adjust his scheme to the needs of this thesis. The list of all culturally specific expressions from the analyzed text served as a starting point for the creation of a new system. The most important criteria were that no category is left empty and that each category covers an area with a similar size so that the commentary structure is easy to follow. For this reason Category (3) was further divided into subchapters. It was also important to clearly define the characteristics of expressions, which belong to a particular group so that there is no doubt about the categorisation and the structure is logical. Culturally specific expressions occurring in the translated text are thus divided into the following categories: (1) Government and organisations: names of

72 organisations, their members, official functions within their hierarchy and their official documents (politics, laws, the army, religion, charity organisations) (2) Places: expressions connected to location (states, towns, gardens, castles, churches) (3) Social culture: expressions with concrete or abstract referents concerning activities connected to human work and leisure, which do not belong to neither of the categories above. This group is further divided into (a) Occupation: words connected to activities which people do for living (names of professions, industry, commerce, commercial services, but those provided by state belong to category 1), (b) Work (non-commercial agriculture, housework, raising children by parents, private philanthropy) (c) Education (official on at-home schooling, types of schools, school subjects, exams) (d) Leisure (sport, hobbies, games), (3) Culture proper (music, literature, art, architecture, philosophy, faith), (4) Material culture: all expressions denoting physical objects, which do not belong to any of the categories above (food, clothes, transport, housing). 7 At the beginning of every subchapter there is a hypothesis for a translation method or methods which might be most often used for translation of culturally specific expressions belonging to the group. The hypothesis is then proved or disproved by the following analysis of particular translatological problems from the translated text. 6.1 Government and Organisations Most of the expressions belonging to this category are either proper nouns or official terms so there is not much freedom in their translation. For this reason, recognised translation is likely to be used most often. Expressions from the text which belong to this group were mostly connected to politics and law. Although their translation, especially in official documents, should be of high quality, it was sometimes difficult to decide which translation is the recognised one. For example the Prime Minister (V, 9) 8 is translated as ministerský předseda or premiér, an MP (V, 32) can be either člen parlamentu or poslanec. Also the houses of the British Parliament (V, 32) are translated into Czech as Sněmovna lordů a Poslanecká sněmovna or Horní and 7 For a more reader friendly overview of the categories, see Appendix Two. 8 Here and in the following examples, the number refers to the page where a particular expression occurs for the first time

73 Dolní sněmovna or even Horní and Dolní komora. Besides, the expressions can be combined, as in Peprník: Sněmovna lordů and Dolní sněmovna (2004, 267). On the other hand, the Institute of Czech Language uses Horní and Dolní sněmovna in connection with the British Parliament (the Institute of the Czech Language website, 2008). In the translation of the book Victorians it was important to use correct expressions but at the same time not to confuse young readers with too many different and unknown terms. Therefore the translator decided to use recognised translations which are mostly cultural equivalents but very close to the source expressions in their structure and meaning: ministerský předseda, poslanec, Sněmovna lordů and Poslanecká sněmovna. It was also important to be consistent in the use of these terms. For translation of political parties which occur in the text, recognised translation was used too. It was less problematic to decide which version to choose because trusted sources 9 do not differ much in their translation. Thus the Conservative Party, the (Independent) Labour Party, the Liberal Party, Tories and Whigs (V, 33) were translated as Konzervativní strana, (Nezávislá) Labouristická strana, Liberální strana, toryové and whigové respectively. Similarly, the British Empire (V, 8) was translated by a recognised translation britské impérium. The Czech rule not to capitalise this proper noun might cause problems in understanding the word when it is mentioned without premodifiacation impérium. In English the determiner and a capital letter mark the specific reference of the noun. In Czech text, however, it might be advisable to add britské to specify its referent, but this choice depends on the context. This criterium was also taken into consideration during the translation of Victorians, as is obvious from the following examples: (1) European heads of states and rulers form all parts of the Empire came to London (V, 40) Představitelé evropských států a vládci ze všech částí britského impéria přijeli do Londýna 9 Černá et al: Internetová jazyková příručka Ústavu pro jazyk český Akademie věd ČR Kraus et al: Nový akademický slovník cizích slov Hais et al: Velký anglicko-český slovník Peprník: Británie a USA, ilustrované reálie (for a more detailed reference, see Bibliography, pp )

74 (2) Britain and the Empire mourn her death (V, 9) Británie a celé impérium truchlí nad jejím odchodem. (3) Thousands of mourners from Briatin and the Empire (V, 40) tisíce smutečních hostů z Británie a celého impéria In (1), britského was added to distinguish it from other European empires. On the other hand, in (2) and (3) the Empire immediately follows the expression Britain, which makes a direct connection between the two entities and the only expression added is celé to strengthen the connection to Britain. Translation of laws and acts was more complicated because there are no recognised translations for these in Czech. Besides many of the acts mentioned in the translated text were passed in the 19 th century and are not valid any more. For this reason, componential analysis helped to choose the best translation method. Here are acts from the source text, their translations and translation methods: (4) Factory Act (V, 17) tovární zákon (calque and transposition) (5) Ten Hours Act (V, 17) desetihodinový zákon (calque and transposition) (6) Public Health Act (V, 19) zákon o ochraně veřejného zdraví (cultural equivalent) (7) Municipal Corporation Act (V, 19) zákon o městské samosprávě (use of a more general word) (8) Home Rule Bills (V, 33) návrh zákonů o irské domovládě (paraphrase and calque: home rule domovláda) Calque seems to be the ideal method for rendering names of laws so that the translation is as faithful as possible. However, it is not always possible to follow the English structure in Czech. Therefore, premodification had to be changed into postmodification in (6) (8), which copy the structure of Czech law titles (e.g. zákon o ochraně spotřebitele, zákon o ochraně osobních údajů, zákon o archivnictví). Similarly to laws, names of organisations and movements needed more than one method for the translation. For the following ones, recognised translation

75 could be used: the Salvation Army (V, 30) Armáda spásy, Chartism (V, 32) chartismus, Fenians (V, 33) féniané. On the other hand, organisations such as the Mines Commission (V, 17), Board of Health (V, 19) and the Women s Cooperative Guild (V, 33) needed unprecedented translation. For the first two expressions calque combined with a transposition was used: Důlní úřad and zdravotní výbor. Translation of the Women s Cooperative Guild (V, 33) was more complicated. The translation of cooperative as družstevní has a negative connotation of the Communistic era, so it should be avoided. It could not be translated as spolupracující either, therefore a compromise was reached which includes the semantic components of cooperative and guild in one word: sdružení. The name of the organisation was thus translated by paraphrase as Jednotné sdružení žen. Postmodification was preferred because it gives an impression of an official name, while ženské sdružení sounds as a common noun phrase. A connotation of cooperation was strengthened by the use of jednotné in premodification. Concerning state organisations, the translation methods differed again. After componential analysis, Metropolitan Police (V, 19) was translated by a paraphrase londýnská policie. As there is a tendency to prefer domestic words to words of foreign origin in this translation, metropolitní was avoided on purpose. Besides a Czech reader probably does not know that the Metropolitan Police is the official name of London police. Further, to add městská seemed unnecessary and would have not been space economical. For translation of their nickname bobbies/peelers (V, 19) a cultural borrowing was used with an adaptation of the suffix according to the Czech language conventions i.e. bobíci/peelovci. For the rest of state organisations, cultural equivalents were found. For a workhouse (V, 31) Czech chudobinec was used even though it does not share all semantic features with the source expression. This translation is, however, sufficient for the purpose of the book and for the target readership, moreover it is space economical unlike versions such as pracovní chudobinec. Local authorities (V, 19) was translated as radní and a town council as městská rada because městský úřad has no 19 th century connotations. On the other hand, social services had to be translated by more general words due to the co-text, which, unfortunately, caused an expansion:

76 (9) They could raise money, and were given powers to provide social services such as police, firefighters, lighting, and housing. (V, 19) Rada mohla vybírat peníze a měla právo zřídit městskou policii a hasiče. Také měla na starosti provozní záležitosti města jako pouliční osvětlení nebo bydlení. Also the Royal Mail is a state run organisation. This term does not occur in the source text, but the name of the first postal stamp Penny Black is mentioned (V, 41). For its translation cultural borrowing was used but Black was moved from postmodification to premodification: černá penny. The same procedure was used for the translation of old penny, but there was no need to change the position of the modifier: stará penny (V, 41). The source text includes another expression connected to money, namely ratepayer (V,19). Rates are defined by Cambridge Advanced Learner s Dictionary as a local tax paid in Australia, and in Britain in the past, by the owners of houses and other buildings (2008). Velký anglicko-český slovník defines rate as (místní) poplatek, dávka (z nemovitosti); vodné (Hais et al. 1984), which unfortunately could not be used in the target text because it would have caused expansion. It was thus necessary to find a concise translation, which would include the main information. The most import fact about the denotat is that the person owns one or more buildings in the town. Therefore the word was translated by a more general expression vlastníci domů. No commentary is needed for the translation of a viscount or the Queen because these have direct counterparts in Czech. There are, however, some more expressions connected to Her Majesty, namely the Empress of India and the Privy Council, which need more attention. For both expressions Czech recognised translations were used again. Peprník translates the former one as císařovna indická, which was acceptable for the analysed text too (2004, 252). In Velký anglicko-český slovník, the Privy Council is translated as BR státní rada, tajná rada (Hais et al. 1984). The former translation is more descriptive and therefore

77 more appropriate for a children s book, which is the reason for using it in Victorians too. The analysis above has confirmed the hypothesis formulated at the beginning of this subchapter. There are 32 culturally specific expressions which belong to this category and for 14 of them, recognised translation was used. The rest of methods were cultural equivalent, cultural borrowing, calque combined with transposition, the use of a more general word and paraphrase (see Table One below). During translation of culturally specific expressions from this group, the translator had to deal with the difference between English and Czech capitalisation rules. Generally speaking, there is a stronger tendency for capitalisation in English than in Czech and some people argue that the Czech system is not logical. However, it is binding for a Czech speaker and has to be followed. The following examples mostly concern expressions from this chapter. Unlike names of laws and acts in English, Czech uses capitalisation only for official titles of acts in the form of Act No X, Y Sb. Therefore translation of acts in examples (4) to (8) was not capitalised. Similarly members of organisations or their functions are not written with a capital letter in Czech and neither are titles unless they are used to address the person (e.g. in a letter). Thus in English expressions such as the Tories, the Whigs, Queen Victoria or Prince Albert are all written in lower case letters. According to the Institute of the Czech Language website, names of organisations which are used in their foreign form should be capitalised according to rules of the language in question. However, their Czech translations have to be written according to the Czech spelling rules

78 Table One Government and Organisations Number of Expressions Transposition - Modulation - Adaptation - Cultural Equivalent 4 Cultural Borrowing 4 Calque - Prarphrase 2 Use of a More General Word 3 Recognised Translation 14 Calque & Transposition 4 Paraphrase including a Calque 1 Cultural Borrowing & Calque - Total Places The vague title above was chosen because the following chapter covers culturally specific expressions ranging from place names to adaptation of the text according to the target reader s home country. However, most of the expressions are proper names so cultural borrowing is probable to be the most often used translation method. To begin with less complicated translations, the following list includes place names for which recognised translation was used: (1) Britain (V, 8) Británie (2) Ireland (V, 33) Irsko (3) England (V, 19) Anglie

79 (4) Berkshire (V, 9), Lancashire, Yorkshire (V, 11), Kent, Sussex (V, 34) Berkshire, Lancashire, Yorkshire, Kent, Sussex (5) Leeds, Manchester (V, 18) Leeds, Manchester (6) Kensington Palace, London (V, 8) Kensingtonský palác v Londýně (7) Westminster Abbey, in London (V, 8) Westminsterské opatství v Londýně (8) Westminster Palace (V, 26) Westminsterský palác Buckingham Palace (V, 9) Buckinghamský palác (9) Hyde Park (V, 14) - Hyde park (10) Crystal Palace (V, 14) - Křišťálový palác (11) London s St. Pancras railway station (V, 26) Londýnské nádraží Sv. Pankráce (12) the State of Victoria in Ausralia (V, 44) Stát Victoria v Austrálii (13) Lake Victoria and the Victoria Falls in Africa (V, 44) Viktoriino jezero a vodopády v Africe (14) the city of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada (V, 44) město Victoria v Britské Kolumbii v Kanadě Except for Crystal Palace all the proper names above are translated by cultural borrowing. However, this was used by the translators who formulated the recognised translations and not by the author of this thesis. For this reason, the method used here is recognised translation and not cultural borrowing. On the other hand, the following expressions do not have recognised Czech equivalents, so they were translated by cultural borrowing: Blackpool (V, 15) Scarborough, Lytham, Broadstairs (V, 34). The translation of some place names includes both proper names and general nouns, which were either part of the original expressions (Examples 15 and 16) or were added to make the expressions more understandable to the Czech reader (example 17 and 18). So the method used for all the expressions was cultural borrowing with an added explanation, however, the expression Scottish Highlands was translated by a recognised translation Skotská vysočina

80 (15) Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, and Balmoral Castle in the Scottish Highlands (V, 9; ST 2) zámek Osborne House na ostrově Wight a hrad Balmoral na Skotské vysočině (16) at Windsor Castle (V, 9) na hradě Windsoru (17) the Royal Albert Hall (V, 14) koncertní síň Royal Albert Hall (18) Harrods in Brompton Road (V, 18) obchodní dům Harrods v londýnské ulici Brompton Road Unlike the expressions above, the former name of the London exhibition centre the National Agricultural Hall (V, 26) (now Olympia) does not include any proper nouns. For this reason, borrowing did not have to be used. There is no recognised translation for this buildings either, so the translator had more freedom in her choice of the translation method. To adapt the target text to the needs of its readers, paraphrase combined with calque was used for the translation: Výstavní zemědělská síň. The Czech expression zemědělský is of domestic origin and therefore has lower connotations than agricultural, which is a word of Latin origin. For this reason výstavní was used as the first modifier instead of národní. The purpose of the building is thus explicitly mentioned and the expression includes all semantic components of the original. The following place names are from a chapter suggesting which museums are worth of visiting. For this reason, an approach characteristic for travel guides was adopted. The names were left in their original form, in other words, cultural borrowing was used with no or very little adaptation to the Czech morphology and Czech translations were added in brackets (the source expressions for the translations below are all from V, 48): (19) Viktoriino a Albertovo muzeum (Victoria and Albert Museum) v Londýně (20) Queen Street Mill v Burnley (21) Muzeum Velké západní železnice (Great Western Railway Museum) ve Swindonu

81 (22) Viktoriánské muzeum Blists Hill (Blists Hill Victorian Museum) blízko Telfordu (23) Muzeum velšské kultury (Museum of Welsh Life) blízko Cardiffu The whole chapter from which (24) (28) below are taken is directed at British young readership. It includes a high number of suggestions which had to be slightly adapted to make sense for Czech readers. The text was mostly changed from a direct appeal to statements: (24) In Britain, we are surrounded by reminders of the Victorian period. You will probably be able to spot some Victorian houses and other buildings close to where you live (V, 48) Ve velké Británii jsme obklopení pozůstatky viktoriánského období. Kdo žije v Británii, může najít viktoriánské budovy blízko svého bydliště, (25) To find out more about our Victorian ancestors (V, 48) zjistit víc o viktoriánských předcích (26) Around your town (V, 48) Ve městech Velké Británie (title of a subchapter) (27) So have a scout around and see what Victorian treasures you can spot in your town (V, 48) Takže kdo bydlí v Británii, může se vydat na průzkum po okolí a zjistit, jaké viktoriánské poklady najde ve svém městě. (28) your local museum (V, 48) místní muzea The last item to be mentioned in this subchapter is the translation of slums (V, 18). According to the Institute of the Czech Language, the English loanword slums has assimilated into Czech. However, it might be problematic for

82 children to understand it and therefore a paraphrase using Czech domestic vocabulary was chosen instead: chudinské čtvrti. According to the analysis above, only 10 expressions were translated by cultural borrowing, while 26 by recognised translation. Consequently, the hypothesis formulated at the beginning of the chapter has not been confirmed because the most often used translation method was recognised translation. Besides the methods mentioned above, modulation, paraphrase paraphrase including a calque and cultural borrowing combined with calque were used (for more detailed information see Table Two). Table Two Places Number of Expressions Transposition - Modulation 7 Adaptation - Cultural Equivalent - Cultural Borrowing 10 Calque - Prarphrase 1 Use of a More General Word - Recognised Translation 26 Calque & Transposition - Paraphrase including a Calque 1 Cultural Borrowing & Calque 9 Total

83 6.3 Social Culture As mentioned above, this group comprises expressions connected to work and free time. Culturally specific expressions included in this chapter differ considerably in their semantic and grammatical properties, so the methods used for their translation can be expected to vary too. The expressions are mostly general nouns denoting everyday reality, therefore the most often used translation methods would probably be paraphrase, use of a more general word and cultural equivalent. The first subcategory of this group concerns activities which people do to earn their living (e.g. employment, industry, trades, production or services). The source text mentions some professions, which either have no counterpart in Czech or their translation is complicated in another way. Thus dockers (V, 16) can be either translated by cultural borrowing (dokaři) or by paraphrase (přístavní dělníci), which was preferred in the target text to make the expression more explicit for the readers. Another problem was to differentiate seamstresses from needleworkers (V, 17). OED online defines a seamstress as a woman who seams or sews; a needlewoman whose occupation is plain sewing as distinguished from dress or mantle-making, decorative embroidery, etc. On the other hand a needleworker is defined as a person who works with the needle; spec. an embroiderer (2011). Based on these definitions, a seamstress was thus translated as šička, which denotes a less skilled factory worker, while a needleworker was translated as švadlena to express a higher level of proficiency in the trade. Another problematic expression from the text is a chain maker (V, 16). For this occupation a Czech cultural equivalent was found: řetězář. In a paragraph on Florence Nightingale, the profession of a nurse is mentioned (V, 47). In this context, it was important to use a more neutral expression than zdravotní sestra, which did not exist in the 19 th century Czech language. Consequently a more general word ošetřovatelka was used. Further the source text includes expressions for workers which have a zero equivalent in Czech. These are a pibrow lassie (V, 17) and a knocker-up (V, 44). A pitbrow lassie was a nickname for a woman working in a brow, which is the area on the surface of a mine where the coal is sorted and screened (OED

84 online 2011). It was impossible to find a Czech equivalent which would bear all semantic features of the original. For this reason, more general expressions were used: (1) Some women, known as pitbrow lassies continued working overground until the 1880s (V, 17) Některé ženy známé jako holky z třídírny dál pracovaly v dolech na povrchu až do 80. let 19. století Another case of zero equivalence is a knocker (V, 44) (a person who knocked on workers doors in the morning to wake them up because there were no alarm clocks in the 19 th century). Fortunately, this expression is explained in the source text and put in inverted commas. Therefore a Czech calque klepač can be used because there is no danger of mistaking the expression for a construction for beating carpets. To move from professions to the workplace, expressions such as a cotton/woollen/textile mill (V, 11 and 17) and a sweatshop (V, 17) should be discussed. Unfortunately, Czech does not distinguish between a factory and a mill so a Czech cultural equivalent (2) or a more general word (3) had to be used: (2) Cotton mills sprang up in Lancashire, woollen mills in Yorkshire. (V, 11) Nejvíce přádelen na bavlnu vzniklo v hrabství Lancashire, zatímco v hrabství Yorkshire se nejčastěji stavěly přádelny na vlnu. (3) Women worked [...] in textile mills. (V, 17) Ženy pracovaly [...] v textilních továrnách. The translation of a sweatshop was more complicated. Velký anglickočeský slovník translates it as robotárna (1985), but this expression is not well known in the Czech environment. For this reason it was not used in the translation of Victorians because it is a book for children, who would probably not understand

85 it. The semantic components of the expression ( a small factory where workers are paid very little and work many hours in very bad conditions ), had to be rendered in another way (Cambridge Advanced Learner s Dictionary 2008). The translator decided to use a more general expression for the noun and transfer the image of hard work under bad conditions into the verb: (4) Seamstresses worked in overcrowded sweatshops (V, 17) Šičky dřely v přeplněných dílnách Concerning wages, some employers in Victorian Britain used truck system, which is another example of zero equivalence. Fortunately, the source text includes an explanation of the term, so it was not necessary to include the original expression and the fact that this system was hated could ve explained in the following sentence: (5) Some employers used the hated truck system, paying workers with goods or tokens that could only be used at the company store. (V, 16) Někteří zaměstnavatelé platili dělníky zbožím nebo poukázkami, za které mohli nakupovat jen v podnikových prodejnách. Tento přístup byl mezi dělníky velice neoblíbený. Besides workers, there was the Victorian bourgeoisie, and commentary on Victorian commerce and industry should begin by mentioning the Great Exhibition (V, 14). For the Great Exhibition a Czech recognised translation was used: Světová výstava. Although this event is sometimes translated as Velká výstava (see p. 29 above), this translation is rare and cannot be treated as a recognised one. For translation of cheap shilling days (V, 14) when people and carriages literally jammed the streets to get to the Crystal Palace, a Czech paraphrase was used: dny kdy bylo vstupné jen za šilink. The omission of English explicit cheap, was compensated in Czech by the use of jen, which implies the

86 same meaning. The paraphrase also includes a recognised translation of a currency: šilink. The translation of industrialisation as rozvoj průmyslu instead of industrializace was discussed above (p. 61) and therefore does not need much commentary. Neither does the literary name for Great Britain of the 19 th century the workshop of the world, for which a recognised translation dílna světa was used. On the other hand, the translation of another expression connected to industry The Shingling Hammer was rather complicated. The problem was not zero equivalence, but the fact that the Czech equivalent based on dictionary translation of the phrase (buchar na vytlačování strusky z vlků) could not be used (Hais et al. 1984). The reasons for this were the lack of space and the fact that this phrase is the title of a painting by William McConnell, which is used in the book as an illustration. A recognised translation could not be used because there is none, but thank to this, the translated text could be adapted to the needs of the target text. A precise technical translation of the machine name was unnecessary here. However, a free, literary translation would not have been a good choice either, because it could be misleading for the readers. For this reason a compromise had to be reached and a more general expression was used: parní buchar. It is not a very poetic title for a painting, but after considering all the facts mentioned above, this seemed as the best choice. The last area of human commercial activity to be covered here is trade. The source text includes the following names of shops: Dickens and Jones, Harrods, Marks and Spencer (V, 18) and the Co-op (V, 41). All of them were translated by cultural borrowing, or by cultural borrowing with an additional general noun, because the target reader has only a limited knowledge of the cultural background of these expressions: (6) department stores appeared. Dickens and Jones, and Harrods in Brompton Road, were among the first. Marks and Spencer opened its first shop in Manchester (V, 18). začaly se stavět obchodní domy. Mezi prvními byly Dickens and Jones a obchodní dům Harrods v londýnské ulici Brompton

87 Road. V roce 1892 otevřeli v Manchestru svůj první obchod Marks and Spencer. During translation of the British chain stores colloquially referred to as the Co-op (V, 41) it was important to distinguish them from the Czech chain supermarkets which are not Victorian legacy but communistic one. For this reason, Co-op was moved from postmodification, which is typical for the Czech supermarkets (supermarkety Coop), to premodification and the adjective britské was added to make the difference more explicit: (7) Today, the Co-op is the most visible reminder of the co-operative movement. First set up in the 1840s, Co-op shops aimed to provide food and other goods at prices that working people could afford. (V, 41) Britské Co-op supermarkety jsou nejviditelnějšími pozůstatky kooperativního hnutí. První obchody Co-op byly zřízeny ve 40. letech 19. století a měly za cíl nabízet potraviny a jiné zboží za ceny, které si pracující mohli dovolit. Social culture further includes education, however there are not many culturally specific expressions connected to this area in the source text. Here is a list of those for which it was problematic to find equivalents in Czech: (8) colleges (V, 14) vyšší školy (the use of a more general word) (9) board schools (V, 24) státní školy (recognised translation) (10) ragged schools (V, 24) chudinské školy (a more general word) (11) public schools (V, 25) soukromé školy (recognised translation) Expression (8) does not play an important informative role in text it occurs in, so the use of a more general word does not deteriorate the informative quality of the text. For (9), the translator decided to use a less expressive word,

88 because by calquing or coining an expression with a connotation of the same strength, the text might become unidiomatic. Translation of most of the school subjects mentioned in the source text was not very complicated, but two items needed more attention. 19 th century sport classes were called drill, which was also borrowed for the Czech text: (12) They practised sport, known as drill (V, 25) Měli tělocvik, kterému se říkalo dril On the other hand, the following expression needed a different approach: (13) They learned reading, writing, and arithmetic the so-called three Rs (V, 25) Učily se číst, psát a počítat, takzvané trivium. Czech words for the three basic skills form no phonetic pattern which would be possible to use to create a similar hyperonym to the three Rs. However, even if there were such a possibility, the expression would be artificially created and thus not equal to the source. Therefore, a Czech cultural equivalent was chosen, which does not share all semantic and stylistic properties with the original expression but at least has a firm place in the target language lexicon. The source text includes a high number of culturally specific expressions connected to leisure. Many of them are mentioned in a chapter titled Highdays and holidays which are culturally specific expressions too (V, 34). A precise translation would be svátky a dny volna because English expression holiday(s) covers several Czech expressions, which are more semantically specific (svátky, prázdniny, dovolená) and dny volna comprises them all. However, the translation of titles does not need to be literal, so it was decided to prefer form to precise meaning and to use the translation Slavnosti a svátky. In this version, alliteration was retained and text expansion avoided. Free time is often spent by playing games. There are several games in the source text which have recognised translations in Czech even though these do not correspond with the source expression in all their semantic aspects. These are:

89 ludo, puzzle and cup and ball game (V, 20), which were translated člověče nezlob se, skládanka and bilboket respectively. It is a paradox that the recognised translation for cup and ball game is a loanword but not of English origin. On the other hand, no recognised translation was found for snakes and ladders board game and happy families (V, 20). For this reason, the former was translated by calque stolní hra žebříky a hadi. Thank to the detailed description of the type of the game in the source text, no descriptive expressions had to be added. Happy families shares the basic concept with Czech kvarteto, therefore this cultural equivalent was used for its translation. Concerning sports which are mentioned in the source text, most of them were translated by recognised translation too: cricket, rugby, golf (V, 35) kriket, ragby, golf respectively. For lawn tennis (V, 35) a paraphrase was formulated: tenis [...] na travnatých kurtech. Another type of entertainment in Victorian Britain was Buffalo Bill s Wild West Show (V, 44). This performance was translated by a cultural borrowing westernová show, which is surprisingly highly popular in contemporary Czech Republic too, but it makes the translation easier. Similarly, the name Buffalo Bill could be left in its original form because it is a recognised translation in Czech. A problem was encountered later in the text, where the origin of his nickname was explained: (14) who has earned his nickname by killing thousands of buffalo (V, 44) To translate buffalo simply as bizon would not help the reader to understand the reason for Buffalo s nickname, especially if the readers are children. Therefore it was decided to use a note in brackets after the expression: (15) který si vysloužil svou přezdívku, tím že zabil tisíce bizonů (anglicky buffalo ) It is true that notes and glosses should be avoided as much as possible. However, this restriction is not as strong in non-fiction as it is in other text types, besides the benefits of its use here are stronger than its disturbing effect

90 At the beginning of this chapter a hypothesis was formulated that the most often translation methods for culturally specific expressions belonging to this group would probably be paraphrase, use of a more general word and a cultural equivalent. The analysis of the expressions showed that cultural equivalent (7 expressions), use of a more general word (6 expressions) and paraphrase (6 expressions) indeed belonged to the most often used methods but the most frequent method of all was recognised translation (12 expressions). This result partially disclaimed the original hypothesis but confirmed that there were several methods with a similar frequency of use (for information on the rest of the methods used in this cathegory see Table Three below). Table Three Social culture Number of Expressions Transposition - Modulation - Adaptation - Cultural Equivalent 7 Cultural Borrowing 6 Calque 2 Prarphrase 6 Use of a More General Word 6 Recognised Translation 12 Calque & Transposition - Paraphrase including a Calque - Cultural Borrowing & Calque 1 Total

91 6.4 Culture Proper This chapter includes commentary on culturally specific expressions connected to culture in narrow sense, i.e. music, literature, art, architecture, faith and philosophy. There are many proper names among the analysed expressions so cultural borrowing can be expected to be the most often used method. The source text includes several quotations from works of literature which were important to render in a correct way. For a citation from Thomas Hood s poem Song of the shirt a published translation by Primus Sobotka was found. He translated the piece of poetry for the journal Květy in 1870 so his style is rather archaic. However, the piece of text which is quoted does not include many archaic expressions so it is acceptable for the target text: (1) A Victorian poet, Thomas Hood, described in his poem Song of Shirt, how they [seamstresses] sewed With fingers weary and worn/with eyelids heavy and red (V, 17) Viktoriánský básník Thomas Hood popisuje ve své básni Píseň o šití, jak každá pracovala mdlé majíc prsty a zedrané/a oči krví naběhlé. Moreover the quotation is introduced by a reference to its source, so the 19 th century Czech translation does not need any further commentary. On the other hand, no translation was found for Coventry Patmore s poem The Angel in the House, which is imprecisely quoted in the source text as Angel in the home (V, 20). A transposition domácí anděl was used for its translation so that the result is analogous to the Czech phrase domácí víla and thus is more familiar to Czech readers and has a positive connotation. The source text further includes three titles of paintings, which are based on quotations too: Home Sweet Home (V, 21), The Lady of Shallot (V, 27) and A Hopeless Dawn (V, 27). The painting Home Sweet Home by Walter Dendy Sadler is named after Henry Bishop s famous ballad, which is very often quoted in the Anglo-American culture. Thanks to this, the phrase is well known in our country (mostly from films and TV series) and has a recognised translation: Domove,

92 sladký domove. The second painting, The Lady of Shallot, was inspired by Alfred Lord Tennyson s poem, which has not been translated into Czech yet. The best solution for its translation seemed to be cultural borrowing with an explanatory expression: Paní z ostrova Shallot. The title of A Hopeless Dawn comes from a work by John Ruskin The Harbours of England, which has not been translated into Czech. This fact, however, gives a translator more freedom to adapt the translation to the demands put on the target text. Concerning Victorians, it was important that the translation kept within the space limits of the page layout and that its semantic properties corresponded with the co-text. The target readers are neither familiar with the background of the passage nor with the painting itself, so it was enough to translate it by calque, simply as Beznadějné svítání. This translation also corresponds with the surrounding text, which contrasts the pessimistic title with colourful paintings : (2) middle classes loved sentimental paintings with titles like A Hopeless Dawn, but also colourful paintings of everyday life (V, 27) střední třída milovala dojemné obrazy s názvy jako Beznadějné svítání, ale také pestré obrazy každodenního života The following list includes culturally specific expressions for which a recognised translation was found: (3) the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Pre-rafaelitské bratrstvo (V, 27) (4) an Arthurian legend artušovská legenda (V, 27) (5) the Brontës, Charlotte, Emily, Anne sestry Brontëovy, Charlotte, Emily, Anne (V, 46) (6) Jane Eyre Jana Eyerová (V, 46) (7) Wuthering Heights Na Větrné hůrce (V, 46) (8) The Tenant of Wildfell Hall Dvojí život Heleny Grahamové (V, 46) Even though legenda o králi Artušovi would have been a more idiomatic translation for (4), it was important to avoid expansion so a shorter recognised

93 translation was chosen. It is also interesting to compare the recognised translations of the Brontës first names (5) with the translation of Jane Eyre (6). Although there are Czech equivalents for all the names (Šarlota, Emílie and Anna) the writers are generally referred to by their English forms (Charlotte, Emily, Anne). On the other hand, the Czech equivalent of Jane Jana is used in the recognised translation of Jane Eyre. However, these equivalents are generally recognised, so they had to be used despite the inconsistence. A chapter on entertainment also mentions Punch and Judy show (V, 34), which would have no informative value for the readers if it had been left without additional explanatory expressions. It was also important to avoid expansion, so the performance was translated by paraphrase combined with cultural borrowing: oblíbené loutkové představení s Punchem a Judy. A popular past time activity for adults was a music hall (V, 35), which could be translated as either kabaret or varieté. OED online defines a music hall as a venue for a style of popular entertainment typically consisting of singing, dancing, comedy, and novelty acts (2011). Nový akadmický slovník cizich slov defines kabaret as a show which includes music, singing, dancing and short sketches, on the other hand varieté is described as a performance (or place, where such performance is delivered) which, besides the programme mentioned in connection with kabaret, includes acrobatic performance (2005). The componential analysis of the expressions thus showed that kabaret shares more semantic components with a music hall and therefore it was used for its translation. Although cultural borrowing was expected to be the most often used translation method for expressions in this chapter, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. According to the analysis above, most of the expressions (more precisely 11) have recognised Czech counterparts, which have to be used regardless to their quality. Therefore the most frequently used method was recognised translation and the rest of the expressions were thranslated by the following methods: transposition, cultural equivalent, cultural borrowing, calque and calque combined with cultural borrowing (see Table Four below)

94 Table Four Culture Proper Culture Proper Transposition 1 Modulation - Adaptation - Cultural Equivalent 1 Cultural Borrowing 1 Calque 1 Prarphrase - Use of a More General Word - Recognised Translation 11 Calque & Transposition - Paraphrase including a Calque - Cultural Borrowing & Calque 1 Total Material Culture The last chapter includes culturally specific expressions denoting physical objects which do not belong to any of the former groups. It covers e.g. the area of food, clothes, transport or housing. Linguistic divergence in this area can be caused by a different way of segmenting the physical world or by absence of the source expression referent in the target environment. For this reason the method most frequently used for translation of these expressions might be cultural equivalent and paraphrase. Most of the problematic items in the source text are connected to housing and Victorian technical achievements. A chapter on working class mentions cramped back-to-back houses, without running water or bathrooms (V, 17). This excerpt includes two translatological problems: back-to-back houses and bathrooms. The former expression is semantically richer than any of its Czech partial equivalents (e.g. dělnické domky, řadové domky) therefore paraphrase was used for its translation (see (1) below)

95 Further it was difficult to decide whether bathrooms was a euphemism for toilet or it was meant as a room for washing. After consultation with a British native speaker it was decided to translate the expression by paraphrase, which would include both meanings: (1) As industrial towns developed, workers houses were built quickly and cheaply. Many were cramped back-to-back houses, without running water or bathrooms. Jak se rozvíjela průmyslová města, dělnické domky se stavěly rychle a levně. Mnohé z nich byly na sebe namačkané, dotýkaly se dvorky a neměly tekoucí vodu, koupelnu ani záchod. As is obvious from (1), this solution caused expansion, which had to be counterbalanced by the ellipsis of domky in the second sentence of the Czech translation. Another type of housing for the poor was tenement (V, 18), which has a connotation of poverty. To retain its connotative meaning, the attribute levný was added in Czech, but to prevent expansion a meronymy byt was used instead of nájemní dům: (2) Poor families crammed into cellars, or tenement buildings. (V, 18) Chudé rodiny se mačkaly ve sklepech nebo levných bytech. Further, the book describes dwellings of the middle and upper class, where the most important room was the drawing room (V, 20). For translation of this expression, either more general salon could be used or its diminutive. Although the former one is polysemous, it was preferred to the diminutive, because it is more neutral and idiomatic in the cotext: Viktoriánské rodiny strávily spoustu hodin doma v salonu. Another part of a Victorian house is a sash window (V, 49), for which a recognised translation was found: vysunovací okno. In the source text, the expression is followed by an explanation, which seemed unnecessary in Czech

96 because the translation is explicit enough. For this reason it was omitted to save space on the page. In connection with clothes, the source text mentions Sunday best (V, 21), which was translated by the only adaptation used in the whole text. This phrase is used as the title for a paragraph describing Sunday activities and the importance of religion for the Victorian middle class. Consequently, a very free translation could be used for the expression with no direct counterpart in Czech. To translate Sunday best simply as nedělní oblečení, would not have the same effect on Czech readers as the original has in English environment. The use of nedělní in relation to clothes has lost its connotation of festivity and the title would not fulfil its function to catch the reader s attention either. The title was thus adapted into a phrase based on one of the Ten Commandments: Aby se den sváteční světil. The Czech reader does not need to recognise the source of the phrase, it is enough that it has the form of an established phrase and that it introduces the content of the following paragraph. Sváteční den suggests a festive occasion and světit implies a connection with religion. Besides their homes, Victorian were proud of their achievements in industry and science. This is also reflected by the names of three I. K. Brunel s steamships: the Great Western, the Great Britain and the Great Eastern. The names were translated by cultural borrowing, which also solved the problem of subject verb agreement: (3) He also built three record-breaking ships: the Great Western (1837) which was the first trans-atlantic steamship, the Great Britain (1843) which was the first screw-propelled steamship, and the Great Eastern (1858). (V, 47) Také postavil tři lodě, které lámaly tehdejší rekordy: Great Western (1837) byl první záoceánský parník, Great Britain (1843) byl první parník poháněný lodním šroubem a třetí byl Great Eastern (1858). The borrowings in (3) form a transition from the feminine gender (loď) to masculine (parník)

97 Another Victorian invention which is a culturally specific expression is Fox Talbot s photography, which he called calotype (V, 47). Velký anglicko-český slovník includes only the translation of talbotype talbotypie (1985). However, Nový akademický slovník cizích slov glosses kalotypie (2004) so this recognised translation could be used for translation of the term: (4) In 1840 he invented an early type of photograph, called the calotype. (V, 47) V roce 1840 vynalezl první fotografie, kterým se říkalo kalotypie. Talbot s first camera was so called mousetrap camera and he also published a book The Pencil of Nature (V, 47). A recognised translation was found for both of these expressions. A mousetrap camera was not a specialised name for this type of camera but it was a nickname given to it by Talbot s family. Therefore it could be translated simply as fotoaparát past na myši, which is also used by sources on the history of photography. Several sources also translate the book title as Tužka přírody, which was therefore used for its translation so that the target readers can easily find more information about it and are not confused by different versions of the title. There were five different methods used for translation of the culturally specific expressions from this group, namely recognised translation (4 expressions), paraphrase (3 expressions), cultural borrowing (3 expressions), cultural equivalent (1 expression), and adaptation (1 expression). However, recognised translation was the most often used one. The hypothesis formulated at the beginning of this subchapter (that the most often used methods might be cultural equivalent and paraphrase) has thus been disproved

98 Table Five Material Culture Material Culture Transposition - Modulation - Adaptation 1 Cultural Equivalent 1 Cultural Borrowing 3 Calque - Prarphrase 3 Use of a More General Word - Recognised Translation 4 Calque & Transposition - Paraphrase including a Calque - Cultural Borrowing & Calque - Total

99 7. Conclusion The discussion on the translation of culturally specific expressions held throughout this thesis can be concluded by several findings. At the beginning the aim of the thesis was mentioned, namely to characterize the relationship between Anglo-American and Czech culture by specifying the methods used for rendering culturally specific expressions in an analyzed translation. In the first chapter, theoretical approaches to translation of culturally specific expressions are compiled. The scholars whose treatment of this translatological problem is mentioned are Mona Baker, Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet, Sándor Hervey and Ian Higgins, and Peter Newmark. The comparison of their translation methods resulted in a new system applicable in the practical part of the thesis. The terminology thus created includes the following methods: (1) transposition (change of the word class), (2) modulation (change of the point of view lexical and grammatical), (3) adaptation (replacement of a culturally specific element in the text with a target culture equivalent, which demands additional changes in the text), (4) cultural equivalent (replacement of a culturally specific expression with a target culture equivalent, which does not cause any other alternations in the text), (5) cultural borrowing (use of a source language expression, which might be partially adapted according to the phonology and morphology of the target language), (6) calque (literal translation of set phrases, collocations, compounds or names consisting of general words), (7) paraphrase (description of source language expression semantic components), (8) use of a more general word (a hyperonym, a less expressive word, a partial synonym), (9) recognised translation. The methodical terminology set in the theoretical part proved efficient but the first two methods (transposition and modulation) were scarcely used for rendering culturally specific expressions. They were used either in combination with other methods or for translation of culture-free items, which are not discussed in the translation commentary. Stylistic analysis of the source text categorised the style as populárně naučný, which corresponds to the English category of general non-fiction (Knittlová et al. 2010, 150). The analysis further showed that it bears many features of journalistic style, which, according to Knittlová et al., is typical for general nonfiction (210, 150). According to the analysis, the text in fact shares more qualities

100 with journalistic style than with the language of science. Similarly to journalistic style, graphetic and graphological properties of the source text play a very important role so expansion has to be minimized during translation. The text does not include many difficult words because its target readership is not only general public but children. Therefore, less known terms are either explained or glossed at the end of the book. It is a descriptive text type but its style is not very condensed, on the contrary, grammatical structures are simple, the text is reader friendly and designed to catch and keep the reader s attention. Consequently, all these qualities had to be retained in the translation, but with regard to the needs and background knowledge of Czech children. In Chapter four, the translation of culturally specific expressions is discussed with the aim to specify the most often used translatological methods in the analysed text. The expressions are divided into five groups: (1) Government and organisations: names of organisations, their members, official functions within their hierarchy and their official documents (politics, laws, the army, religion, charity organisations), (2) Places: expressions connected to location (states, towns, gardens, castles, churches), (3) Social culture: expressions with concrete or abstract referents concerning activities connected to human work and leisure which do not belong to neither of the categories above. This group is further divided into (a) Occupation: words connected to activities which people do for living (names of professions, industry, commerce, commercial services, but those provided by state belong to category 1), (b) Work (non-commercial agriculture, housework, raising children by parents, private philanthropy), (c) Education (official on at-home schooling, types of schools, school subjects, exams), (d) Leisure (sport, hobbies, games), (3) Culture proper (music, literature, art, architecture, philosophy, faith), (4) Material culture: all expressions denoting physical objects which do not belong to any of the categories above (food, clothes, transport, housing). The presupposition was that every group would need a different approach and methods according to the type of expressions it included (e.g.: proper names, abstract vs. concrete nouns, ). The hypotheses for individual categories were as follows: (1) Government and organisations recognised translation, (2) Places cultural borrowing, (3) Social culture paraphrase, use of a more general word and cultural equivalent, (4) Culture proper cultural borrowing, (5) Material culture cultural equivalent and paraphrase. Only the hypotheses for groups (1) and partially

101 for group (3) have been confirmed. However, the most often used method in all groups was surprisingly recognised translation 10. It is true that English language and culture has a strong influence on the rest of the world, which is also the opinion of the scholars mentioned in Chapter two. However, it was not expected that such a high number of culturally specific expressions from text on British history, would have established Czech equivalents. Most of the recognised translations used in the text are taken from trusted sources and many of them are included in Czech monolingual dictionaries. The most important criterion for the choice of good sources is certainly the author or the institution they belong to. The fact that a Czech equivalent can be found on the internet or that it is used in a published translation is not enough. The amount of English-Czech translation is high these days and its quality is often poor. Therefore, the safest solution is to rely on Czech academic sources, which are relatively unified in their terminology unlike the English ones. The Institute of the Czech Language is definitely the highest authority and further, there are several dictionaries which were compiled by renowned scholars and which have good reviews. The main sources used for the translation in this thesis are the Institute of the Czech Language website, Nový akademický slovník cizích slov, Velký anglicko-český slovník and Británie a USA, ilustrované reálie by Jaroslav Peprník 11. The publishing date of sources is important too because the language is changing and recognised translations of some expressions might have been established only recently. On the other hand, if a translation is included in a dictionary published several years ago, it only confirms its established position within the lexicon of the target language. However, the number of English culturally specific expressions with recognised Czech counterparts is undoubtedly higher than those which can be found in dictionaries. Certainly, to become an entry in a dictionary marks a translation as an undeniably recognised one, but it does not mean that those not listed there are not recognised. Some recognised translations will never be in dictionaries (e. g. literary works, which can be quoted in source text). It is the native speaker who is the most important factor in the development of a language, and it is their attitude which is crucial in deciding if a translation is or is not recognised. 10 For detailed information on the analysis results see tables in Appendix Three 11 For more detailed references see Bibliography pp

102 A translator who performs unprecedented translation never knows what the future development of the new equivalent will be. It can be either recognised and used by other translators and the target language speakers or ignored and forgotten. For example in 1916, František Krsek translated Tennyson s Idylls of the King and used the following translations: král Arthur for King Arthur, Kruhový stůl for the Round Table and Caerlleon for Camelot (1916, 6-9). However, these equivalents are not used any more and have been replaced by král Artuš, Kulatý stůl and Camelot or Kamelot. It is thus obvious that the translations from 1916 did not gain a position strong enough to survive up to now. They were not used by translators and Czech native speakers frequently enough to become recognised, but this development took a long period of time and was hardly predictable. Similarly to assimilation of loanwords, development of a recognised translation is a gradual process. There are often more versions of newly emerged expressions (or translations of culturally specific expressions), all of which are considered correct. For example the English adjective Welsh can be translated as welšský, velšský or waleský (Institute of the Czech Language website, 2008). The versions usually coexist for some time and the most important factor which decides about their future is the frequency of use. Only time can tell which version or versions will be established and which forgotten, but at present, all of them can be considered recognised. As mentioned above, it is the frequency of use which makes a translation a recognised one. The high number of recognised translations in the text analysed in Chapters thus implies that the amount of translation from English into Czech is high too. This conclusion also corresponds to Venuti s opinion that Anglo- American literature is much more often translated into foreign languages than the other way round (1995, 15). This situation narrows the translator s choice of methods for translation of culturally specific expressions, which might seem to make her task easier, but it does not. On the contrary, there are often more than one recognised translations (see below) even for institutionalised expressions, which can be very confusing for Czech readers. It is then the task of the translator to find a solution, which is most suitable for both the text and the target reader. Concerning the text translated for this thesis, the choice of suitable expressions was narrowed even more because its target readers are children. The

103 source text is written with regard to the background knowledge of British children and it had to be adapted to the needs of Czech young readers. For expressions with more than one recognised translation, it was important to choose the version, which would be best understandable to Czech children: the Privy Council (V, 9) státní rada, (instead of tajná rada) dockers (V, 16) přístavní dělníci (instead of dokaři) slums (V, 18) chudinské čtvrti (instead of Czech non-declinable expression slums) the House of Lords (V, 32) Sněmovna Lordů (instead of Horní sněmovna or Horní komora) In cases when there was only one recognised translation available, which would be difficult for the readers to understand, it was necessary to add an explanatory phrase: Osborne House (V, 9) zámek Osborne House Yorkshire (V, 11) hrabství Yorkshire the Tories (V, 33) politická strana toryů Queen Street Mill, Burnley (V, 48) bývalá továrna Queen Street Mill v Burnley To conclude, it was not easy to adapt the style of the translation to the target readership and retain all important information and properties of the source text. However, the task was attempted with careful consideration of all linguistic and extralinguistic aspects of the text, so that the restrictions mentioned above have no negative effect on the quality of the translation

104 APPENDIX ONE List of translatological methods and their definitions Transposition change of the word class Modulation change of the point of view (lexical and grammatical) Adaptation replacement of a culturally specific element (e.g. a joke, a pun) in the text with a target culture equivalent, which demands additional changes in the text Cultural equivalent replacement of a culturally specific expression with a target culture equivalent, which does not cause any other alternations in the text Cultural borrowing use of a source language expression, which might be partially adapted according to the phonology and morphology of the target language Calque literal translation of set phrases, collocations, compounds or names consisting of general words Paraphrase description of source language expression semantic components Use of a more general word a hyperonym, a less expressive word, a partial synonym Recognised translation use of a generally accepted translation of a name, title of a work or use of a quotation in a form as it was previously translated

105 APPENDIX TWO Categorisation of culturally specific expressions in the translated text (1) Organisations and institutions: names of organisations, their members, official functions within their hierarchy and their official documents (e.g. politics, laws, the army, religion, charity organisations) (2) Places: names of places and buildings (e.g. states, towns, gardens, castles, churches) (3) Social culture: expressions with concrete or abstract denotats concerning activities connected to human work and leisure, which do not belong to neither of the categories above. This group is further divided into: (a) Occupation: words connected to activities which people do for living (e.g. names of professions, industry, commerce, commercial services, but those provided by state belong to category 1, private philanthropy) (b) Work (non-commercial agriculture, housework, raising children at home) (c) Education (e.g.: official on at-home schooling, types of schools, school subjects, exams (d) Leisure (e.g.: sport, hobbies, games) (4) Culture proper (e.g.: music, literature, art, architecture, philosophy, faith) (5) Material culture: all expressions denoting physical objects, which do not belong to any of the categories above (e.g. food, clothes, transport, housing)

106 APPENDIX THREE The Use of Translatological Methods in Particular Groups Government and organisations Places Social Culture Culture Proper Material Culture Transposition Modulation Adaptation Cultural Equivalent Cultural Borrowing Calque Prarphrase Use of a More General Word Recognised Translation Calque & Transposition Paraphrase including a Calque Cultural Borrowing & Calque Total