časopis moderní filologii

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1 časopis pro moderní filologii 2 ročník 91 / 2009 ISSN ÚSTAV PRO JAZYK ČESKÝ AKADEMIE VĚD ČESKÉ REPUBLIKY

2 ČASOPIS PRO MODERNÍ FILOLOGII 2/2009 Redakce: Ústav pro jazyk český AV ČR, v. v. i., Letenská 4, Praha 1, Czech Republic, tel. (+420) Hlavní redaktor: Aleš Klégr (Praha) Zástupkyně hlavního redaktora: Michaela Lašťovičková (Praha) Redakční rada: François Esvan (Neapol), Rafal Molencki (Katovice), Marek Nekula (Regensburg), Stefan Michael Newerkla (Vídeň), Milena Srpová (Paříž), Bohumil Zavadil (Praha) Recenzní rada: Světla Čmejrková (Praha), Kateřina García (Dublin), Jan Holeš (Olomouc), Jana Chamonikolasová (Brno), Markéta Malá (Praha), Jaroslav Peprník (Olomouc), Claudio Poeta (Praha, Peking), Jaromír Povejšil (Praha), Karel Sekvent (Prešov), Libuše Spáčilová (Olomouc), Pavlína Šaldová (Praha), Pavel Štichauer (Praha), Renáta Tomášková (Ostrava), Vladimír Uhlíř (Praha), Ludmila Uhlířová (Praha), Lenka Vaňková (Ostrava), Lenka Vodrážková- Pokorná (Praha), Lenka Zajícová (Olomouc), Jaromír Zeman (Brno) Výkonný redaktor: Petr Čermák (Praha) Jazyková redakce anglických textů: Helen Nathan OBSAH CONTENTS Pavel Štichauer, K otázce produktivity (nejen) verbonominálních kompozit v italštině On the productivity of (not only) verb-noun compounds in Italian Marie Vachková, Lexikografická synonyma, kookurenční profily a ekvivalentace německých abstrakt Lexicographic synonyms, co-occurrence profiles and corpus-based equivalencing of German abstracts Ondřej Pešek, Néanmoins a nicméně kontrastivní analýza konektorů v současné češtině a francouzštině Néanmoins and nicméně contrastive analysis of connectives in present-day French and Czech Iva Vokurková, Neúmyslná nezdvořilost českých mluvčích v angličtině. Interkulturní pragmatická studie Unintended Impoliteness of Czech Speakers in English: A Cross-cultural Pragmatic Study Rozhledy Orkida Borshi, Skromný návrat albánštiny na evropskou scénu albánské slovníky pro češtinu A modest return of Albanian on the European scene Albanian-Czech dictionaries Recenze Miroslav Černý: Úvod do studia gótštiny (Ondřej Tichý) Zdenko Dobrík: Jazyky v kontaktoch (Anglicizmy a iné slová cudzieho pôvodu v nemčine a slovenčine) (Jiří Zeman)... Roland Breton: Atlas jazyků světa (Ondřej Kapusta)... Kronika Jubilující olomoucká anglistka a hispanistka (Josef Jařab)

3 K otázce produktivity (nejen) verbonominálních kompozit v italštině Pavel Štichauer (Praha) On the productivity of (not only) verb-noun compounds in Italian The article offers a brief survey of the main methods used nowadays to capture the productivity of morphological processes. The discussion starts out from the definition of productivity put forward by Corbin (1987). According to the accepted distinction between availability and profitability, the qualitative and the quantitative approaches are presented. Special attention is paid to two methods typical of the quantitative approach: dictionary-based and corpus-based. Italian verb-noun compounds (such as portalettere, guardaboschi etc.) are used as an example to show how the profitability of the process can be captured in a dictionary and in a corpus. The corpus-based study of productivity is demonstrated by Baayen s work (e.g. Baayen, 1992, 2001, 2008). It exemplifies his view according to which profitability can be conceived of as the likelihood of observing a new type when sampling a large corpus. The article introduces key notions such as vocabulary growth curve / rate and concludes with a brief discussion of some problems associated with the corpus-based approach, namely the question of the supposed equivalence of hapaxes / neologisms and the problem of type identification and elimination. Key words: morphological productivity, availability / profitability, quantitative approach, vocabulary growth rate / curve, Italian verb-noun compounds Klíčová slova: morfologická produktivita, dostupnost / rentabilita, kvantitativní přístup, křivka / tempo nárůstu slovníku, italská verbonominální kompozita FFUK, Ústav románských studií nám. Jana Palacha 2, , Praha 1

4 Lexikografická synonyma, kookurenční profily a ekvivalentace německých abstrakt Marie Vachková (Praha) Lexicographic synonyms, co-occurrence profiles and corpus-based equivalencing of German abstracts The German word-formation system is highly organized and systematized. This fact enables the authors of monolingual dictionaries to easily construct formally uniform meaning explications (e. g., Verklärung is explicated by means of the lexicographic synonyms das Verklären, das Verklärtwerden, das Verklärtsein). This strategy represents a scientific standard in German works. However, bilingual lexicographers who work with monolingual German dictionaries as important sources know that this usage makes finding Czech equivalents harder. Functionequivalent translation can be achieved by using new corpus tools (Related Co-occurrence Profiles, Co-occurrence Analysis, Self-Organizing Maps, Semantic Proximity Models) which help to identify clusters and hierarchized German synonyms. Key words: lexicography, synonymy, tautology, word-formation, German Klíčová slova: lexikografie, synonymie, tautologie, slovotvorba, němčina FF UK, Ústav germánských studií nám. Jana Palacha 2, , Praha 1

5 Néanmoins a nicméně kontrastivní analýza konektorů v současné češtině a francouzštině Ondřej Pešek (České Budějovice) Néanmoins and nicméně contrastive analysis of connectives in present-day French and Czech Argumentative connectives are lexical items that participate in text structuration and mark the argumentative orientation of the sequences they connect. Their value in langue is constituted by a matrix of semantic, syntactic, textual and stylistic features. We hold that there is a difference between contrastive analysis in langue and equivalence in parole. The paper, which deals with the connectives néanmoins and nicméně, concerns only the comparison of values in langue. Both connectives belong to the paradigm of concessive connectives. Their etymology which is analysed in detail is similar; the hypothesis was that their value in French and in Czech would be analogical. This hypothesis was confirmed in many aspects although some differences are pointed out, mainly at the syntactic and semantic level. These differences are mostly due to the different structuration of the paradigm of concessive connectives in French and in Czech. Klíčová slova: kontrastivní lingvistika, textová lingvistika, konektory, nicméně, néanmoins Key words: contrastive linguistics, textual linguistics, connectives, nicméně, néanmoins Filozofická fakulta Jihočeské univerzity, Ústav romanistiky Na Mlýnské stoce 35, České Budějovice

6 Neúmyslná nezdvořilost českých mluvčích v angličtině. Interkulturní pragmatická studie Iva Vokurková (Hradec Králové) Unintended Impoliteness of Czech Speakers in English: A Cross-cultural Pragmatic Study. The paper compares verbal responses of Czech and native English speakers to 12 model situations and analyses them in terms of Brown-Levinson s politeness strategies (face-management theory). The survey aims to detect the pragmalinguistic features in Czech speakers English that can possibly lead to negative evaluation by English native speakers (i.e. can be seen as impolite). The results suggest that the Czech speakers failed to employ not only mitigation strategies in English, such as hedging, indirection and option-giving that seek to minimise the imposition conveyed by the FTA, but also intensification strategies that accentuate the illocutionary force of the FFA. The reasons that led to unintended impoliteness in non-native speakers included deficient pragmatic knowledge or generally poor English as well as different expectations about and evaluations of the given situations in English and Czech contexts. Such discrepancies are motivated by different cultural values and their hierarchies. Key words: face, politeness strategies, impoliteness, face-threatening act, face-flattering act Klíčová slova: tvář, zdvořilostní strategie, nezdvořilost, akt ohrožující tvář, akt lichotící tváři FF UK, Ústav anglického jazyka a didaktiky nám. Jana Palacha 2, , Praha 1

7 ROZHLEDY Skromný návrat albánštiny na evropskou scénu albánské slovníky pro češtinu Orkida Borshi (Praha) A modest return of Albanian on the European scene Albanian-Czech dictionaries Since 1989 there has been a revival of Albanian-Czech lexicography: at first in connection with humanitarian help in Kosovo and later for reasons of tourism in Albania. The article reports on dictionaries produced in this period and offers a detailed description of the latest and largest bilateral Albanian-Czech dictionary to date by Tomková and Monari (2007, Leda) and its importance for Albanian studies in the Czech Republic. Key words: Albanian-Czech lexicography, position of Albanian studies, Czech Republic Klíčová slova: albánsko-česká lexikografie, situace albanistiky, Česká republika FFUK, Jazykové centrum, Celetná 20, Praha 1