Law, Economics, History, Political Science, Linguistics, International Relations. Vol 2/2012

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1 Law, Economics, History, Political Science, Linguistics, International Relations Vol 2/2012

2 European Offroads of Social Science je recenzovaný odborný vědecký časopis. Časopis je preferenčně zaměřen na širší oblast témat sociálních věd. Preferována jsou zejména témata interdisciplinárního charakteru a témata s mezioborovým přesahem svého využití. Cíleně je také podporována publikační činnost mladých vědeckých pracovníků a odborných prací vytvořených v mezinárodní spolupráci. Všechny publikované vědecké práce jsou také veřejně dostupné na stránkách European Offroads of Social Science is a peer reviewed scientific journal aimed mainly at publishing social science papers either containing views of multiple branches of science or leading to an application within the realms of multiple areas of interest. We encourage young researchers into publishing with us and prefer papers based on international collaboration. All works published are also freely available on-line at Redakční rada časopisu: doc. JUDr. Zbyněk Švarc, Ph.D. Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze prof. JUDr. Martin Boháček, CSc. Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze prof. JUDr. Stanislava Černá, CSc. Právnická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy prof. JUDr. Richard Pomahač, CSc. Právnická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy doc. JUDr. Mikuláš Sabo, CSc. Ekonomická univerzita v Bratislavě doc. Ing. Hana Mikovcová, Ph.D. Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze prof. Ing. Ladislav Jakl, CSc. Metropolitní univerzita Praha doc. MUDr. Valér Džupa, CSc. Fakultní nemocnice Královské Vinohrady v Praze doc. MUDr. Václav Báča, Ph.D. Univerzita Karlova v Praze Šéfredaktor: Ing. David Leiss Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze

3 Obsah str. 4 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology str. 24 Doc. JUDr. Zbyněk Švarc, Ph.D. Právo WTO jako nástroj vyváženého rozvoje mezinárodních ekonomických vztahů str. 34 Dr. Ajay Kumar Singh and Mrs. Nidhi Kapoor Work Life Balance: An Empirical Analysis of Select Organizations

4 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh Ajman University of Science and Technology Abstract Depletion of the ozone layer, climate change and use of natural resources are key indicators of the global environmental changes. Measuring changes in the global environment and keeping track of these changes is an important first step in raising awareness and addressing issues of concern. The UAE is focusing on the environment and sustainability in all aspects of life in the seven Emirates. For example, Abu Dhabi s vision 2030 establishes a clear path for sustainability as a foundation for new developments within the Emirate. Dubai s strategic plan 2015 also adheres to international environmental standards and presents an overarching outline preserving the Emirate s resources and natural beauty. Furthermore, both major Emirates, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, have various environmental watchdog organizations that ensure these standards are upheld. Additionally, the UAE is promoting and awarding endowments to companies specialized in the environmental technology and services field and government contracts continually search for the appropriate provider of environmental technology and services for almost all national projects. This paper introduces the concept of environmental technologies and the potential role of UAE in promoting these technologies, whereas the messages of the paper could be summarized in the following points: Environmental degradation should be reduced Environmental technologies have a potential for it; they have been improved New environmental technologies a usually very costly at the beginning; but it is efficient to invest into it, it pays back. UAE is leader in promoting and introducing the modern environmental technologies, it will bring benefits to the other countries in the future. Chapter two of this paper intents to describe the major environmental problems, especially the global ones, which concern UAE, while chapter three brings definitions of the environmental technologies whereas chapter four sheds light on the top emerging environmental technologies and chapter five focuses on the environmental technologies in the UAE. Keywords Environmental technologies, Total quality environmental management (TQEM): Industrial ecosystems, Sustainable development, Red List Index (RLI) of Threatened Species 4

5 Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology 1 Introduction Industrial activities of the past half century have created serious ecological problems. The list includes global warming, ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity, natural resource scarcity, air pollution, acid rain, toxic wastes, and industrial accidents. These problems are expected to worsen in the next 50 years when the world population will double to 11 billion. There are many philosophies of environmentalismthat advocate different solutions to theseecological problems. One solutionthat has received positive support from many environmental camps is the concept of sustainable development (SD). Sustainable development involves control over population growth, providing worldwide foodsecurity, preserving ecosystem resources, and reorienting energy use and industry to ecologically sustainable directions. Sustainability means meeting our current needs without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet theirs. The demand for environment-related products is estimated to grow to about $200 billion peryear by the end of this decade (EPA, 1990). The Japanese government expects that nearly 40percent of world economic production by the middle of the twentyfirst century will come from energy- and environment-related products and technologies(gross, 1992; Miller and Moore, 1994; Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 1988). There are conflicting opinions on the competitive impacts of environmental regulations. Higher environmental standards can trigger innovation and upgrading of technologies, making companies more efficient. Environmental regulations and costs are alreadyshaping strategic decisions about sourcing rawmaterials, locating production facilities, managingenergy and wastes, in environmentally sensitiveindustries, such as chemicals, oil, forest products,metals, and mining. One strategic variable that fundamentally changes environmental impacts, risks, and costsof companies is the choice of technologies. Product and production technologies determine the basic parameters of costs and ecological impacts. They determine thetype of raw materials that can be used, production efficiencies, pollution emitted from productionprocesses, worker health and safety, public safety, and management of wastes. The UAE is focusing on the environment and sustainability in all aspects of life in the seven Emirates. For example, Abu Dhabi s vision 2030 (http://www.estidama.org) establishes a clear path for sustainability as a foundation for new developments within the Emirate. Dubai s strategic plan 2015 (http://www.uaetrade-usa.org) also adheres to international environmental standards and presents an overarching outline preserving the Emirate s resources and natural beauty. Furthermore, both major Emirates, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, have various environmental watchdog organizations that ensure these standards are upheld. Additionally, the UAE is promoting and awarding endowments to companies specialized in the environmental technology and services field and government contracts continually search for the appropriate provider of environmental technology and services for almost all national projects. This paper introduces the concept of environmental technologies and the potential role of UAE in promoting these technologies, whereas the messages of the paper could be summarized in the following points: Environmental degradation should be reduced Environmental technologies have a potential for it; they have been improved 5

6 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh New environmental technologies a usually very costly at the beginning; but it is efficient to invest into it, it pays back. UAE is leader in promoting and introducing the modern environmental technologies, it will bring benefits to the other countries in the future. Chapter two of this paper intents to describe the major environmental problems, especially the global ones, which concern UAE, while chapter three brings definitions of the environmental technologies whereas chapter four sheds light on the top emerging environmental technologies and chapter five focuses on the environmental technologies in the UAE. 2 Key Environmental Indicators Depletion of the ozone layer, climate change and use of natural resources are key indicators of the global environmental changes.measuring changes in the global environment and keeping track of these changes is an important first step in raising awareness and addressing issues of concern. Today we often need to measure and monitor before we can identify and manage problems. Many people argue that ecosystems and biodiversity are not being managed properly because they are undervalued, and therefore are not adequately reflected in economic systems and accounting mechanisms. 2.1 Depletion of the Ozone Layer The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has served as an effective instrument for protecting the stratospheric ozone layer. It provides an international framework for phasing out ozone-depleting substances (ODS), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The world consumption of ozone-depleting substances has decreased by almost 94% between (UNEP, 2011a). Globally, HFC emissions are currently growing at a rate of 8 percent per year. The use of HFCs could potentially wipe out all the climate benefits gained through phasing out CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances (UNEP, 2011a). 2.2 Climate Change Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are a major contributor to climate change. Per capita emissions of CO2 continue to be highest in North America, followed bywest Asia and Europe, and are lowest in Africa causing global warming. Global CO2 emissions are continuing to increase, reaching 32.1 billion metric tons in 2008, an increase of 2.4 percent compared withthe previous year and 42 percent compared with In the last decade the increase has been most significant in the Asia and the Pacific region. With increasing emissions, CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have gone from an estimated 280 ppm in pre-industrial times, and 315 ppm in 1958, to 390 ppm in 2011IEA (2011a). One of the clearest signals of global warming is the melting ofglaciers in several parts of the world. Between , the mountain glacier mass balance was decreased by 16m of water equivalent (WGMS,2008). The rapid,possibly accelerated, melting and retreat of glaciers has 6

7 Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology severeimpacts on water and energy supply, sea level fluctuations,vegetation patterns, economic livelihoods and the occurrence ofnatural disasters. Dramatic glacier shrinkage may lead to thedeglaciation of large areas of many mountain ranges by the endof this century. Fossil fuels such as oil, coal and gas continue to dominate global energy supply. Notwithstanding gains in energy efficiency and greater use of renewable energy sources, total use of fossil fuels currently makes up about 80 percent of the primary energy supply. 2.3 Natural Resource Use The depletion of natural resources continues in many ways andin many parts of the world. Water, land and biodiversity areunder great pressure almost everywhere. Exploitation of fishstocks is an example. It is estimated that thepercentage of overexploited, depleted or recovering stocks hasbeen increasing for many years, reaching 33 percent in 2008 tothe detriment of underexploited or moderately exploited stocks. By 2009, global aquacultureproduction had risen to 51 million tons while the global totalfish catch remained below 90 million tons. Aquaculture hassignificant benefits for many people and economies, but thereare disadvantages: among other impacts, large quantities ofwild-caught fish are used for feed, mangroves in coastal areasare lost when fish farms are created, and significant amounts ofchemicals and pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics) may beused and discharged to the environment. Pressures on marine and coastal ecosystems are further increased by progressive ocean acidification resulting from higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. As atmospheric CO2 increases, the oceans absorb more of it, increasing the partial pressure of CO2 and causing a decrease in ph. An increase in ocean acidification can have significant consequences on marine organisms, which may alter species composition, disrupt marine food webs and ecosystems, and potentially damage fishing.given these trends, the clock is ticking on the sustainability of global fish stocks and marine biodiversity. Although the overall rate of deforestation is slowing down, large forest areas are still declining, particularly in Latin America and Africa. However, the extent of marine protected areas remains low, with only 7 percent of coastal waters and 1.4 percent of oceans protected. New global targets have been set for the extent of protected areas. Governments agreed in 2010 to protect 17 percent of terrestrial and inlandwaters, and 10 percent of coastal and marine areas, by Biodiversity loss continues to be an issue of major concern, as indicated by the Red List Index (RLI) of Threatened Species. The Red List measures the risk of extinction ofspecies in seven classes, ranging from Least Concern to Extinct. The highest numberof threatened vertebrates is found in thetropical regions. Uncontrolled discharges of sewage to surface water have a directimpact on water quality. Levels of dissolved oxygen in surfacewaters are a good indicator of environmental conditions for aquaticlife. Eutrophication or nutrient over-enrichment may raise theconcentrations due to increased productivity from phytoplankton,while organic pollutants would increase oxygen demand and lowerthe concentration. Whereas the effects are often local,the cumulative impact on the quality of freshwater bodies is beingacknowledged as a major global concern. A country s total water footprint is the total volume of freshwater used to produce the goods and services consumed by that country s population. It may partially originate outside the 7

8 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh country. Apart from water use for human consumption ( blue water ), water is needed to sustain ecosystems and the services they provide to society ( green water ). The total water footprint has been increasing in many regionsthus putting pressure on water resources in the exporting regions. The main use of water is in the agricultural sector, followed by industry and households. The amount and number of chemicals and waste that end up in our environment are increasing. Plastic debris ending up in the ocean is of growing concern because of its possible chemical impacts. The production of plastics is a proxy for the amount of plastic debris that may eventually find its way to waterways and the ocean. Municipal waste collection is highest in Europe, with the amount having increased steadily toabout 552 million tons in Based on average figures for the period, in other regions the amount of waste collected is less(unep, 2011a).. To address the environmental threats, measuring the changes in global environment and tracking them raises the awareness and help in identifying the potential causes of environmental problems. The use of HFCs could destroy all the climate remuneration gained through gradual stopping of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances. Additionally, emissions of CO2are rising and causing global warming. Furthermore, water, land and biodiversity are facingtremendous pressure almost everywhere. Although the general rate of deforestation is decreasing, large forest areas are still waning whereas thequantity and number of chemicals and waste that wind up in our environment are growing. 3 Environmental Technologies Environmental technologies are defined as production equipment, methods and procedures, product designs, and product delivery mechanisms that conserve energy and natural resources, minimize environmental load of human activities, and protect the natural environment. They include both hardware, such as pollution control equipment, ecological measurement instrumentation, and cleaner production technologies. They also include operating methods, such as waste management practices (materials recycling, waste exchange), and conservation-oriented work arrangements (car pooling, flextime), used to conserve and enhance nature (Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 16, , 1995). Environmental technologies are evolving both as a set of techniques (technologies, equipment, operating procedures) and as a management orientation. As techniques they are used for pollution abatement, waste management, energy, water and material conservation, and for improving technological efficiency of production. Asa management orientation, environmental technologies have spawned environmentally responsible approaches towards product design, manufacturing, environmental management, technology choice, and design of industrial systems. Environmental technologies incorporate environmental considerations into many aspectsof business operations, and thereby affect the competitive landscape in most sectors of the economy. Asa source of new product ideas and material/energy conservation, such as solarheaters and electric cars, they can create and expand market demand. Asa source of productionprocess improvements, such as cleaner technologies and pollution control, they can change the production cost function within firms and industries. By making products and packaging more environmental friendly such as all-natural soaps or CFCfree air conditioners, they can enhance product quality and attractiveness. And by reducing waste, 8

9 Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology pollution, and hazards they can make firms more attractive to communities. The environmental problems addressed by these technologies are widespread; consequentlythese technologies have wide applicability across industries. Since environmental problems are likely to last a long time, environmental technologies will have sustained impacts. In the coming years we will see these technologies affecting the competitiveness of many industries and countries. In recognition of this important role of environmental technologies, countries such as Japan, Germany, Sweden, and Denmark are targeting them for rapid development. Environmental technologies are discussed in terms of five themes. These themes areconstructed to capture broad approaches to managing environmental problems. They are constituted of more specific environmental management techniques, such as product design, cleaner production, environmental auditing, costing, and impact assessment. The five environmental technology themes which are discussed in more details in the rest of this chapter are design for disassembly; manufacturing for the environment; total quality environmental management; industrial ecosystems and technology assessment (Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 16, , 1995). 3.1 Design for disassembly Increasing waste, depletion of natural resources, and limited landfill spaces are an important ecological problem. Waste also increases cost of production. In some products, such as used tires,95 percent of what is discarded as waste is usable energy. Similarly, discarded automobiles have many reusable components and materials. But they are simply scrapped because currently it is too expensive to recover them. Driven by these concerns, product designers have developed a new design philosophy popularly labeled design for disassembly. This approach seeks to build products that have a maximum useful life, and that are easy to disassemble and recycle. The objective is to maximize the use of materials in the form of products and recycled materials. This design philosophy is in stark contrast to past design approaches that sought planned obsolescence of products, functional redundancy, and overdesigning for aesthetic and product differentiation. Designers are using design for disassembly to develop many products, including automobiles,computers, home appliances, furniture, consumer electronics, and even prefab homes. Xerox Corporation pioneered in developing modular disassemblable products (copying machines). Since it leases (rather than sells) and takes back most of its products after customers have used them, efficient disassembly and refurbishment methods provide a source of cost reduction and competitive advantage to Xerox. BMW has innovated a fully recyclable automobile. It joined hands with major auto scrap yards in Germany to establish a comprehensive program for auto recycling and material recovery. With this significant competitive advantage, it is now lobbying the government to make auto recycling mandatory for all auto manufacturers. Different guidelines apply, depending on whether manual or mechanical separation is carried out. As a general rule, however, products with a low Material Removal Rate (MRR) less than 2.26kg/minute for plastics benefit from mechanical disassembly, whereas it is more economical to manually disassemble products with a high MMR (approx 4.5kg/minute)(Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 16, , 1995). 9

10 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh Manufacturing for the environment An important focus of environmental technologies is to improve the ecological performance of manufacturing processes. This is achieved by redesigning production systems to reduce environmental impacts, using cleaner technologies, using higher-efficiency production techniques, minimizing waste at source, and maximizing fuel and energy efficiency. In addition, regular preventive maintenance, industrial hygiene, and safe workingconditions enhance ecological and health conditions within organizations (United Nations Environment Program, 1993, UNESCO, 1992). The potential for designing manufacturing systems that are environmentally sound is illustrated by Ecover, a Belgian detergent manufacturer. Ecover has created what it calls the ecological factory. The entire factory is made from materials with low energy content which can be separated for recycling when the factory is dismantled. The factory uses alternative energy sources and practices strict energy conservation. It is energy self-supporting. It uses a closed water cycle operating on solar energy, without either a chimney or a waste water discharge pipe (UNESCO, 1992). The opportunity for making such dramatic improvements comes only with new buildingsand facilities. Converting old facilities to make them environmentally sound is the more commonplaceand also the more difficult and costly problem, and a significant focus of the manufacturing-for-the-environment approach. 3.3 Total quality environmental management Total quality environmental management (TQEM) combines and extends the above two ideas of environmentally oriented product design and manufacturing. TQEM applies a total systems perspective and quality management principles to environmental problems. Environmentally responsible vision includes ecocentric values and culture that seek harmonious organization-nature relations. In such a vision nature is not simply a source of expendableresources to be exploited. Instead, nature and organizations are part of a web of mutually interdependent entities. The health and long-term welfare of each depends on the other. Environmental vision is operationalized through concrete environmental missions, objectives, and policy statements. Organizational inputs include energy, rawmaterials, labor, and capital. TQEM seeks tomanage all these inputs in an ecologically soundmanner. It strives for energy conservation, use of renewable energy and materials, and renewal of natural resources. It establishes health- and safety-conscious human resource practices. It seeks ecologically sensible use of capital. Companies implement environmentally responsible input management through energy conservation programs,and waste reuse and recycling programs. They may switch to environmentally safer materials, and inventory management that avoids large quantities of hazardous materials. Throughputs include the production, storage, and transportation of goods and services. TQEMseeks ecologically efficient throughput systems. This is achieved by using cleaner productiontechnologies, pollution prevention, effluent control, and environmental risk management. Organizational outputs include products, packages, and wastes. TQEM seeks to developenvironment-friendly products and packages, and minimize waste by reducing total life cycle costsof products from cradle to grave. This involves new product/package designs, and integrated waste management using recycling, incineration, and land filling.

11 Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology TQEM prevents shifting environmental effects from one element to another. In line with the total quality management philosophy it encourages continuous improvement. 3.4 Industrial ecosystems Industrial ecosystems are a new innovation in designing interorganizational linkages. Theyconsist of a network of organizations linked to each other through an ecological logic. Organizations within the network use each other s wastes, byproducts, and outputs, to reduce the total use of energy and natural resources, and reduce the total waste and pollution from the system. Through interorganizational cooperation they collectively minimize their impacts on the environment. The idea is to mimic natural ecosystems in which several organisms live in mutual interdependence to create stable and life-sustaining ecosystems. In the United States several experiments are underway to create waste exchanges amongregional firms. A more elaborate form of industrial ecosystem is a group of companies in Kalundborg, Denmark. The coal-fired Asnaes power plant is the heart of the system. It is linked to an enzyme plant, a refinery, a chemical plant, a wallboard plant, a fishery, and some local farms. These plants use one another s wastes and byproducts as raw materials(allenby,1993). The power plant sells its used steam to the enzyme plant, the refinery, the fishery, and the city, instead of condensing and dumping it. The power plant sells its fly ash to a cement company, and its high-sulfur gas emissions to the chemical plant for making sulfuric acid. It removes pollutants from its smokestacks and sells the limestone-rich ash to the wallboard plant and cement plant, reducing the use of virgin gypsum. The refinery in turn supplies Asnaes with treated waste water for cooling and desulfurizednatural gas for fuel, saving 30,000 tons of coal a year. Local farms use wastes from the fishery and from the enzyme plant as fertilizer. This industrial ecosystem is an experimental prototype. It was costly to set up and needed new institutional mechanisms for interorganizational coordination (provided by the city of Kalundborg). At this early stage these considerations act as barriers for many companies to create such ecosystems and embrace environmental technologies more enthusiastically. But as experienceof industrial ecosystems accumulates (several are currently being developed), they are expectedto become more cost effective and competitive. They will then change the competitive dynamicsof industries within bioregions by leveraging ecological efficiencies for network firms. 3.5 Technology assessment A significant element of technology management is the selection of newtechnologiesand transfer of technologies across organizational divisions, across organizations, and across nations. Inchoosing and transferring technologies management is increasingly faced with issues of environmental appropriateness of technologies in their new locations. Environmental risks emanatingfrom a technology are a function of both attributes of the technology and attributes of its location. Technology assessment is an analytical toolused to understand the likely impact of the useof a new technology by an industry, region,country, or society. It examines costs and benefitsof the technology, its environmental impacts, itseffects on institutions, and its social and politicalimpacts. With respect to the environment itassesses environmental and health risks, impactsof specific projects and facilities, potential foreffluents, releases and hazardous wastes, andproduct life cycle 11

12 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh costs. Technology assessment originated as a policytool to aid governmental decision making, withregard to technology transfer, technology importpolicy, industrial licensing, environmental regulationsand monitoring, and environmental. Ithas now expanded into a valuable tool for makingbusiness portfolio decisions. In making strategicbusiness portfolio choices companies have traditionallyused market share and industry growthrate as key parameters. British Petroleum, for example, does technologyassessment using futures-scenario analysistechnique, to forecast which fuel/energy technologieswill be used in coming years. They use thisassessment to develop their product plans andinvestment programs. General Electric doestechnology assessment in specific countries tojudge the market potential for its technologies. By the end of this decade it expects 50 percentof its revenues to come from developing countries(particularly Mexico, China, and India)(Shrivastava and Hart, 1994). 4 Top Emerging Environmental Technologies Environmental technologies are taking long steps but inefficient energy policies, excessive useof resources, shortage of water, climate change, deforestation and pollution are just some of the issues that need to be dealt with in order to have a sustainable future. Activists and scientist are constantly innovating and coming up with feasible new ideas to address the problemsthe world is struggling against. In this chapter, the top 4 emerging technologies are introduced. 4.1 Biofiltration Biofiltration is a low-cost and highly effective air pollution control (APC) technology in which vapor-phase organic contaminants are passed through a bed of porous media and adsorb to the media surface where they are degraded by microorganisms in the media. 4.2 Bioremediation It is the use of microorganism metabolism to remove pollutants. Technologies can be generally classified as in situ or ex situ. In situ bioremediation involves treating the contaminated material at the site, while ex situ involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere. The bioreactor is the mostly used technology of bioremediation. 4.3 Renewable Energy: Solar Power It is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaics convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. For example, the global solar energy growth between 2006 was 5 Gigawatts while in 2011 it increased to almost 70 Gigawatts (IEA, 2011a). 12

13 Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology Wind Power Itis the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using: wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Fig. 1- Regional Distribution of wind power demand Reference Scenario, 2020 and 2030 (IEA, 2011a). The advancedglobal wind energy outlook scenario for 2020 indicates that the percentage of world electricity (Energy efficiency) would be 12.6% creating 2.21 million jobs and an annual CO2saving of 1,591 million tons, while the scenario for 2050 would increase the world electricity (Energy efficiency) to 29.5% and jobs increase to 2.98 million and an annual CO2saving reaching 5,453 million tons (IEA, 2011a). 13

14 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh Hydroelectricity It is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity consumption, and 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, which continues the rapid rate of increase experienced between 2003 and Biofuels They are type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price hikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support from government subsidies. The world biofuels production is estimated to increase from 29 billion gallons in 2011 to 65 billion gallons in 2021(IEA, 2011a). Global investment in renewable energy is growing sharply. As visible from Fig.2, it stood at $211 billion in 2010, more than five times the amount in While the overall share of renewable energy is currently just over 13 percent, there has been a spectacular increase in the use of solar and wind energy, as well as of biofuels, in recent years. Fig. 2 - Investment in renewable energy, (UNEP, 2011a). As observed from Fig. 3, although use of renewable energy is still modest compared to that of fossil fuels, at13 per cent in 2008, recent increases are significant. Use of solar energy, particularly photovoltaics, has grown exponentially over the last years. Global use of other forms of renewable energy also continue to increase, with the exception of energy generated from tide, waves and the ocean (IEA, 2010). 14

15 Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology Fig. 3 Renewable energy supply index (1990 = 100)(IEA 2010). 5 Environmental Technologies in UAE Massive investments in renewable energy projects will allow the UAE to maintain its leadership in this field in the region in 2011 despite mammoth projects planned by other Middle East countries. The UAE, which controls the world s fifth largest oil and gas deposits, has already been a regional leader in renewable energy and a global pioneer in undertaking such clean energy projects as Masdar City. There are three main factors that made UAE invest in renewable energy. The first one is to satisfy its needs of energy, which represent the corn stone of sustainable development. The second factor is calls for the need to deal more effectively with environment problems, work on decreasing greenhouse gases and facing environmental threats like climate change and global warming, which increase every day. The third factor is continuous increase in oil and gas prices and the expectations that its production costs will increase in the future with the decrease of renewable energy costs. Furthermore, this field provides new investment opportunities whether directly, by investing in this activity, or indirectly, through services and products required by this industry. Additionally, it provides job opportunities. Renewable energy is not a magical solution for all problems related to energy. Despite benefits of these alternatives, there are some difficulties in its usage, as it is not always available on demand, 15

16 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh because it is seasonal, it requires large initial investments and requires structural changes in energy infrastructure. However, renewable energy stills a strategic option to ensure future power supply, knowing that there are accelerated developments in this field and that researches and studies made a large decrease in its production costs, whether initial or operational costs. Global investment in renewable power and fuels increased 17% to a new record of $257 billion in Developing economies made up 35% of this total investment, compared to 65% for developed economies (Frankfurt School of Finance & Management ggmbh 2012). In the UAE, Abu Dhabi is pumping billions of dollars into developing renewable energy and lessening dependence on the oil income (www.middleeastelectricity.com). Despite there are huge oil and gas reserves enough to continue production with the current rates for more than a century, and the increase in oil and gas prices according to analyses, UAE believes in the necessity to work hard to find alternatives for traditional energy to be integrated with available sources to satisfy future needs for the country. All indicators refer to an increase in local demand on different energy sources in UAE, especially in electric power generation and water desalination as a result to expansion in infrastructure and industrial structures and other sectors. For example, Abu Dhabi seeks to better exploit available energy sources and resources, including Solar and Wind energy in the first place. The UAE has invested about 7 billion dollars in 2008 in clean energy projects and plans to increase its investments to 50 billion dollars by UAE also plans to increase the contribution of renewable energy sources to 7 percent to satisfy its energy needs by 2020 (Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, REN21). UAE has already started some projects to generate electrical power and desalinate sea water using renewable energy, such as (Umm Al Nar) plant in Abu Dhabi that represents a scientific and practical example for one of water desalination technologies using solar energy. It also announced the commencement of generating electrical power from the largest power generator using wind power in the Middle East, on Seer BaniYas island with a capacity of more than 850 KW/H. This power is currently used to supply island s utilities with electricity in addition to power supplied by national network. Additionally, Abu Dhabi announced launch of Zayed Future Energy Prize with an amount of 2.2 million dollars annually. The prize is presented to honor individuals, companies, institutions and non-governmental entities that make great contributions to develop sustainable innovations and solutions to meet current needs and future requirements of energy all over the world. 5.1 Renewable Energy Projects There are three essential factors that make countries invest in renewable energy. The first one is to satisfy their needs of energy, the second one calls for the need to deal efficiently with environment problems, work on decreasing greenhouse gases and facing environmental threats where renewable energy can satisfy the needs and decrease greenhouse gases at the same time. The third factor is the uninterrupted increase in oil and gas prices and the expectations that production costs will increase in the future with the decrease of renewable energy costs due to advancement of renewable energy production technology. As shown in Fig. 4, of the $3.37 billion UAE renewable projects market, Abu Dhabi s share is 86.1% while 13.9% is Dubai s share. 16

17 Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology Fig. 4 UAE renewable projects market (MEED Projects) Masdar s Renewable Energy Projects in Abu Dhabi The technology used by Masdar for these renewable energy projects in Abu Dhabi are photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP) and wind either onshore or offshore. SHAMS 1 It is the world s largest concentrated solar power (CSP) plant and first in the Middle East, located 120 Km southeast of Abu Dhabi (UAE) and extends over an area of 2.5km² with a capacity of 100MWel (Fig. 5). The solar field has 768 parabolic trough collectors with a total aperture of 627,000 m2with annual electricity generation of 210 GWh. Furthermore, almost 80% of the construction has been completed. Fig. 5 Shams 1 design (www.utilities-me.com). 17

18 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh Main Challenges of the Project The challenges facing this project include the difficult natural boundary conditions for this type of technology in Abu Dhabi; sandy soil which requires expensive site preparation; lack of water for wet cooling requiring the construction of an air cooled condenser; high dust deposition resulting in high cleaning frequency and no legislation in place when project was kicked off. Sir BaniYas Sir BaniYas is a natural Island located 250 km southwest of Abu Dhabi city. The first project is anonshore wind farm with capacity of 30 MW. Masdar has an agreement with TDIC to develop renewable energy projects on the island and promoting the island as a premier tourist destination while EPC contract negotiations are almost concluded. Noor 1 It is one of the world s largest photovoltaic plants, located east of Al Ain (UAE), extending over an area of 3km²with a capacity of 100MWel. The annual electricity generation is expected at 170 GWh. Masdar City Masdar City will host the headquarters of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The city is designed to be a hub for cleantech companies. Its first tenant is the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, which has been operating in the city since it moved into its campus in September The city as a whole was originally intended to be completed by 2016 but that date has now been pushed back to Masdar will employ a variety of renewable power resources. Among the first construction projects will be a 40 to 60 megawattsolar power plant, built by the German firm Conergy, which will supply power for all other construction activity. This will later be followed by a larger facility, and additional solar panels will be placed on rooftops to provide supplemental solar energy totaling 130 megawatts. Wind farms will be established outside the city s perimeter capable of producing up to 20 megawatts, and the city intends to utilize geothermal energy as well. In addition, Masdar plans to host the world s largest hydrogen power plant. Water management has been planned in an environmentally sound manner as well. A solarpowered desalination plant will be used to provide the city s water needs, which is stated to be 60 percent lower than similarly sized communities. Approximately 80 percent of the water used will be recycled and waste water will be reused as many times as possible, with this greywater being used for crop irrigation and other purposes. The city will also attempt to reduce waste to zero. Biological waste will be used to create nutrient-rich soil and fertilizer, and some may also be utilized through waste incineration as an additional power source. Industrial waste, such as plastics and metals, will be recycled or repurposed for other uses. 18

19 Potential Role of UAE in Promoting Environmental Technology Sheikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park The Dh12 billion solar park will generate 1,000 megawatts of power by 2030.Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) awarded a contract to ILF Consulting Engineers to provide consultancy services for the Arabian Gulf s largest solar park, which is to be built on a 48 km2 area (e-services.dewa.gov.ae). 5.2 Bee ah Bee ah is an Environmental Public Private Partnership Company (PPP), founded in 2007 andheadquartered in the Emirate of Sharjah. Bee ah was established in accordance with the UAE Lawof Commercial Companies (Federal law No.8 of 1984) and its amendments (Federal Law No.13 of1988 and No.4 of 1990).Bee ah has already started with the concern of waste, by investing over 300 million dirhams to date in tools and infrastructure to overcome the UAE s challenges. The company is the process of gearing up towards a 100% landfill diversion target set for the Emirate of Sharjah by the end of the first quarter of 2015 (www.beeah-uae.com) Bee ah Waste Management Complex Al Saj ah The Bee ah waste management complex is located off Al Dhaid Road in the Al Saj ah area of Sharjah. The waste management complex is home to some of the world s finest and largest waste recovery and recycling facilities.facilities at the waste management complex (WMC) include following six units: The Material Recovery Facility (MRF) The Bee ah MRF is a sorting plant that separates recyclable materials using state-of-theart technology, industry best practices. The MRF started operations in the first quarter of 2010 and currently operates one 8 hour shift receiving between 18,000 and 20,000 tons of MSW per month. It is the largest such facility in the Middle East and the third largest in the world. The Tyre Recycling Facility (TRF) There are currently more than 8 million tires stored at the WMC and there are about 2,500 new tires coming in daily. These tires consume valuable land space, act as a fire hazard, and when comingled with garbage, provide a habitat for mosquitoes, rats and other vermin. To curtail the adverse effects of sending tires to landfill, Bee ah built a state of the art cryogenic tyre recycling facility. In the cryogenic process, tires are cut using a shredder to sizes of around 50 mm. The shreds are then fed into a freezing chamber where the rubber is subjected to liquid nitrogen to make it as brittle as glass, and is then crushed into very fine particles by cracker mills. Steel and fibers are separated from the rubber using magnetic separators and are sold separately. The rubber can then be reduced to sizes varying between 0.6mm in size to 4mm and can be packaged into 4 required output sizes. The rubber produced, known as crumb rubber or 19

20 Prof. Dr. Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh groundrubber, is sold for use in many applications including: Cover in horse arenas / stables / racetracks Cover in playgrounds Infill in synthetic turf fields Blend in making roads A raw material to molded /extruded products The Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) Plant The CDW plant has a capacity to process 1,500 tons ofcdw per day. In Sharjah approximately 70,000 tonsa month of CDW is generated, around 40% of the CDWcomes to the CDW plant. The applications of this plant can be in road base, in cement kilns and as aggregate products. An Engineered Landfill Al Saj ah landfill is said to be one of the world s largest. The landfill is continually reshaped to increase the side-slope stability and for it to appear more visually appealing. Standard operating procedures including daily landfill cover, litter picking and processing materials at a quick pace, all reduce the negative environmental impacts of landfill. Landscaping of the landfill is an ongoing process in order to ensure the site is aesthetically acceptable. Oil Lagoons The process starts by discharging hydrocarbon-based water into the oil lagoon. Eventually the oil will fragment from the water and will be skimmed, collected and resold. The water will then be pumped into the water lagoon and pumped into the mobile tankers for dust suppression on site. This is a safe and efficient solution for the use of the grey water. The Compost Plant The Compost plant turns organic and vegetation waste into fertilizer and compost. Both these end-products are then processed and used for irrigation and farming, including the greening of Sharjah City s pavements and streets. 5.3 Solar Desalination The Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi built 22, small-scale solar desalination plants. The effort is part of a plan to construct a total of 30 such systems in remote parts of the country The systems use photovoltaic panels, which can transform sunlight into energy. The energy provides power for a pump that brings groundwater to the surface. The groundwater, which is too salty for consumption, is then pumped under pressure through a membrane, which removes the salt. This process, which is called reverse osmosis, is commonly 20

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