General Didactics. Tomáš Svatoš, Jana Doležalová

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1 General Didactics Tomáš Svatoš, Jana Doležalová

2 Authors: doc. PaedDr. Tomáš Svatoš, Ph.D., PhDr. Jana Doležalová, Ph.D. The text was created in the cooperation with: Bc. Lucie Hůlková Title: General Didactics Year and place of publication: 2014, Hradec Králové Publication: first Reviewed by: Mgr. Daniela Vrabcová, Ph.D. This publication is not for sale. Tento materiál byl vytvořen v rámci projektu Inovace studijních oborů na PdF UHK reg.č. CZ.1.07/2.2.00/

3 Background Information about the Subject Instructor: Contact: Number of Direct Training Hours: 26 hours Optimum Term to Teach the Subject: 3rd term Prerequisites: Pedagogical Propaedeutic is a prerequisite for this subject; and General Didactics is a prerequisite for Theories of Education. Rules for Communicating with the Instructor: Full-time study: Normal consultations (including electronic consultations) Part-time study: By , based on pre-agreed consultations with a check of individual papers and passing of an assessment test based on an application for consultation and assessment dates specified in the Faculty Information System (FIS). Introduction in the Subject (Summary) This discipline provides a communication- and skill-based cognition base in the first half of their teacher training. General Didactics is of a theoretical and application nature, providing information to learn the fundamentals of didactic thinking and verify its elements within their practice during seminars. Subject Objectives With its intent and concept, General Didactics is a follow-up to the previous subject of Pedagogical Propaedeutic. Its primary aim is to develop the professional pedagogical (teaching) thinking of student-teachers, understand the historical and comparative context and consider the immediate application within their teaching practice. Outline of the Subject See the Table of Contents Literature See Annex A Requirements for Completion Completed skill-based activities (see the practical section of each topic); successful passing of a didactic test. Vocabulary See Annex B

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 6 Chapter 1: HOW TO WRITE A SYLLABUS 14 Chapter 2: HOW TO COMMUNICATE 13 Chapter 3: HOW TO WORK WITH QUOTATIONS 13 Chapter 4: HOW TO MAKE MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATIONS 14 Chapter 5: HOW TO WORK WITH GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 8 Chapter 6: HOW TO WORK WITH CONTENT 11 Chapter 7: HOW TO PLAN A LESSON 14 Chapter 8: HOW TO PRACTICE A LESSON 14 Chapter 9: HOW TO EVALUATE A LESSON 17 Annex 1: Společenské vědy v kostce (Social Sciences in a Nutshell) - Extract 6 Annex 2: Polák, M. Pracovní podmínky učitelů a syndrom vyhoření (Working Conditions of Teachers and Burnout Syndrome) 5 Annex 3: Reception Form 2 Annex 4: Murphology 6 Annex 5: Classroom observation Report Form 2 Annex 6: Bloom s Taxonomy of Learning Domains Action Verbs 1 Annex 7: Block Plan Form 1 Annex 8: Observation Sheet DČU Annex 9: Observation Sheet ČOS - v2.0 3 Annex 10: Evaluation Questionnaire EDO OD Annex A: LIST OF REFERENCE SOURCES 6 Annex B: INDEX

5 1.1 Dear reader, INTRODUCTION As authors of this publication, we want to devote the first lines of this text to the motives behind its origin. With the production of a new (and not only written) work, authors usually strive to deliver something brand new invoking extraordinary interest in readers, viewers, the audience, the public. Authors of publications are not always successful in their intention to write it in a different way, and this is for a variety of reasons. It is not difficult to find the reasons why we write this in the introduction to this university textbook. We have also made resolutions that we will at last produce an educational text which will have its secured audience and readers. We have had the good intention to prepare certain didactic and communication topics for the seminar instruction designed for prospective teachers where theoretically specified content would take turns in an enviable symbiosis with applicability in practice. We have sought to push the challenging nature of this text even higher by the requirement that the overall style and diction of this textbook speak in a language that will on the one hand maintain a professional tone and be close to readers on the other. Now only those who will read this text through and make their own evaluation can judge to what extent we have managed to fulfil our initial intentions and resolutions. FOR WHOM IS THIS TEXT DESIGNED AND WHAT ARE ITS GOALS? This text is designed for moderately advanced prospective primary and secondary school teachers, for prospective educators, leisure time pedagogues or for prospective teachers at art schools. For all who have passed Pedagogical Propaedeutic and the basic communication training but who have not encountered subject preparation or subject didactics yet. They should be in the first half between a starting studentteacher and a student-teacher on a continuous practice. This textbook corresponds much more to the overall preparation of prospective teachers-educators at a given professional stage and its aims can be specified as follows: To guide students to an understanding of the development of pedagogical thinking, to the cognition of the influences which have formed the didactic reasoning now and during previous epochs; To develop system didactic reasoning, to focus on the cognition of the basic didactic procedures resulting in the fulfilment of educational objectives; To learn how to work with scientific literature and what to do with technical terms and seek the necessary relations; To guide students to couple the theoretical and practical part of the general didactic training and thus contribute to the creation of an educational style of teachers, educators, social workers; To reinforce the elementary didactic and communication skills and integrate them in the built professional structure of individuals. What exactly should a student know at the end of the didactic training using this study text? We expect that the communication and didactic training or the completion of General Didactics will create an opportunity for the development of professional training towards an understanding of the basic didactic procedures, terms and methodology, as

6 well as the conditions for many practical exercises and action application, especially in the seminar environment. Through application, students should be guided towards mastering and developing the following skills: to create meaningful and functional abstracts (syllabi) from scientific literature; they should be able to search important information in an educational text, sort it out, structure it and express it in brief and in their own way; to prepare and make a verbal communication with scientific content as a targeted seminar activity produced through elaborate training, search for appropriate forms of communication and the knowledge of one s self as a communicating being ; to understand the development of pedagogical thinking using an example of period documents, text samples, thoughts and quotations of authorities in pedagogy; to update them using a critical approach and determine their significance for the present period; to produce didactic teaching materials in practice which process scientific content and are integrated in fictitious planning of lessons and use electronic presentations; to understand the concept of educational objectives and their relation to the content as a product of didactic transformation of scientific content; to apply the knowledge about the creation of teacher s preparation (plan) into the form of an educational concept of lessons using Maňák s didactics system model. to simulate the professional conduct as a pedagogue within pre-planned teaching situations produced from the previous plan for the lessons and taking the form of micro-teaching sessions. to develop the previously initiated procedures of evaluation and selfreflection following teaching activities; to focus on the creation of an alternative communication and didactic conduct. Well, this is easy to write and also easy to read. However, it may be difficult to fulfil these expectations; it will take a long time and it definitely transcends the borders of General Didactics. This is why other disciplines are involved in the execution of the intentions and creation of the said skills, whether simultaneously or subsequently. The concept of communication and didactic training presented in this textbook is based on the search of a balance between theory and practice. Our intention (in particular at the level of application) was to give students specific examples of and suggestions for their micro-teaching performance in the seminar environment. To put it in a folk saying: We bring both grey theory and the option to graft it onto the green tree of life. WHAT TOPICS WILL THE READER ENCOUNTER? After a glance at the contents of this educational text, readers should not be surprised that they will encounter the content described above in particular chapters of this text. What else should we do to fulfil our theoretical objectives and practical skills than to provide the given curriculum in the chapters to follow. The first topic involves the work with an educational text and the skill to produce the syllabi necessary not only for the study needs. We must admit that many of us underestimate the work with literature and work more or less intuitively. This chapter will persuade you that reception of a scientific text is a sophisticated linguistic activity which can be acquired after we have learned and tried its basic

7 procedures. Effective work with literature constitutes the base for good acquisition of knowledge and is a precondition for effective learning in its broadest sense. The work with an educational text is followed by a chapter about scientific communication. It answers the following question: How to prepare for a scientific communication; what knowledge do we have to have about social and educational communication and about one s self as someone being in the role of a communicator? The quality of communication and the resulting communication effect are influenced by many factors, including those related purely to communication (whether verbal or nonverbal) up to the level of mental states or influences of the environment where one communicates. It is not off the point to say that the first two topics are closely related and that we have deliberately put them one after another. It is not only in our scientific practice that we are involved in many situations where we are to express our opinions and assume an attitude to a certain fact or statement. The third chapter gives an opportunity to train these situations using the samples of quotations of J. A. Komenský who was in many respects ahead of his time, and left his knowledge, contemplations and thoughts about an approach to humans in education, didactic reasoning of a teacher and the importance of the learner s role for education. We will see that it makes difference 'to read about Komenský' as compared to 'read Komenský'. The informal first part of the textbook is concluded by the issue of creating didactic means of instruction by using (how else nowadays) the electronic media. It contains the production of audiovisual presentations based on the knowledge of education with electronic support. We act rather intuitively in this area, too, which should be replaced by an exact approach. The second part of this text is more sophisticated, bringing a student to the knowledge which is much closer to the real school practice. To be able to perform other activities, we had to at first become familiar with the first four chapters. Chapters 5 and 6 deal with two terms which are crucial for pedagogy: teaching objectives and their content. We have many times heard that education is premeditated (purposive, intentional) and we must know what form the objectives can take and how to set them in practice. All of this will be explained not only in general but primarily using examples within the necessary co-existence with the other important term - content (curriculum, educational information). If the student and attentive reader reach the seventh chapter, he/she should be able to (given the necessary batch of optimism) analyse the theoretical knowledge about the production of a written teaching plan and produce it for the specific curriculum using examples. An understanding of the didactic system as specified by Josef Maňák in his work is the theoretical and methodical key to it. We consider Maňák s concept of instruction or instruction planning to be comprehensible, logical and most typical for normal lessons. If we have a teaching plan and if we have set our educational objectives and prepared specific scientific content of the curriculum with its individual stages supplemented with media presentations, all we have to do in the simulated (seminar) environment is to teach a part of the fictitious lesson by means of a micro-teaching session. What do we get? A lot: experience from transforming our plan into a real lesson; we check our communication and didactic predispositions in front of an audience ; we can live the role of a pedagogue and we will think and consider our teaching activities together with other participants.

8 And this is, after all, the topic of the last chapter of this textbook. The reader will be given an answer to the question of how to evaluate education, what methods should be used, and how to understand the terms reflection and self-reflection. Contemplations about a teaching plan and its subsequent implementation and other possible forms based on an analysis of actual behaviour are among the crucial teacher s activities and are also an attribute of advanced professionalism. So much for the individual chapters of this text. We believe that our readers have noticed that we have deliberately put the individual content units one after another according to their growing sophistication, with the escalating level of the developed skills and in good faith that they will be useful for students during this stage of their professional training. We should not forget mentioning the annexes which supplement certain topics, gather the terms used and guide towards corresponding scientific literature. MEANING OF THE ICONS IN THE TEXT How to work with this textbook or: the didactic system of the General Didactics for Student-Teachers. If you open any of the six thematic chapters, you will always see a very similar structure. For the spirit s enjoyment, each topic is opened with two quotations which not always have something to do with the chapter s content. But they can be used in the seminar instruction as indicated in the third topic. Each topic contains nine icons having their constant meaning and accompanying the reader from the first paragraph to the chapter s final lines. Since we believe that our text is didactical (what else we should believe in when teaching general didactics!), we have decided to furnish icons to each chapter to make navigation in the knowledge easier and to create a similar structure in the entire text. All of this enables (to the best of our belief) a fast passage through the sections of this teaching material which are attractive for readers and with whose content they need to become familiar. Objectives Objectives introduce each chapter and give an idea of its theoretical and practical intentions. Intensity of Acquisition This is expressed as efforts needed for the topic s acquisition at three levels: lowmiddle-high Situation Each topic is motivated by a problem situation which, following a description and explanation, draws to the questions whose answers are to be found in the next text. Basic Theory Perspective The fourth icon (the light of cognition ) opens a space for the so-called information panel based on great optimism that no one gets killed by some theory. Whether or not we are fond of theoretical cognition, we must admit its importance when looking for answers to our initial questions. The authors sought to present the necessary

9 knowledge in an easily digestible way, often rather schematically and using only certain scholarly sources. Practical Application Assignments, Activities, Skills This icon introduces the topic in the practical context and presents a practical solution in applications and examples. It would be inappropriate to speak about instructions for use for students but the given examples may be inspiring for the follow-up assignments related to independent student activities. Similarly to the previous application in examples, the seminar assignments take the form of the so-called micro-teaching. It might be sometimes necessary to search additional information in annexes provided at the end of the textbook. This closes the imaginary circle started with the lack of knowledge and ended with the knowledge and practical skill to solve problems and issues related to the given topic. Terms to Remember (Key Words) When woken up at midnight with the question When does science become science?, we will apparently answer: If it has its subject matter of research, methodology and terms. This is why each chapter contains this icon ( smart words ) with the terms having a closer or more distant relation to the discussed topic. All invented terms can also be found in annexes. When taking a closer view, we can see that it is a mixture of purely scientific terms and those we know from a more general perspective. We do not want to give any advice but we know from our experience that a student having a tactic can confuse even an erudite pedagogue by amazing him/her by many terms which can disguise an occasional lack of knowledge. Issues for Thought The authors admit that the compound Review Questions or Knowledge Checking Questions is not a popular form of communication. This is why they have preferred to dub this section in each chapter as 'Questions for Thought'. Their meaning is to give feedback on the curriculum acquired, create the necessary relations at the topic s theoretical level and sometimes create space for personal opinions and attitudes. Summary The summary given at the end of each chapter has two forms. It primarily contains a condensation of the most important knowledge contained in each chapter (a sort of a content abstract of the main knowledge and ideas). To be honest: this summary is not enough for the complete acquisition of the curriculum; it rather recapitulates than teaches. The summary also contains a so-called Crib Good Advice Is Better Than Gold. You can see from its very heading that it gives a rather informal and detached view. Its aim is to collaborate with students in a tolerable way and view the discussed topic through pragmatic eyes by using good advice that is better than gold. It is not advice in the true or other sense of the word but they are rather observations resulting from many

10 years of teaching practice which could 'be handy' or at least guide students to thoughts about them. Literature When presenting available theory, we usually use only some of the literary sources offered and we must admit that it was sometimes intentional. If students are so keen on acquiring additional knowledge that they could not sleep at night, they can resort to other sources of information contained in the annex part of this textbook. And how to conclude this introduction? Best with a wish that your investment into this textbook proves (at least to an adequate extent) to be meaningful over time and that it helps, in its own way, to your future transformation from the role of a student-teacher into a well-trained starting pedagogue. Best wishes with optimism on the keyboard and in our mind from Tomáš Svatoš and Jana Doležalová

11 T. Svatoš, Chapter 1: How to Write a Syllabus CHAPTER 1: HOW TO WRITE A SYLLABUS Law of geometry in household: Any horizontal surface is soon piled up Murphy s Laws Theoreticians, use a correction pen when writing! M. Holub Objectives The purpose of the first chapter is to give students the first aid if they face the task of working with scientific reference sources (writing a seminar paper, a reflection essay, an essay; getting prepared for an exam, etc.). This involves all the situations when one has to identify the necessary information, understand and remember it. With regard to the skills acquired, the student will be able to, after studying this chapter, understand the characteristics of an educational text; distinguish the characteristics of individual stages of the so-called reception and understand their meaning; analyse a text using the most frequent reception procedures; apply reception on a scientific educational text using the examples provided. Intensity of Acquisition Middle intensity - to understand educational theory and to verify it in skillbased practice. Situation I have recently met a second-year student in the university s corridor and seen him having difficulties to force his way through a crowd of students. I remembered him from the year-earlier educational propaedeutic seminars, as well as his name, Mr Light. He really stuck out of the crowd, especially for carrying incredibly many books borrowed from the university library in his rucksack, in both hands, as well as in a plastic bag from a well-known supermarket. In other words: he was no credit to his surname at all We had a short chat and I was told that he was soon going to an exam and that he must read all of this, make notes, get it into his head and that he had terribly little time to do that. In the end, he surprised me by a sudden, yet logical question whether I did not know how to make well-arranged, quick and rational excerpts (theses, syllabi) from these piles of books. I think this is not only a 1

12 difficult case for our colleague, Mr Light, but that other colleagues having a similar handicap would also welcome effective help. I have not abandoned this thought and buried myself in the available literature. I was greatly inspired by a text by P. Gavory (1992) which offered an answer to the basic question: How do we learn from an educational text? Basic Theory Perspective 1.1 RECEPTION OF AN EDUCATIONAL TEXT Literature around us offers many distinct genres to cover a reader s appetite, ranging from novels for girls (but what about us - boys?!) to horror stories or mystery sci-fi works. In this range, the so-called educational texts are a highly specific group of information sources which are endowed with some specific characteristics, different from the common fiction. Basically, they are distinguished by pre-set intentions whose aim is to help human development and learning. They primarily include the following intentions: They didactically depict the scientific knowledge through curricula (the wise heads bequeathed some scientific knowledge that we must be given in a 'modified' form, i.e. after a psycho-didactic transformation to put it in professional words, in order to be understood); They lead to exercises, repetitions, systematisation... (each educational text has its basic mission determining the prevailing didactic procedures to be employed, which should be apparent after reading the first few pages of the text, but...); They are a means to self-education and self-control (which indicates an ideal situation where a keen reader, avid for knowledge, takes, on his/her own will, without being threatened by corporal or other punishments and in a sober state, a textbook in his/her hand and reads and hangs on every word We must admit that we usually achieve the state of 'self-education' through development and intentional work on one s self ; They affect attitudes, motives, interests (by coming into contact with the author s thoughts, we develop an attitude to the curriculum and its presentation, which is true not only about educational texts). As a result, we are interested in the given issue - problem - author, and we want to read other similar texts, or we condemn the entire work and its author forever and erase it from history. How do we learn from an educational text ( reception )? By text reception, we mean reception and internal analysis of information 2

13 (not only reading) within the meaning of its internal acquisition. We will better understand the reception procedure if we split this definition into three basic gradual steps that we make on each occasion when we encounter a textbook or university textbook: At first, we perceive the educational text; then we try to understand it, and finally we strive to remember it. To do all of this, we must spare no effort and also fulfil certain conditions: There must be motivation (whether supplied from the outside or from one s own sources); efforts to achieve the set goal; we should get stimulating encouragement and necessary feedback about the quality' of our reception, and last, but not least, we should be learning under such conditions which are pleasant and deep-rooted for us. (I know students who study in the morning while others study only at night. Some need deathly silence while others listen to their pop beloved with earphones on; some must walk while others absorb the text information in the position of a lying shooter, not to speak about the supply of food and drinks It must be noted that however individual these stereotypes may be, they are necessary and deepen reception as a whole. Now let us briefly comment on the individual reception stages indicated above: TEXT PERCEPTION Within this activity, we distinguish and perceive individual graphical text elements (letters, words, gaps) while assigning meanings to them. The very name will tell us that this involves both sensory reception of the text (eye movements, fixations and saccades), and perception of the content (graphic aspects) of the text. Fixation means a situation where we intentionally stop at a certain element (a compound, a part of a sentence, etc.) which we believe to be important; saccade means that we get back to certain information, as we either did not understand it or again regard it as important. If we perceive a certain text, its content is normally passed to operational memory where we keep about seven words or text and graphic elements for a short period of time. At the same time, we create conditions for long-term remembering (e.g. by highlighting the text with a marker pen, underlining the text or indicating the first interrelations). However, text perception need not necessarily result in successful internalisation. We can sometimes face difficulties due to an improper size of the text or its vague graphic form or due to an inadequate style of the author who speaks with us and guides us throughout the entire work. Nonetheless, this phase is decisive for understanding the text in its detail and as a whole. TEXT UNDERSTANDING We have spoken about three stages of reception: perception understanding remembering. However, we cannot say that someone studying educational 3

14 texts must necessarily undergo all of these stages. For some students (which is true for both sexes), it is enough to perceive a text and remember it without actually understanding (comprehending) it. Logically enough, the quality of the knowledge retained and later retrieved is directly proportional to this way. It is similarly useless to note that we should always strive to understand what we are reading and what we want to remember. (Some students have been given fitting nicknames for their extraordinary ability to remember a great amount of data without their internal understanding, such as a crammer, a swot, a digital /apparently due to their image memory/, a fount, a genius, a disc, and the like). The issue of understanding a text is nothing new in education or psychology. As it has emerged again and again, we could see that comprehension (understanding) is tied to the intellectual faculties of a reader and the related skills. In expert words, it involves a sophisticated psycholinguistic activity with three types of connections: The phenomena of objective reality are connected with the text elements expressing these phenomena (the author gives names to the things around us by using text and graphic information). The individual text elements are interconnected (we seek the context of individual information and ask about their relations and importance). The text elements are connected with the elements of the recipient s knowledge structure (which is apparently the most important thing): We seek relations between what we already know and the new knowledge while supplementing and enriching the current knowledge structure, as well as re-arranging it and 'shaping' it according to our own notions). Specific procedures resulting in the understanding of an educational text: Procedures of text understanding: Text analysis We distinguish a mechanical way of text analysis guided by superficial efforts to understand the text information and based on the repeated reading of the text and the prevailing memory-burdening mechanical learning. On the contrary, the non-mechanical way is accompanied by efforts to penetrate into the essence of the text content, give names to its dominants and relations and generate a new, one's own and individual form. Arrangement of information The arrangement of knowledge is one of the common activities of the recipient. The meaning behind the arrangement of information is to understand individual words and seek relations within sentences or sentence units, as well as relations between sentences, chapters or thematic units. Selection of information 4

15 If we study an educational text, we either intuitively or intentionally consider the weight of individual information and its positioning within the system of the cognised curriculum. To make a knowledge selection by its importance, we can use the classification according to Brown (in Gavora, 1992) who gives the following typology: Thematic sentences (crucial, most essential and summarising information); Trivial information (common and detailing knowledge); Redundant information (redundant or insignificant). Paradoxically enough, we usually remember information in the opposite sequence (we often recall a colour or details of military uniforms of warriors while we can have problems remembering who fought whom and we must strain every nerve to answer the question What was the cause of the war conflict and what were the consequences for both sides?. Text condensation Text condensation is the most sophisticated procedure of understanding an educational text. Following perception, content analysis, arrangement and selection of information, text condensation results in the verbal reduction of the text, i.e. text condensation by the pupil/student, generally taking the form of one-sentence generalisation or integration in two or several sentences. In other words: We have read a part of an educational text; we have perceived its text and graphic component; we have understood its content and in the end, we have created our own summarising (condensed) text in which we have expressed the very essence of the text using our own means of communication (speech) in one or several sentences. The condensed text is assumed to become our permanent 'asset' because its content 'has passed through us = it has been internalised, and it has been expressed through our own lingual means (we have become new authors of the summarising knowledge). REMEMBERING THE TEXT Generally, this is a process of imprinting information into memory and intentional retrieval thereof. Though this definition may seem simple, the entire issue is highly problematic and it is for other, much more erudite authors to deal with it. This is why we will not get into detail about the issue of remembering and will give only a few observations that are important from our point of view. It is well-known that short-term memory has a simpler structure than long-term memory, but long-term memory is much more important in terms of its meaning. It is because it involves an interaction of the previous and new knowledge that is further analysed and changed into new and better-organised learning units. How to better remember an educational text (examples)? o If we put the information (knowledge) into a certain context, a specific 5

16 situation; o o If we try to develop a logical and well-arranged knowledge structure; If we highlight various text information by importance and contexts. How can we endanger our ability to remember an educational text (examples)? o If we strive to retain excessive amounts of information and overburden our short-term memory; o If we make inappropriate individual selection of information; o If we structure information and information units in an inappropriate and illogical way. Summary: Consequences of the theory of reception for making excerpts from textbooks If we are to make a greater amount of excerpts from the rich literature we have available, we must believe that we can do it and that 'reception' makes sense (and not only for the single purpose of an upcoming exam). First of all, we must make a primary selection of representative titles which are well-arranged and close to our heart. In each publication, we must at first get familiar with the content and structure of the work. Then we must choose core chapters and issue themes that we regard as necessary to embrace the problem area the theme. We then read each selected chapter and strive to be active in our reception of the curriculum (subject matter) learned. Afterwards, we can see how the author arranged individual information; we highlight such information by importance (thematic sentences, trivial and redundant information) and make an attempt to generate our own content summary in a condensed text. In the end, we strive to find a relation between the curriculum we have previously acquired and the new knowledge, even at the cost of re-assessing all of its meaning. 1.2 EXAMPLES OF RECEPTION It is time (it is the highest time for some impatient readers) to verify and test the previous brief theory of working with an educational text on practical examples. Firstly, we will test the necessary skills on a classical text from a textbook for secondary schools. The second example involves an attempt to make a syllabus of a scientific article in a magazine that can later serve as the base for an oral communication (for instance, we will present it during a seminar of an educational discipline). Example 1 ASSIGNMENT: Annex 1 contains a part of the following educational text: HLADÍK, J. Společenské vědy v 6

17 kostce (Social Sciences in a Nutshell). Pro střední školy. Havlíčkův Brod: Fragment, 1996, p , ISBN Specifically, there is a chapter Leading Figures in the Modern Czech Philosophical Thinking ( Významné osobnosti českého novodobého filozofického myšlení ). We will use this text to test the application of the basic and detailed reception procedures in accordance with the structure below: BASIC RECEPTION ASSIGNMENTS ACTIVITIES: a) characterise the mission of this publication and the nature of the communicated curriculum as a whole; b) specify the basic didactic functions which the selected text is set to perform (approximation of new information, exercising, repetition, systematisation, etc.); c) indicate the means of self-education and self-control which may arise as a result of the study of the selected text passage; d) provide your relation to the communicated content (attitudes aroused, motives for further study of a similar theme, interest or lack of interest in its representatives, etc.). DETAILED RECEPTION ASSIGNMENTS ACTIVITIES: e) give your opinion on the curriculum contained in the selected part of the chapter after the first text perception (as a whole) f) analyse the curriculum in the selected part of the chapter (what scientific knowledge is rendered in the didactic form?); g) give examples of passages and their mutual relations (specific most essential information and knowledge); h) specify the criteria used by the author to arrange information one piece after another in the specific curriculum; i) Examples of selection of information: give specific examples of thematic sentences from any part of the text, j) Examples of selection of information: Give specific examples of trivial information from any part of the text; k) Examples of selection of information: Give specific examples of redundant information from any part of the text; l) indicate the means of self-education and self-control which may arise as a result of the study of the selected text passage; m) make a summary of the given passage in the form of text condensation by integrating it into one sentence and condensing it into more sentences; n) And finally, indicate the procedures that can result in the long-term remembering of the text and its permanent fixation. 7

18 SOLUTION: BASIC RECEPTION ASSIGNMENTS ACTIVITIES: a) Publication s characteristics and nature of the communicated curriculum The educational text that is subject to our assessment is an example of a publication bringing the essential knowledge from a range of disciplines into brief chapters. They specifically include the fundamentals of psychology, sociology, ethics, and philosophy, including an outline of the development of philosophical thinking and reasoning about some fundamental issues of this science; the author adds knowledge from economics, theories about law and the state, and the final passages are devoted to the fundamentals of informal logic. The purpose of the text is apparently to summarise and systematise the basic knowledge in the form of a curriculum and to give the reader a deeper insight into and an overview of the disciplines mentioned above. This publication could be useful for secondary school students (and not only for them) who need to acquire the basic knowledge about particular sciences but do not want to be very much concerned with details. The lack of mutual connections and relations between particular chapters is a certain drawback of this publication as a whole. This fact poses a risk of isolation of the knowledge acquired. b) Basic didactic function of an educational text Taking a linguistic and didactic view, the textbook subject to assessment is based on the approximation of new information, in particular in the form of short, apt or even schematic sentences that normally contain the crucial terms and the terminology applied in the given science. In addition to raising the profile of new knowledge, the publication aims at systemising and sorting the curriculum. On the other hand, the text subject to assessment does not provide any space for exercises or intentional repetition. c) Means of self-education and self-control The study of this educational text provides more or less indirect means and inspiration for further education and self-control. As an example, we can use the final overview of terms that we do not have to know in the full extent, but a reference to the respective page will show us the way to a specific passage where this term is explained. The frequently quoted works by the characterised authorities (books, essays) can be an inspiration for additional studies, offering not only the primary information to be acquired, but also a source for becoming familiar with the reasoning and the literary style of the persons described in the text subject to assessment. d) Relationship to the communicated content As a whole, the publication subject to analysis seems to be nice, both in terms of its content and its well-arranged graphical layout. Its power 8

19 is in the good arrangement of the text, coloured highlighting of essential information, as well as in the black-and-white drawings of the personalities who are described in each chapter. A further study of similar topics (as we have already said) can be fuelled by the interest to read and become familiar with the original works of these authors. However, the order of individual chapters gives rather a negative impression. We believe that there should be a different order (e.g. the knowledge about ethics should be provided closer to the knowledge from sociology and psychology). DETAILED RECEPTION ASSIGNMENTS ACTIVITIES: e) Nature of the curriculum contained in the selected chapter - after the first text perception It is a brief or even schematic search for the answer to the following question: Which modern Czech philosophers have had an impact on our recent development of philosophical thinking and what is their relation to the European developments? The text is written in two columns, with the names of individual representatives and their works being highlighted in a well-arranged manner. The text covers two and half pages printed in an adequate font (Times) and font size. The text contains one drawing (B. Bolzano); the other authors are not depicted. f) Analysis of the curriculum contained in the selected part of the chapter The individual representatives of philosophical thinking (B. Bolzano, A. Smetana, T. G. Masaryk, E. Rádl and J. Patočka, etc.) are partly characterised by their biographies, partly by their philosophical orientation, publications and also by their relation to certain philosophical concepts and their representatives. The focus was primarily set on the issues of objective scientific cognition, the origin and functioning of the world and the human society, the position of the Czech issue in the national history and in the international context, the relation between the religion and the society, the crisis factors of humanity, the humanitarian issue, and the relations within philosophy of history and their varied interpretations. Formally, the text depicts the period from the beginning of the 18 th century to the modern times. g) Examples of passages and their mutual relations Emanuel Rádl is characterised as a philosopher having an opinion that philosophy should not be a mere systematic theoretical science, but a space where provoking human questions are asked and where the so-called transpersonal truth is sought in an empirical way. His work and thoughts were subsequently followed by the Czech philosopher Jan Patočka The idea behind Patočka s philosophy of the natural world of humans and nature drew on Husserl s and Hegel s phenomenology In his work, he explained Bolzano s place in the history of philosophy and the philosophical 9

20 importance of this authority for the next generations h) Please name the criteria which the author used to arrange the information in the specific curriculum The temporal (chronological) aspect was the main criterion used by the author to arrange the knowledge units. In the particular units, he continued over the biographical line of individual representatives and the final parts were devoted to wider importance of the given personality or his relation to another representative. i) Examples of selection of information: Specific examples of thematic sentences: Bolzano strove for exact and objective cognition which will become a source of mastering the nature and subsequently of societal transformation... Masaryk s activities were a combination of the historicising view of the Czech society and a strong social and political engagement at his time j) Examples of selection of information: Specific examples of trivial information: Bolzano was not Czech, but his life and work were marked by the Czech environment Smetana said that the human spirit is developing simultaneously with the development of nature, but has its own genesis and history Patočka had to leave university twice: For the first time in 1949 and then in 1972 k) Examples of selection of information: Specific examples of redundant information: In December 1819, Bolzano was reprimanded by the emperor Smetana left the church in Patočka made Husserl hold a lecture in Prague l) Means of self-education and self-control Indirectly interest in the work and publication activities of the characterised authorities; Directly clarification and further elaboration of concepts and terms. m) Summary of the given passage through text condensation: Through integration into one sentence: The content of this section of the educational text provides a characteristic of major modern Czech philosophers from the viewpoint of their life fates, philosophical thoughts, works, and also their relation to the local development of philosophical thinking and European developments. Through condensation into sentences: 10

21 The content of this part of the educational text provides a characteristic of five major modern Czech philosophers living from the 18 th to the 20 th century. The author describes their life fates, philosophical approaches, published works, as well as their relation to the local development of philosophical thinking and in the European context. B. Bolzano was, among other things, famous for his efforts to make philosophical considerations scientific using logical and mathematical procedures. A. Smetana developed from an orthodox believer to an atheist, which was reflected in his conception of the natural development (of the world, of the nature, of humans, of the spirit) towards the goals of humanitarian human ideals. T. G. Masaryk and his philosophical and socially engaged activities was indisputably the greatest personality characterised in the text. He was in particular famous for his efforts to demythologise the Czech issue and rid it of half-truths and develop an objective view of the human s position in the current society on the basis of undisputable moral qualities and humanity. Masaryk had an influence on many, including Emanuel Rádl. In the interwar period, Rádl was mostly concerned with the history of philosophy, the relation between science and theology and the search for transpersonal truth. His work was continued by the current philosopher Jan Patočka. As a result of his strong moral principles and opinions, he had a moved fate. His ideas were inspired by phenomenology (Hegel and Husserl); he often took a historicising view on the development of philosophy here and abroad. He was engaged in various activities as a citizen and became one of the leading representatives of the Charter 77. n) Procedures resulting in long-term remembering of the text application of a good selection of information based on multiple perception and understanding; visual fixation of important information in the text by the author of the highlighted passage; visual fixation of important information in the text own underlining or highlighting; seeking connections between what we already know about T. G. Masaryk or Jan Patočka. Example 2 (Less Strenuous and Less Extensive) ASSIGNMENT: Annex 2 contains an article from a specialised educational periodical: POLÁK, M. Pracovní podmínky učitelů a syndrom vyhoření (Working Conditions of Teachers and Burnout Syndrome). Pedagogická orientace 2004, No. 1, pp We will use this text to repeat (in an abbreviated version to please you) the development of some detailed reception procedures as we have in detail done in the first example. 11

22 Analysis of knowledge in selected journal communication In his text, the author contemplates the strenuousness of the teaching profession and the risk factors which could weaken one s health in the role of a teacher educator. This communication is empirical and theoretical. Its content is primarily centred on the burnout syndrome that is one of the most dangerous manifestations of the weakening of a teacher s mental powers. The research part draws on the course and results of a questionnaire-based survey which the author repeatedly applied on a part of the teaching population. The received text is supplemented with four tables illustrating the described topic. At the end, it contains a list of some reference sources relating to the described issue. Formally, the study of knowledge is available even to a less privy reader. Criteria which the author used to arrange the information When outlining the issue of the burnout effect, the author applied a logical order. At first, he considered the working conditions in the school system in general and stated major reserves which can result in the burnout syndrome. In the empirical part, the author provides information about his many years research among Czech teachers aimed at monitoring the trends in the mental and physical exhaustion of respondents over a longer period of time. M. Polák presents his results both verbally and in tables. Based on the disturbing results, he made an attempt in the last part to name the circumstances which, if changed, could reduce the mental and physical burden of teachers. Examples of the most important specific information (thematic sentences in the text): The working conditions of teachers and educators are among the particular issues which the competent bodies have virtually absolutely neglected so far... An analysis of educational programmes and Czech language lessons at primary schools have shown serious deficiencies that were negatively reflected in the teachers work and that are among the reasons for the burnout syndrome Summary of the communication text condensation Through integration into one sentence: The article contemplates the mental and physical burden of teachers nowadays, which is supplemented by the not very encouraging results of many years of research and by indication of a solution. Through condensation into sentences: This specialised article contains a contemplation about the strenuousness of the teaching profession and the risk factors which could weaken one s health in the role of a teacher educator. This communication is empirical and theoretical. The content is primarily centred on the 'burnout syndrome', which is one of the 12

23 most dangerous manifestations of weakened mental powers of a teacher who for many years performs his/her profession in the conditions that are largely neglected by the state administration or school authorities. As for the knowledge provided, the second part of the communication contains the richest material, describing the methods applied in and the results of an empirical investigation (in the period ) focusing on the identification of the burnout effect on a sample of almost 220 active teachers (in the Moravian-Silesian Region and in the Olomouc Region) teaching the Czech language at primary schools. The attached tables clearly show that the burnout phenomenon exists and is a permanent phenomenon in the personality of teachers active over a longer period of time and is reflected in their everyday educational work. Some of the many causes include the absence of recognition and appreciation and wrong appreciation by supervisors. The question And what shall we do about it? is answered with proposals for general improvement of working conditions, accelerated introduction of motivating procedures at schools (career growth) and reduction of the workload by, for instance, introducing teacher assistants. Practical Application Assignments, Activities, Skills Now the textbook will change into a workbook where you will try to write down the results of certain reception activities as mentioned in the next text. Allow me to note that it should best be a journal article whose syllabus (abstract, conspectus) can be handy for an oral communication later on (for instance, you can present it during an educational discipline seminar). ASSIGNMENT: Choose a specialised article from an available educational periodical (at your own discretion) and apply the following reception procedures: Author: Article: Magazine (Year):, No., pp. -, ISBN Analysis of knowledge in selected journal communication 13

24 Criteria which the author used to arrange the information Examples of the most important specific information (thematic sentences in the text): Summary of the communication text condensation through integration into one sentence: Through condensation into more sentences: Terms to Remember (Key Words) 14

25 Educational text analysis, long-term memory, fixation, educational text parameters, text condensation, short-term memory, psycholinguistic view, reception, redundant information, saccade, selection of information, syllabus, thematic sentence, trivial information, perception Issues for Thought o We have introduced two important terms for reception: fixation and saccade. Please use your own words to explain their meaning and think whether there is any relation between them. o Please describe your own way of working with an educational text if you are to make a syllabus (abstract) from specialised scientific literature. o Please consider: why is it natural to remember rather redundant information than the essential and important information? Do the mental characteristics of certain people play any role? o Prof. J. Mistrík says in one of his books about rhetoric that for a normal reader, it is sufficient to read the first chapter to know straight what kind of a demanding text he/she faces. Do you share this view? If not, say why. Summary If we are to make a greater amount of excerpts from the rich literature we have available, we must believe that we can do it and that 'reception' makes sense (and not only for the single purpose of an upcoming exam). First of all, we must make a primary selection of representative titles which are well-arranged and close to our heart. In each publication, we must at first get familiar with the content and structure of the work. Then we must choose core chapters and issue themes that we regard as necessary to embrace the problem area the theme. We then read each selected chapter and strive to be active in our reception of the curriculum learned. Then we see how the author arranged individual information; we highlight such information by importance (thematic sentences, trivial and redundant information) and make an attempt to generate our own content summary in a condensed text. In the end, we strive to find a relation between the curriculum we have previously acquired and the new knowledge, even at the cost of re-assessing all of its meaning. Crib (Good Advice Is Better Than Gold) If we find ourselves in an awkward situation where we need to 'pore over heaps of books', let us basically do three things: Do not hand in the credit book to the study department right away, avoid panic, and believe that you can do it. 15

26 You can achieve this goal by making a rational selection of the must-see publications. Each book has useful sections which are handy to make the first acquaintance with the text. For instance, we will always appreciate a brief outline on the jacket flap or on the last cover page. A structured content is also useful. We should also pay greater attention to the opening chapter (or better to say, to the foreword), as well as to the final glances of the author at the work that is about to end. These sections usually provide characteristics of what the text about, and look back upon the entire author s efforts. And finally, an index of terms should go with each educational text without saying. It is a manifestation of the mature tactic to learn the key words which, if being captured at the right time and in the right place, have a much stronger effect than laborious copying of long abstracts of which we (often in vain) hope that we will learn them once they are thrown on the paper. Only then we should put the really representative publications to the reception torture, just like we have described above both in terms of theory and practice Note: Annex 3 contains a form where you can write down other reception attempts. Literature BLOCH, A. (1993), GAVORA, P. (1992), HLADÍK, J. (1996), HOLUB, M. (1987), MAREŠ, J., KŘIVOHLAVÝ, J. (1995), POLÁK, M. (2004.), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2009), PRŮCHA, J., WALTEROVÁ, E., MAREŠ, J. (1997) další reedice, SPOUSTA, V et all. (2000), SVATOŠ, T. (2009a), ŠEĎOVÁ, K., ŠVAŘÍČEK, R., ŠALAMOUNOVÁ, Z. (2012), ŠVEC, V., FILOVÁ, H. ŠIMONIK, O. (1996). Note: Full bibliographic quotations are provided in the list of literature. 16

27 CHAPTER 2: HOW ÚVODEM TO COMMUNICATE Lieberman s law: Everybody lies, but it does not matter since nobody listens. Murphy s laws All people are actors, but where to find a repertoire for them? M. Holub Objectives The purpose of Chapter 2 is to provide structured information about interpersonal communication, focusing primarily on verbal expression. This issue is both theoretical and practical and in many ways affects university students (most frequently in active communication during seminars). With regard to the skills acquired, the student will be able to, after studying this chapter, master the theoretical background of the issue of social (pedagogical) communication; identify and explain the circumstances affecting interpersonal communication; understand the procedures necessary for the preparation to communicate scientific content; apply these procedures in concrete examples from his/her expertise (teaching qualification). Intensity of Acquisition Middle intensity - to understand the educational theory and to verify it in skill-based practice. Situation The situation where a university student (and a starting student in particular) is to appear before his/her colleagues and present a communication (or a paper if you want) about a certain topic is one of the difficult situations in the student s life. I can say from my own experience that speakers not always assume the communication role so as everybody (including the speaker) is satisfied with the course and results of their communication. Although we have already gone through the period of preferred materialism, the act of communication remains a situation where a positive attitude to the matter (materiae) comes in handy and for some speakers, it is even a necessary precondition to perform the communication task. What I am referring to is the situation where the speaker sticks to the paper (both virtually and literally), reading the text even with punctuation and hoping that this captured matter will give him/her the necessary support and confidence. Allow me to add that the prepared writing serving as a basis for an oral communication cannot be usually used 'after being used', because the letters melting together from sweat on a strongly crumpled paper doom it to the role of a thing that will become part of sorted waste. 17

28 What to do to be successful in communication, to make oral communication different from its written version, to find such support which will award the proud modifier professional to our communication? This is again a fly over the available literature the list of which is given at the end of this chapter. We have already been concerned with the issue of social and pedagogical communication for some time, which is why we have chosen our textbook (with all modesty) re-edited over the past decade as the primary source for this contemplation (Svatoš, , 2009). Basic Theory Perspective 2.1 DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AS A DISCIPLINE AT A GLANCE There have been and are hosts of publications about transpersonal communication whether produced by local authors or translated work from abroad. It is understandable, as the very close topic of communication has been related to the man s individual existence and life in each society. We have selected three groups of works that are different from one another and are at the same time designed for three different groups of addressees. The first group covers scholarly works by recognised authorities (e.g. by Janoušek, Průcha, Mistrík) providing in-depth descriptions and relations within communication or rhetoric. As a rule, they have a strong scholarly profile, which is disappointing for those readers expecting practical instructions on how to communicate. The second group includes the texts which, on the other hand, advice on (even in their title) how to learn the skill to speak, to communicate. These are socalled practical publications which usually abandon the necessary communication theory and clearly prefer skills, i.e. the practicing aspect (often fairly schematically). The two groups intersect in the theoretical and application works providing both the available theory and a space for examples in practice (authors: Gavora, Mareš, Křivohlavý, and others) whose form we find the most convenient for us. The topic of social communication had to go through a fairly difficult and ambiguous way to the school system or to the pre-service training of prospective teachers. Here is a brief overview: HISTORICAL SOURCES and today s approach to communication at universities The phenomenon of communication has been strongly reflected in teacher training at Czech (or Czechoslovak) faculties of education for almost 40 years. If we are to speak about its current form, we must not forget to mention individual developmental transformations resulting from the circumstances arising over time. And what are these most important influences? The first wave of interest (in the 1960s and 1970s) was provoked by a variety of communication theories emphasising the social, psycholinguistic, cybernetic, information and communication, mathematically logical, education or psychological aspects. They were necessary for the later solution of theoretical and methodological issues of creating communication dispositions during the pre-service teacher training. They were followed by detailed micro-analytical procedures enabling to penetrate into the bowels of the procedural aspect of instructional interaction and communication at the expense of great laboriousness and research efforts. 18

29 Figure 1: Influences Forming Current Socially Communication Training (Svatoš, 2000) TRADITIONAL INFLUENCES Communication theory (1970s) Micro-analytical research methods to describe teaching Application of new streams of teacher training (1970s) Research probes about pedagogical communication (1980s) Tradition of drama education (educational drama) Technical support in teacher training TODAY S INFLUENCES Efforts for new educational paradigms Curricular transformations in teacher training Humanistic re-definition of the student-teacher s role Socially psychological training in teacher training New practicing methods (self-reflection and authentic evaluation) Crucial inspiration was brought by E. Vyskočilová in her work in the 1970s. She analysed new streams in practical teacher training and designed a system for creating communication skills (supported by social and educational psychology) in the system of theoretical and practical training. This development brought a major enrichment of the theme: Researches focused on communication between a man and a machine; other works described communication between a learner and a text; others were centred on dyadic (pair) communication between a parent and a child, and nonverbal communication attracted a lot of attention, as well. The communication training gained the position of an independent discipline at many faculties of this time as part of the practical teacher training. It must be noted that technical means (mainly audio- and video recordings) have from the very beginning been used for practical communication training, and not only in drama education applied for many years. The importance of a teacher s (a student-teacher s) communication readiness has grown significantly with the new philosophy of the teaching profession (after 1989). The immediate goals include training aimed at authentic communication at school and the related social and educational environment. For a student teacher to be able to cultivate a learner s personality, he/she needs to cognise one s self, one s capabilities and potentials. Only then the student-teacher is given an opportunity to influence, develop and hit others. The methods of practical teacher training (including procedures of communication practice) have undergone massive development since the 1990s, too. Dominating is the idea of approximation to the school practice (introduction of microteaching performance activities, assistant roles at schools, attempts of team or dyadic teaching; adoption of reflexive and self-reflexive methods). Socially psychological training entered teacher training as the fairly youngest variable. The essential mission is to guide student-teachers from 'knowing' to 'being', experiencing, understanding one's self and others. This is the base for today's concept of socially communication training in teacher education. Its very purpose has been to create conditions for social and communication development of student personality from the beginning of teacher professionalization through the development from external factors to autonomous conduct and self-development. 19

30 1.2 How is pedagogical communication perceived today? As part of the paradigm of education of prospective teachers (a holistic philosophical and programme approach to pre-service education and its generally human values can be found in the works by Spilková, Kantorková- Lukášová and others); As part of teacher competences (see Helus, Maňák, Spilková, Slavík, Švec, Vašutová, etc.); As part of research activities and evaluations (Gavora, Mareš, Průcha, Svatoš, etc.); As part of deepened specialisation (Kotková, Lukášová, Nelešovská, etc.); As part of a broad approach to communication and socially personality education (Řezáč, Spilková, Svatoš, Šmahel, Valenta, Vyskočilová, and many others). Let us get back to the topic of good communication' and make it theoretically clear what circumstances (factors, means) have a direct or mediated impact on interpersonal communication. We must say that it is not about a sonorous voice or good preparation. 2.2 CIRCUMSTANCES AFFECTING COMMUNICATION There are many circumstances affecting effective communication between people. The general public will usually understand them from the following statement: what do I say and how do I say it. That is using verbal means to express ideas (by formulating language means in a certain style) and to pronounce them in a voice having its acoustic aspect. It is almost reprehensible to put it so simple and say that the lexical component of communication has a close relation to reason. The longer we encounter other people (We have intentionally avoided saying the older we are ), the more we are interested in non-verbal circumstances accompanying verbal communication. They are significant not only for their support provided to the overall efforts to communicate better and understand each other. Interpersonal non-verbal communication is rich in forms, intensity of manifestations and communicated contents All in all, it includes means which often truly speak volumes about the internal states of the communicator and his/her relation to other people (listeners-communicants). It is also excusable if we put it so simple when saying that non-verbal circumstances are much more tied to our emotions and experiencing. Verbal and non-verbal communication is one of the direct circumstances determining the final quality of communication. But other circumstances having an indirect, yet apparent effect on the level of communication are equally important. It is because each communication act is performed in a certain environment and is intended for specific addressees. The directness of a communication often retroactively determines the vocabulary used, the composition of the language means or parameters of the sound aspect of speech. Communication is an integral part of the speaker s personality and the impression he/she makes on addressees. (Listeners see the way in which the speaker s personality characteristics were reflected in communication, the speaker s individual 20

31 approach to the communication and last, but not least the physical appearance and overall integrity.) Figure 2: Expression of Personal Expression Communication Circumstances (Svatoš, 2002) Non-verbal componen t Language means Sound aspect of speech Verbal component M Mimic expressio ns G Gestures EC Eye contact H Haptic expressio ns P P Proxemcs, Posturolog y Handling with items, Motor activity Indirect communicatio n circumstances Cumulatively, this is an imaginary equation saying that the overall level of communication is given by the sum of the speaker s verbal and non-verbal qualities that are intensified (or negatively affected) by indirect circumstances. 2.3 PORTRAIT OF PERFECT COMMUNICATOR The lines below will outline a picture of a perfectly communicating personality. It will be just a metaphorical outline, and this for two reasons. First: Although the author has principally a positive attitude to artistic activities, he has very limited specific artistic skills being at the level of inhabitants of a Cro-Magnon cave (he draws even a pear with a help of a triangle ). 21

32 The other reason is the existence of the idea that the figurative description uses the terms of the theory of social and pedagogical communication, which will expand both the topic and the readers vocabulary. So let us draw... Verbal Characteristics of Perfect Communicator (PC) For us, the listeners, a perfect communicator is a very nice speaker caring for comprehensibility of communication through ansianism (selection of words) so that we understand it (he/she knows our usual vocabulary) and on the other hand, he/she seeks to expand it and enrich it. We also appreciate that he/she is aware (and also speaks accordingly) of differences between speaking and writing and respects both forms. The speaker is likeable for knowing to whom he/she speaks and for modifying the variability of communication. He/she is good to listen to: his/her expression is cohesive ( we can make head or tail of it ), has its rhythm (it is naturally dynamic and accentuates essential information), and where there is a risk of a lack of understanding, examples and practical use are provided. The expression directed towards us is clearly intentional (goal-directed, recognisable and clear for us, the listeners). His/her words flow seamlessly, in an easy manner, as if everything was born on the spot and without any preparation. It is quite on the contrary, which is evidenced through situational readiness for the current changes during his/her speech. Last, but not least, we like his/her approach to the topic which is based on a dialogue (although it is a classic monologue lecture, 'what he/she says' makes us think and argue about the given content). We see the perfect communicator as a professional also mastering the sound aspect of speaking. We can hear him/her working with breathing, avoiding any burden on his/her speech organs beyond a bearable level through the verbal production (tempo, intensity and pitch of the voice, its melody and breaks). But the overall expression is agogic (dynamic in all respects) and consistently based on correct orthoepy (pronunciation) of both words and sentences and sentence units. Everyone (regardless of sex) likes his/her voice timbre (tone colour) which is a supporting wave of information heading towards us. We can be only ingenuously envious, because the voice colour is primarily affected by the anatomic arrangement of speech organs, i.e. predetermined genetically. Non-verbal Characteristics of Perfect Communicator (PC) We cannot say much about this perfect communicator s gesticulation: Only that the gestures are functional and always have some relation to what we hear. It was even when this speaker entered the auditorium, we could see his/her mimic indicating a good mood. His/her relation to the communicated content and to us, the listeners was legible throughout the entire communication. (We know that one s mimic expressions exteriorise lived experience and internal states. As opposed to interiorisation of external influences.) The fact that he/she is a perfect professional is apparent from the eye contact that he/she maintains with us. He/she is reasonable both in terms of the direction, duration, orientation towards addressees of communication and supports the impression of overall communication confidence. 22

33 The feeling for social standards and established rules of communication are seen in haptic communication. He/she uses it to a very limited extent; it was in fact just shaking the hand with the organiser and a couple of handshakes with the listeners who came to thank him/her in person after the lecture. Other manifestations of the speaker s non-verbal behaviour also document the interesting and empathic body language. The perfect communicator moved naturally in front of the listeners; his/her motor activities often brought him/her near to us (proxemic circumstances of communication), but never went beyond the expected limits. His/her bodily posture (posturology) was clear and legible: He/she appeared before us in an open and friendly position, which was apparent from the overall position of his/her extremities, body and head. There is one more non-verbal circumstance that must be mentioned with praise. Let me note that the importance of this expression for listeners and the overall impression of communication is either underestimated or underrated by many communicators. The lecture was accompanied by many picture presentations and demonstrations mediated by technical means whose operation (handling and the necessary skills) were perfectly mastered by the perfect communicator. Indirect Communication Circumstances and Perfect Communicator We noticed that the perfect communicator behaved in the communication environment with confidence and with knowledge of its physical properties (dimensions, segmentation, distribution of addressees, lights, surrounding noise, acoustic properties, etc.). When he/she occasionally travelled' to us, the listeners, we could take a closer look at his/her dress. It is needless to say that the dress generally matched the communication opportunity and satisfied all requirements (with neatness, matching, cleanness and completeness). It perhaps was or was not important that he/she also delicately kept our other senses busy with delicate smell of a perfume being a standard and expected circumstance which we attach to the overall impression of someone communicating with the public. It was apparent throughout the entire communication that he/she seeks to have a good relationship with us, the addressees of the communication, which was completed by his/her positive (openly friendly) behaviour (with frequent smiles and constructive expressions of likings). After his/her communication, we were all convinced that he/she is a real personality showing high professionalism of approach (cumulatively, the proportion of correctness, perfectness, the level of communication skills and competences based on a balance of verbal and non-verbal means and respect to the environment, the listeners and the overall situation). This was also proved by other opportunities where we saw and heard this perfect communicator. It is only good that only topics changed in his/her other lectures and everything else remained at the expected level. 2.4 APPLICATION OF THEORY IN PRACTICE We have been provided with certain theoretical knowledge about communication and its importance in the teaching profession or in the training of prospective teachers. We have said that communication skills must be, among other things, practiced and honed, because the mere theoretical knowledge is not enough. This is what social and pedagogical communication or effective communication at school has in mind. It is offered by all teaching study programmes and we have 23

34 addressed it (both theoretically and in practice) in a re-published textbook (Svatoš, 2005, 2009). Considering the needs of the general didactics study, the nature of the seminar communication activities is a bit different. This is why we have prepared two communication activities which can be used in didactics and which maintain elements of practice, but using scientific content ASSIGNMENT: Example The first topic provided information about the reception procedures related to a scientific educational text, which resulted in the production of syllabi (abstracts, thesis, content condensations). Let us use these acquired skills in a follow-up and in a way similar activity. This time, our task will be to search, study and comment on a current journal text and communicate it to other students within a short communication. To avoid ambiguity, let us name this communication assignment as a communication of educational news BASIC COMMUNICATION activities: a) search any current educational text (an article, a commentary, essay, piece of news) describing a specific and current polemic issue in our school system; b) study the text so as to understand its content and intentions behind its origin; c) analyse the content of the written communication and sort out the main and trivial information (for details, see Chapter 1) d) write it down in a way serving as your support during your later speech in front of your study group colleagues; the aim of the communication will be to give brief and apt information about its author, the periodical where the news was published, and primarily its content; the communication will also include your personal opinion on the topic described, best with the reasons and the necessary arguments; e) prepare and practice your oral communication in a way suiting you best so as to avoid the mere reading of information and maintain the nature of an oral expression; f) communicate the educational news to the addressees and, depending on the circumstances, discuss the chosen topic and its polemic view with your classmates; g) evaluate your communication performance within self-reflection, setting the positive aspects of communication and indicating other possible alternatives SOLUTION: a) searching the current educational text: VŠ by měly být hodnoceny i podle absolventů bez práce /Universities Should Also be Evaluated According to Graduates without a Job/ University rectors resolved in Zlín that the quality of schools should also be measured 24

35 according to the number of graduates who remain unemployed. The respective records should be kept by the Ministry of Education, Petr Sáha, the vice chair of the Czech Rector Conference and rector of Zlín University, has told journalists. (Published in Učitelské noviny on 5 December 2005, author not mentioned) b) We studied the text and understood its content and intentions; c d) Analysis of content of the written communication: main information: Universities should also be measured according to graduates without work (published on the website of the Učitelské noviny magazine on 5 December 2005, author not mentioned); It deals with the general and specific evaluation of activities and the overall quality of universities in the Czech Republic; The employment rate of university graduates in normal practice should be an important criterion; This proposal was put forth by university rectors at their meeting; The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (not schools) should be responsible for keeping the records of the number of jobless graduates and employed graduates. trivial information: The meeting was held in Zlín; The information was provided by Petr Sáha, the vice chair of the Czech Rector Conference and rector of Zlín University. own opinion: The evaluation of university activities is a must; but a question begs to be asked whether finding employment on the labour market is a valid criterion; It will differ in various fields: It will be more unequivocal in medicine, in the fields of engineering or electrical engineering or in justice; It will not be that clear in the socially focused fields. In my opinion, a graduated Czech language teacher working in a regional periodical is a successful graduate even if he does not work as a teacher. conclusion: One can agree with the recordkeeping of graduates in practice, but it should rather be an auxiliary perspective. e) and f) Let us assume that we have prepared the communication and communicated the educational news through an oral expression to the addressees. We have two questions for any potential discussion: What is your opinion on the evaluation of university activities through the eyes of finding employment in practice after graduation? What other criteria would you choose for evaluation and why? g) Similarly, let us assume that we have made self-reflection of the communication and sought other communication alternatives. Practical Application Assignments, Activities, Skills 25

36 We can believe that the previous application using the example described above was sufficiently exemplary and instructive. This is why you legitimately expect that the purpose of your assignment for another micro-teaching performance will be to test the preparation, implementation and evaluation of your educational news using your own example. You can use the journal article syllabus you have made according to the procedures described in Chapter ASSIGNMENT: Using the example from pp , please choose a current educational text and prepare, implement and evaluate a communication of educational news in the seminar environment using all the aforementioned procedures. To make it easier for you, you can use this draft: a) Searched current educational text: b) Text has been studied (its intentions and content are clear) c d) Analysis of content of the written communication: main information: trivial information: own opinion: e) - f) Questions prepared for potential discussion: g) Self-reflection notes pros, polemic spots, what to do better next (alternatives) 1.3 Example ASSIGNMENT: Observe a communication of any of your colleagues during the General Didactics seminar. Evaluate his/her educational and communication skills using the sheet below. Please add the level from 1 (lowest) to 5 (best) next to each parameter. 26

37 Table 1: Observation Sheet KoD v. 1.5 (Svatoš, 1996) 1. CONTENT OF MICRO-TEACHING PERFORMANCE 1.1 formal (banal, snapping, etc.) 1.2 adequate (to the topic, addressees, environment, etc.) 2.8 standard level of expression 2.9 frequent occurrence of simple sentences 2.10 frequent occurrence of more complicated sentences 3.6 handling with items 4. OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES 4.1 apparent friendly behaviour 1.3 snapper (original, apt, witty, etc.) 2. VERBAL EXPRESSION 2.1 seamlessness and confidence of expression 2.11 work with breathing 4.2 efforts for empathetic behaviour (expression) 2.12 speech impediments 4.3 readiness for microteaching performance 2.13 rhetoric questions 4.4 adequate dress and accessories to the purpose of the microteaching performance 2.2 speech flow intensity 3. NON-VERBAL EXPRESSION 4.5 examples and views from practice 2.3 overall pronunciation of the text 3.1 bearing and posture 4.6 clear intention of communication 2.4 voice melody 3.2 movement within defined space 4.7 performance of objectives intentions of the microteaching performance 2.5 agogy (overall speech dynamics) 2.6 accent and breaks in speech 3.3 sight support of communication 3.4 mimic expressions and gestures 4.8 clear and fluent start of the micro-teaching performance 4.9 clear and functional end of the micro-teaching performance 2.7 vocabulary (considering the topic and addressees) 3.5 haptic communication 4.10 apt self-evaluation after the micro-teaching performance Terms to Remember (Key Words) Agogy, accent, ansianism, dialogue, empathy, exteriorisation, gesticulation, haptic, voice timber, intentionality, voice flow intensity, interiorisation, voice intonation variables, cohesiveness of communication, handling with items, motor activity, nonverbal circumstances, orthoepy, posturology, proxemics, situational readiness, tempo of verbal production, variability, verbal circumstances, eye contact. 27

38 Issues for Thought o The text contains many scholarly terms and definitions. Think about the meaning of and relations within this trio: joint activity interaction interpersonal communication (ideally using an example). o Describe the communication characteristics which you use to create an image of the person you encounter for the first time. o Professor Křivohlavý once wrote the immortal sentence that noncommunication is impossible among people. How do you understand this and would you find appropriate examples of situations supporting this idea? Summary 1.4 Consequences of Communication Theories for our Communication The first consequence may be the paradoxical finding that however much one knows and internally analyses theory, it is no guarantee for our skills and abilities to communicate (impact on, share with, etc.) with the environment. The second consequence is the persuasion that human communication qualities can change, especially through intentional and well-situated training. It is appreciable in all socially-centred professions, let alone the teaching profession. We should expect two things from communication practice: greater self-cognition (cognition of our current and future communication possibilities and limitations) and we should be searching an answer to the following questions in the follow-up stage of training: How to communicate with others; how to create the necessary relations when we have learned who they are and what they are like? This is why the third consequence should be the awareness that it is rational to focus on positive changes in our communication profile in its particularities that can be influenced ( moved ) in the necessary direction. A simple example for all: I can do nothing about my 170 cm in height (ossification of my bones successfully passed 40 years ago). But what I can influence is the dress and its quality that I will use when appearing in front of the addressees of my communication, as well as the preparedness and distinction of my communication Crib (Good Advice Is Better Than Gold) Communication (and not only communication of current pedagogical affairs) in front of peers in a seminar group is a frequently used communication and didactic activity in university instruction. As anything in personal and professional life, it is about the first time. How to manage it so that the memories and experiences from the premiere and later re-runs remain good, nice, not stressful? Believe us or not, but the ten NOs will be useful: Do not underestimate the situation: It is a cheap argument that you will 'read something loud out there', uselessly pointing to our too liberal reasoning. In a better case, the participants will cherish the right, yet not very flattering opinion on the speaker. In a worse case, the assignment is not regarded as performed; there is a higher pedagogical punishment followed by closely observed repetition. 28

39 Do not overestimate the situation: Communication is transpersonal and we have done it for years and with success. Still, it requires some preparation unlike the normal social situations. The non-mathematical types shall also apply the following proportion: The rate of success directly depends on the rate of preparation. Do not regard detailed preparation ( practicing ) as manifestation of your inability. Do not try to look into papers very much; try to persuade listeners that you can differentiate spoken and written communication and that you have the written preparation for quotations only and to make a check of content. Do not try to present the entire text by heart. It can easily happen that our mind goes blank and the lacking word will disturb our seamless communication and following concentration. Do not regard all participants as hunters waiting for your fault if you make a slip of the tongue. Do not collapse if you sometimes say a new word ; make a correction no one is perfect. Do not avoid eye contact with your listeners; their apparent sympathy can be helpful. Do not be afraid to say your own opinion it is no offence even if you disagree with authorities. And finally, do not frown. A light smile is a permitted aphrodisiac softening the mind of all those present. Literature ALLEN,D., RYAN, K. (1969), BLOCH, A. (1993), HOLUB, M. (1987), MAŇÁK, J., ŠVEC, V. (2004), MAREŠ, J., KŘIVOHLAVÝ, J. (1995), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2009), PRŮCHA, J., WALTEROVÁ, E., MAREŠ, J. (1997) další reedice, ŘEZÁČ, J. (1998), SVATOŠ, T. Environme (2009a), ŠEĎOVÁ, K., ŠVAŘÍČEK, R., ŠALAMOUNOVÁ, Z. ntal (2012), ŠMAHEL, I., ŘEZÁČ, J. (1996), ŠVEC, V. (1999), VALENTA, J. (2000), VYSKOČILOVÁ, effects E. (2002). Note: Full bibliographic quotations are provided in the list of literature. Physical appearance, dress, external integrity 29

40 KAPITOLA 3: JAK ÚVODEM PRACOVAT S CITÁTY Láska je práce, při které city pracují přes čas a rozum má náhradní volno! Anonymus Láska hory přenáší, ale s blbostí ani nehne. J. Žáček Cíle Jak se zachovat tehdy, máme-li vyjádřit osobní názor nebo postoj k myšlenkách jiných lidí? Jak mohou obohatit naše uvažování ti, kteří fyzicky už nejsou mezi námi, ale jejich duchovní odkaz v nás a naší společnosti stále žije a ukazuje sílu ducha nejen pro dnešní dobu? V otázkách jsme naznačili cíle, které spojujeme v pořadí se třetím tématem skript. Se záměrem, který neskrýváme jsme kapitolu spojili s osobností J. A. Komenského. Pohledem osvojovaných dovedností student po prostudovaní bude schopen: Seznámit se s nevšední osobností J. A. Komenského a jeho životními peripetiemi, Snažit se proniknout do jeho myšlenek ve formě citátů, Osvojit si dostupný postup analýzy citátů, myšlenek, výroků Aplikovat je na příkladech duševního odkazu Jana Amose Komenského z různých období jeho tvořivého života. Náročnost na osvojení Pro porozumění pedagogické teorii i pro ověření v dovednostní praxi nízká. Situace S citáty, bonmoty a moudrými výroky můžeme pracovat rozmanitými způsoby. V mé roli učitele budoucích učitelů se osvědčila následující procedura. Pravidelně zařazuji do seminárních forem výuky citáty a myšlenky některých filozofů výchovy, kteří se významně podíleli na proměnách pedagogického myšlení a nám jejich potomkům zanechali nehmotné dědictví, ke kterému můžeme (ale také nemusíme) nalézt ten správný klíč. V české kotlině by nemělo nikoho překvapit, že často takto sahám k odkazu J.A. Komenského. Přiznávám bez palečnic a španělské boty (a dalších donucovacích prostředků), že můj vztah k této nevšední a mimořádné osobnosti se vyvíjel: od naprosté ignorace a nepochopení, přes občasné přiznání, že na jeho myšlenkách něco je, až po dnešní hluboký obdiv a uznání za inspirace a nadčasové úvahy. Změnu postoje způsobila jedna podstatná zkušenost: přestal jsem totiž číst o Komenském a naopak jsem se začal seznamovat s původními díly Komenského - bez vlivu jeho přemnožených vykladačů. Obdobnou proměnu postoje zažívám pokaždé, když studentům učitelství oznamuji, že dnes budeme pracovat s myšlenkami J.A.K. Nejprve sleduji na tvářích přítomných výmluvně hovořící mimiku o tom, že jsem (diplomaticky řečeno) tentokrát sáhnul vedle. Jakmile však každý student dostane svůj citát k zamyšlení, pokusí se o jeho dnešní interpretaci a uvažuje o jeho nadčasovosti, počne se dít věc nevídaná. Jakoby přes 30

41 kopírák se mnozí diví, jak mohl někdo před více než čtyřmi stoletími vidět tak prozíravě do budoucnosti, jakoby s námi žil a prožíval radosti i strasti doby, jíž žijeme. Je dobře, když porozumění dnešním pohledům na výchovu a polemiky o vzdělávání člověka spojujeme s pohledy a názory těch, kteří v minulosti (nedávné i vzdálené) jaksi nerespektovali tehdejší letopočet a viděli i uvažovali dál. Mnohdy však nám bohužel nezanechali návody, jak pracovat s jejich myšlenkami a citáty. Téma pohledem základní teorie 3.1 OSOBNOST JANA AMOSE KOMENSKÉHO Osobnost J. A. Komenského je v naší literatuře přibližována často prapodivným způsobem. Jeden výklad jeho významu se obvykle orientuje na faktografický výčet dat jeho častých zahraničních poutí a dominantních událostí (kdo z nás neslyšel o tragédii, která postihla jeho dílo při jednom z lešenských pobytů). Druzí autoři vidí jako prioritu nakupení (někdy s charakteristikou) podstatných děl, která tento velmi plodný učenec napsal. Najdou se i tací, kteří jeho odkaz shrnou do transparentu velký filozof výchovy a pedagogický optimista, aniž by blíže objasnili, v čem tkví důvody tohoto označení. V dalších stránkách se pokusíme propojit obě hlavní linie, tj. životopisnou a tvůrčí, protože jen tak se můžeme co nejvěrněji přiblížit k této postavě, jejíž spisovatelské počiny vždy odrážely místo a situaci, ve které se Komenský nacházel. Jan Amos Komenský, někdy zvaný polatinštělým jménem Comenius, se narodil 28. března 1592 v Nivnici na Uherskobrodsku. On i jeho rodina vyrůstali v prostředí Jednoty bratrské. Jeho otec i matka pocházeli z Komni. V roce 1604 Komenský osiřel a ujala se ho teta ze Strážnice na jižní Moravě. A právě tam zažil první hrůzy války, když vojsko protihabsburského povstalce z Uher I. Boczkaie vtrhlo na Moravu a vypálilo celou Strážnici. Až v šestnácti letech byl poslán na bratrskou střední školu do Přerova, a to díky přerovskému pánovi Karlu st. ze Žerotína. Když Jan absolvoval tříleté studium, byl plně připraven na vysokoškolská studia ( ) v Herbornu a Heidelbergu. V Herbornu rozšířil obzor zájmu Komenského profesor J. H. Alsted svými encyklopedickými soubory z různých oborů vzdělanosti a filozofických proudů. Po vzoru Alsteda začal skládat encyklopedii pro obohacení národní vzdělanosti, sbíral látku k velkému latinsko-českému slovníku, dále se snažil sepsat dějiny rodu svého mecenáše Karla st. ze Žerotína. V Heidelbergu ho ovlivnil profesor David Pareus svými snahami o mír mezi evangelickými církvemi. V Německu se také seznámil s chialistickým hnutím. Tato víra v blízký konec světa, před nímž nastane tisíciletá vláda Kristovy spravedlivé říše, Komenského ovlivnila až v pokročilejším věku. Ve svých dílech odmítal pasivní očekávání konce světa a naopak preferoval aktivní formu chialistického hnutí. Podle Komenského je příchod Kristova tisíciletí podmíněn lidskou prací a nápravou všeho, co bylo špatné. Po studiu v cizině a po první cestě do Nizozemí působil v Přerově jako učitel, a to na stejné bratrské škole, kde dříve studoval. Zde vydal svou první učebnici Pravidla snazší mluvnice (1616). V témže roce byl ordinován na bratrského kazatele. Svou duchovní činnost zahájil krátkým výchovným spiskem Listové do nebe (1617). Námětem Listů jsou stížnosti chudých a bohatých ke Kristu. V roce 1618 byl ustanoven kazatelem ve Fulneku na severovýchodní Moravě. Sám Komenský považuje toto krátké období za nejšťastnější dobu svého života. Po 31

42 sňatku s Magdalenou Vizovickou zde založil rodinu. Fulnek byla jazykově smíšená obec, proto Komenský kázal v češtině i němčině. Nepůsobil jen jako kazatel, jeho hospodářské rady plně využíval snad každý obyvatel Fulneku. Z pramenů, které se týkají severovýchodní Moravy, se dozvídáme, že Komenský byl propagátorem včelařství. I když tyto všechny činnosti zabíraly Komenskému téměř všechen čas, nepřestával psát další díla. Právě ve Fulneku začal pracovat na české encyklopedii Divadlo veškenstva věcí (Theatrum universitatis rerum). Dílo je uvedeno dvěma předmluvami - v češtině a pro vzdělance v latině. V té latinské uvedl, že není nic, co by se nedalo vyjádřit v češtině, která je bohatá a půvabná a měli by ji co nejvíce používat i učenci. První předmluva se týká oslavy a výkladu moudrosti. Dále propracovával výbor z Písma. Zde ve Fulneku ho také zastihl začátek třicetileté války. Komenský bedlivě sledoval politickou situaci a neskrýval své sympatie k českým stavům a králi Friedrichovi Falckému, jehož rodu zůstal celý život věrný. Doba pronásledování a skrývání ve vlasti Bělohorské vítězství Habsburků znamenalo, že se Komenský stal ve vlasti psancem. V roce 1623 byl vydán zákaz působení pro všechny nekatolické kazatele a o rok později vyšel dekret zakazující všechna nekatolická vyznání. Nekatolíci nesměli být přijímáni za měšťany, nesměli provozovat řemesla, být oddáváni a pohřbíváni s obřadem atd. Od roku 1624 začala systematická rekatolizace vymáhaná silou. Komenský nejprve odstěhoval rodinu z Fulneku do Přerova, sám se však musel skrývat. V souvislosti s rekatolizací neminula Komenského konfiskace majetku a v roce 1623 byla na fulneckém náměstí veřejně spálena jeho knihovna. O rok dříve ho však postihla největší ztráta. Manželka a druhorozený syn podlehli pravděpodobně morové epidemii. Po této tragické události se Komenský ještě více upnul k víře, ve které se snažil nalézt tu vytouženou životní jistotu. V těchto chvílích vznikla tato díla: Nedobytelný hrad jméno Hospodinovo, O sirobě, Labyrint světa a ráj srdce, Truchlivý. Toto dílo nepsal na Moravě, kde se již necítil bezpečný, ale na Brandýsku ve východních Čechách. Tamní panství patřilo Karlu st. ze Žerotína. Ve chvílích deprese přepracovával Komenský své dílo Theatrum universitatis rerum v Amphitheatrum universitatis rerum. Dílo je mnohem pesimističtěji laděno a dochovalo se z něj pouze torzo. Kolem roku 1625 dokončuje mapu Moravy a v roce 1626 ji vydává v Amsterodamu. V roce 1624 se Komenský podruhé oženil, a to s dcerou svého přítele a ochránce Dorotou Cyrilovou. Spolu se museli odstěhovat ze žerotínského panství do Bílé Třemešné u Dvora Králové. Tam na panství Jiřího Sadovského ze Sloupna pracoval Komenský na díle Didaktika. Ta nebyla jen souborem rad, ale také stavěla reformu vzdělávání a výchovy na filozofii člověka a jeho života. Rozvinul zde také principy přirozeného, nenásilného, radostného a důkladného vzdělávání a výchovy všech dětí a mládeže českého národa od útlého dětství do dospělosti. Po vydání Obnoveného zřízení zemského v roce 1627 nebyl v českých zemích život nekatolíků možný. Komenský spolu s Cyrilovými a Sadovskými odešel se ženou a dcerou přes Žacléřský průsmyk do polského Lešna, kde našel až do roku 1656 nový domov. První pobyt Komenského v Lešně ( ) Komenský přišel do Polska za vlády Vladislava IV. Jeho vláda se vyznačovala náboženskou tolerancí a rekatolizace byla pouze otázkou několika měšťanů. Komenský byl v Lešně mnohostranně zaměstnán. Působil jako učitel na lešenském gymnáziu, psal vychovatelské a filozofické spisy, pracoval jako písař Jednoty bratrské. Pro Jednotu psal 32

43 kázání a spisy na její obranu. Také vydal Řád Jednoty, příručku Praxis pictatis, napsal Otázky některé o Jednotě bratří českých. Jeho nejvýznamnějším dílem tohoto údobí jsou spisy pansoficko-vychovatelské. Dokončoval česky psanou Didaktiku, kterou začal psát ještě ve vlasti. Vojenskopolitická situace v letech , kdy obsadilo švédsko-saské vojsko velkou část Čech, dávala naději na návrat do vlasti. A proto začal Komenský plánovat první velký vychovatelský projekt, který nazval Paradisus ecclesiae (Ráj církve, někdy Ráj český). Měl sloužit k restituci národní české vzdělanosti, a to reformou národních škol. V této době dokončil příručku Informatorium školy mateřské. Byla zaměřena k cílům, obsahu a metodám výchovy nejmenších dětí od narození do šesti let, aby byly dobře připraveny pro školu i pro život. Z učebnic pro národní školu se zachovaly jen poetické názvy: Violarum (fialkový záhon), Rosarium (záhon růží), Viridarium (zeleniště) atd. Když naděje na návrat do vlasti zklamala (Albrecht z Valdštejna vyhnal protihabsburská vojska), neopustil Komenský myšlenku na vychovatelský projekt. Navíc v Polsku byl žádán, aby své školní návrhy použil i pro latinské školy. Začal tedy svou didaktiku překládat do latiny. Překlad a veškeré úpravy dokončil v roce 1638, a tak vznikla Didactica magna, vydaná až v roce Práce Komenského v Anglii Osobní kontakt s Komenským, o který přátelé v Anglii usilovali, se uskutečnil na podnět Samuela Hartliba v době, kdy byla už vydána řeč J. Gaudena, doporučující parlamentu práci Komenského a skotského ekumenisty Johna Duryho. Z diskusí o reformách škol a o reformách společnosti vzniklo dílo Via lucis (Cesta světla). Dějiny lidstva zde pojal jako cestu postupného šíření vzdělanosti, jímž se podle Komenského zlepšují i životní podmínky obyvatel. Práce Komenského pro reformu švédských škol Ve Švédsku byl financován holandským kupcem Louisem de Geer, zakladatelem švédského železářského průmyslu. O reformě vzdělanosti s ním dlouho rozmlouval i švédský kancléř Oxenstjerna, který mu k práci vybral Elbing (Elblag). Tehdy bylo toto pobaltské město ještě pod švédskou správou. S pomocníky začal upravovat učebnice a vykládal filozofii na tamním gymnáziu. Komenský přišel z Anglie s velkými plány stvořit obrovské pansofické dílo, které by spočívalo v celospolečenské nápravě. V roce 1643 vydal spis Pansophiae diatyposis. Zároveň pracoval na projektu celospolečenské nápravy, který nazval Obecná porada o nápravě věcí lidských (De rerum humanarum emendatione consultatio catholica). V Elbingu také dokončil první díl Excitatorium universale. Po splnění závazků ke Švédům odjel s rodinou zpět do Lešna, a to v srpnu Těžce nemocná manželka po návratu zemřela. Druhý pobyt Komenského v Lešně Konec Třicetileté války definitivně zmařil možnost návratu exulantů do Čech. V této době vydává třetí díl Truchlivého nazvaný Řvaní hrdličky v rozsedlinách skalních a skrýši příkré dlouho zůstávající. Již jako senior, tedy biskup jednoty bratrské, vydal roku 1650 Kšaft umírající matky Jednoty bratrské. Šestero odkazů Jednoty národu vybízí k hledání Boží pravdy, k lásce ke Kralické bibli, ke svornosti a snášenlivosti, k řádu a kázni, k péči o rodný jazyk a k pečlivé výchově mládeže. V Lešně byl Komenský opět přetížen pracemi. Vydával spisy, psal nové, staral se o jednotu, pro niž za pobytu v Elbingu vymohl materiální pomoc od pana de Geer. Dále kázal a pečoval o kazatelský dorost jednoty, dozíral na gymnázium a nepochybně pokračoval v práci na Obecné poradě. V roce 1649 se potřetí oženil a za manželku 33

44 pojal Janu Gajusovou. Zanedlouho dostal pozvání do Uher, aby zde pomohl reformovat školu. Činnost Komenského v Uhrách Komenský šel do Uher dvakrát. Nejprve aby si vyjednal práci v Blatném Potoku na tamním gymnáziu, pak aby si vyjednal v Potoku delší pobyt. Při obou cestách navštívil bratrské sbory na Slovensku ve Skalici, Púchově aj. V Potoku měl plnou podporu kněžny i knížete Zikmunda Rákocziho. Komenský zde vypracoval plán sedmitřídní pansofické školy. Pro nedostatečnou úroveń žáků došlo však k uskutečnění jen trojtřídní školy. Stále se však potýkal s nedostatkem aktivity, s leností a lhostejností žáků. K odstranění těchto překážek směřoval spis Fortius revidivus (Vzkříšený Fortius čili jak vyhnat ze škol lenost) a Praecepta morum (Pravidla chování). Ilustrovaná učebnice Lucidarium vznikla ještě v Uhrách a vydána byla v roce Při prvním vydání se tato kniha jmenovala Orbis pictus. Podobnou funkci zpříjemnit vzdělávání měla také Schola ludus. Na zpáteční cestě z Potoku se zastavil Komenský opět na mnoha místech na Slovensku, zejména v proslulých školách v Prešově a Levoči, kde ho s úctou vítali. Třetí a poslední pobyt Komenského v Lešně V Lešně zaměstnávaly Komenského opět církevní povinnosti a práce na Obecné poradě. Zde vytvořil dílo Panegyricus Carolo Gustavo, a to při příležitosti nástupu Karla Gustava na švédský trůn. Lešno už však nebylo ono známé tolerantní město v tolerantním státě. Komenský zde přišel o dům, veškerý majetek, nejvíce však želel ztráty knihovny a rukopisů. Celou tuto katastrofu Komenský vylíčil ve spise Lesnae Excidium (Ztráta Lešna). Poslední útočiště Komenského v Nizozemí Do Holandska přišel na pozvání pana Laurentia de Geer. Městská rada mu v Amsterdamu nabídla čestnou profesuru a finanční podporu, aby mohl vydávat své knihy. K vydání připravil starší spisy pro školy jako např. Diogenes cynicus. Mnoho práce věnoval jednotě bratrské, např. Manuálník, Kancionál. Dále vydává čtvrtý díl Truchlivého - Smutný hlas zaplašeného hněvem Božím pastýře k rozplašenému hynoucímu stádu. Komenský psal i spisy politické. Příkladem je i Angelus pacis (Posel míru). Toto dílo nabádá ke smíru Anglii a Nizozemí. V posledních čtrnácti letech Komenského života vznikly dva velké projekty, v nichž Komenský vyjádřil ideál dílny lidskosti v nápravě škol i ve společenské všenápravě. První byl soubor vychovatelských prací Opera didactica omnia. Druhý zůstal v rukopise jako velkolepé torzo. Toto dílo Komenský nazval De rerum humanarum emendatione consultatio catholica (Obecná porada o nápravě věcí lidských). Z posledních let Komenského se nám dochovalo několik rukopisů, jako např. Triertium catholicum (Trojumění obecné), Unum necessarium (Jednoho je potřebí). 15. listopadu 1670 J. A. Komenský zemřel v Amsterodamu, pohřben je v Naardenu. 3.2 CITÁTY A MYŠLENKY J. A. KOMENSKÉHO I/ Obecně o člověku a výchově I/1: Kdyby nás kdy Bůh uznal za hodny slitování, především se musí pomoci mládeži co nejrychlejším zřízením škol, které je nutno opatřiti dobrými učebnicemi a světlou učební methodou... 34

45 I/2: Vláda věcí tvých tobě se zase navrátí, ó lide český... I/3: (J.A.K. o Labyrintu světa ráji srdce):...jest světlé vymalování, kterak v tom světě a věcech jako nic není matení a motání, kolotání a lopotování, mámení a šalby, bída a tesknost a naposledy omrzení všeho a zoufání, ale kdož doma v srdci svém sedě s jediným pánem Bohem se uzavírá, ten sám k plnému a pravému mysli uspokojení a radosti že přichází... I/4: Didaktika - jest umění umělého vyučování, kterak by totiž člověk dřív než na těle vzrost a stav svůj zlepšil, všemu tomu, což ku potřebě a ozdobám přítomného a budoucího života přináleží, šťastně, snadně, plně vyučen, a tak potěšeně k životu obojímu nastrojen býti mohl... I/5: (J.A.K. o Informatoriu školy mateřské) pořádná a zřetelná zpráva, kterak rodičové pobožní i sami skrze chůvy, pěstouny a jiné pomocníky své nejdražší svůj klenot, dítky své milé v prvním jejich a počátečním věku rozumně a počestně k slávě Bohu, sobě ku potěšení, dítkám pak svým ku spasení vésti a cvičiti mají... I/ mnoho se ptát, podržet to v paměti a učit tomu je tajemství celého vzdělání. Vzájemným srovnáváním vespolek se zhodnotí... I/7: starostí učitelů bude, aby dobrým příkladem vedli žáky účinně ke všemu dobrému. Vedení, které záleží jen v slovech a předpisech, nemá sílu, může přinést jen hubený prospěch. Naši učitelé tedy nesmějí být podobni sloupům u cest, které pouze ukazují, kam se má jít, ale samy nejdou I/8:..od snadného k obtížnějšímu, od známého k neznámému, od jednoduchého k složitému, od blízkého k vzdálenému, od konkrétního k abstraktnímu... II/ O slovu, jazykovém vyjadřování a verbálním sdělování: II/1:..tedy slovům ať se vyučuje a učí jen ve spojení s věcmi, tak jako se prodává, kupuje a přenáší víno s nádobou, meč s pochvou, dřevo s kůrou, ovoce se slupkou. Neboť co jiného než slova než obaly a pochvy věcí? II/2:..tedy kterémukoliv jazyku se budou žáci učit, i mateřskému, buďtež jim ukazovány věci, které mají býti slovy, a naopak zase, aby dovedli vyjádřit slovy, cokoliv vidí a slyší, čeho se dotknou a cokoliv ochutnají, aby jazyk a rozum vždycky pokračoval a zdokonaloval se souběžně... II/3:..ať tedy platí jako pravidlo: kolik kdo rozumí, tolik ať zvyká vyjadřovat, a naopak, co pronáší tomu ať se učí rozumět. My vzděláváme lidi a chceme je vzdělat úsporně, to se stane, když bude řeč s věcmi a věci s řečí půjdou spolu stejným krokem... II/4:..toliko bude potřebí umění udržovat pozornost celku i jednotlivců, aby byli přesvědčení, že ústa jsou oním pramenem, z něhož k nim plynou potůčky vědění, a kdykoliv zpozorují, že se tento pramen otvírá, ať zvykají hned nastavovat nádobu pozornosti, aby nic neodteklo mimo... II/5:..tedy přední péčí učitelovou tu bude nic nemluvit, než když žáci poslouchají, a ničemu neučit, než kdy jsou pozorní, neboť platí-li připomenutí Senecovo, platí zde: "Nikomu se nemá něco říkat, než tomu, kdo chce slyšet"... II/6:..bude-li mysl na začátku každé práce buď získaná doporučením látky, jež má být probrána, nebo bude-li podnícena dáváním otázek, buď o tom, co již bylo předneseno, aby se tak předešlo souvisle k přítomnému učivu, nebo o tom, co se má předkládat, aby žák poznal po té stránce svou nevědomost a tím se dal podnítit k dychtivějšímu přijímání výkladu o té věci... 35

46 II/7:..jestliže někdy uprostřed práce přeruší řeč (rozuměj učitel) a řekne: Ty nebo ty, co jsem nyní řekl? Opakuj tuto větu! Ty, pověz jak jsme na to přišli?..a podobně podle stavu každé třídy. Bude-li někdo postižen při nepozornosti, budiž hned pokárán nebo potrestán, tak se zbystří bedlivá pozornost... II/8:..Hlas mluvčího má být klidný a měkký, nikoli hlučný, aby jím uši odlehly, nebo rovný šepotu, jenž sotva dojde k uchu. Musíš-li se v řeči dotknout něčeho neslušného, požádej předem o odpuštění, nebo věc opiš, aby se to, co je neslušné, dostávalo k uchu a k mysli slušně zabaleno... II/9:..skákat do řeči tomu, kdo mluví, dřív než dokončil řeč, je velmi neslušné...všechno má být podáváno krátce a jadrně, aby se rozum odmykal jakoby klíčem a věci se otvíraly před ním samy... II/10:..vzdělávat řádně mládež neznamená cpát do jejich hlav směsici slov, frází, výroků a myšlenek, sebranou ze spisovatelů, nýbrž otvírat jim porozumění pro věci, aby z něho jako ze živého pramene prýštily potůčky a jako by z pupenců stromů vyrůstalo listí, květy a ovoce, druhého pak roku aby zase z každičkého pupence vyrůstala nová větvička se svým listím, květem a ovocem.. III/ O pohybu, o tváři, držení těla III/1:..život je oheň a oheň pak nemá-li volného vzduchu a plápolání, hasne. Tak i dětem je třeba, aby každodenní hýbání svá měla... III/2:..hrát se má tak, aby hra prospívala stejně tělesnému zdraví jako duševní svěžesti. Proto nepřipouštíme hry, které unavují tělo přílišnou prudkostí nebo oslabují ducha i tělo. Sem patří hry, které hrají žáci v sedě a které napínají mysl buď nadějí na výsledek, nebo strachem z něho, např. hry, kde rozhoduje náhoda... hry našich žáků musejí záležet v pohybu, procházce, běhu, mírném skoku atd.. III/3:..hrát se má tak, aby naše hry byly převážně předehrou vážných věcí. Mohou tedy žáci vycházet z města, prohlížet si stromy, rostliny, pole, vinice, i práci. Také se jim může ukázat, jak se staví a jsou-li na stavbě řemeslníci, mohou se žáci podívat, jak pracují... III/4:..bude-li se náležitě dbát všeho, co bylo uvedeno, dosáhneme toho, že hra nebude hrou, nýbrž vážnou věcí, to znamená buď upevněním zdraví, nebo duševním odpočinkem, nebo předehrou jednání v životě nebo tím vším... III/5:..postav se zpříma, smekni, tvář neměj smutnou nebo zamračenou, ani drzou nebo těkavou, nýbrž buď skromný a přívětivý, čelo buď hladké nesvraštělé, oči nechť nejsou roztěkány, nehledí úkosem, nekruť jimi... neupínej je bůhví kam, naopak nechť jsou oči vážné, vždy slušně obráceny k tomu, s nímž mluvíš... III/6:..ústa neměj otevřena, roztažena, vyšpulena nebo silně zavřena, nýbrž zavřena tak, aby se rty navzájem lehce dotýkaly, do rtů se nekousej a tím méně vyplazuj nebo ukazuj jazyk... III/7:..ramena měj ve stejné výši, nevysunuj jedno nahoru a druhé dolů..ruce se nesmějí pohybovat, to znamená: ani se jimi neškrábej na hlavě, ni v uších, ani nedloubej v nose, nenatáčej si jimi vlasy, ani nedělej podobné nevhodné věci... IV/ O dorozumění mezi učitelem a žáky: IV/1:..pedagog se musí snažit, aby jeho práce plně odpovídala jeho jménu, to jest musí žáka nebo žáky ustavičně vést, pracovat s nimi a pomáhat jim, aby stále a dobře prospívali...ať každý miluje svého učitele upřímně jako druhého otce, ať ho ctí a ve všem na slovo poslouchá... 36

47 IV/2:..pozornosti bude dosaženo, jestliže učitel, stoje na vyšším místě, bude se dívat na všechny strany a nebude trpět nikomu, aby dělal něco jiného, než navzájem upínal oči na něj. Pozornost můžeme podporovat tím, že předvedeme všecko tolika smyslům, kolika je možno... IV/3:..celkem tedy mladý, který touží vniknout v taje věd, musí dosáhnout čtvero, totiž: a/ aby měl čisté okno duševní, b/ aby byly k němu přibližovány předměty, c/ aby vládla pozornost, d/ aby se mu podávalo k zření jedno po druhém a náležitou metodou, pochopí všechno jistě a čile... IV/, čemu se mají žáci ve škole naučit, budiž názorně předváděno, aby se na to žáci mohli podívat a pak to nelze vyjádřit ani slovem, ani obrazem, má být přece jen vyjádřeno napodobováním, v tom budiž učitel sám živým vzorem... někdy lze místo věcí, když jich není, užíti náhrady, totiž modelu nebo obrazů, pořízených za účely školskými... IV/5:...knihy ať jsou velmi přesné, avšak psány přístupně. Mají býti sepsány formou dialogickou. Není nic důvěrnějšího, nic přirozenějšího nad rozmluvou. Rozmluvy vzbuzují, oživují a podporují pozornost. Forma dialogu upevňuje vědění... IV/6:..nic není marnějšího, než vědět a učit se mnoho, totiž co přinese užitku, a moudrý je ne ten, kdo ví mnoho věcí, nýbrž ten, kdo ví užitečné věci, proto bude možno ušetřit práci škol, když se ušetří leccos i z věcí... IV/7:..při zkoušení nechť všichni dávají pozor, aby mohl odpovědět každý, komu bude dána otázka. Všichni ať si zvykají číst, psát a mluvit přesně, rozčlánkovaně, ať se vyhýbají všem nejasnostem. IV/8:..když dáš otázku jednomu a ten vázne, hned přeskoč na druhého, třetího.. a žádej odpověď, ale otázku neopakuj...také se může státi, neví-li něco jeden nebo druhý, že se dá otázka celé třídě. Buď pochválen přede všemi ten, co odpověděl správně PRÁCE S CITÁTY A MYŠLENKAMI J. A. K. V předchozích stránkách jsme se seznámili s osobností J.A. Komenského, který s obrovským celoživotním nasazením plnil poslání duchovního, pedagoga, reformátora výchovy a systému vzdělávání, spisovatele, politika a vlastence a v neposlední řadě také manžela a otce rodiny. V jeho objemné bibliografii jsme nalezli mnoho citátů, výroků a myšlenek, se kterými můžeme aktivně pracovat a hledat dnešní souvislosti. 1.5 Příklad Zadání: Na dalších stránkách jsou autentické ukázky Komenského přístupu k výchově, vzdělání, člověku v roli učitele i žáka a také ke komunikaci mezi lidmi. Naším úkolem je vybrat jeden citát, porozumět jeho obsahu, převyprávět interpretovat jeho obsah dnešními jazykovými prostředky, porovnat s osobním pohledem, pokusit se aplikovat na příkladu z osobní zkušenosti a nakonec zdůvodnit, proč je či není dnešní současný nadčasový. 37

48 1.5.2 postup: VÝBĚR CITÁTU IV/5:...knihy ať jsou velmi přesné, avšak psány přístupně. Mají býti sepsány formou dialogickou. Není nic důvěrnějšího, nic přirozenějšího nad rozmluvu. Rozmluvy vzbuzují, oživují a podporují pozornost. Forma dialogu upevňuje vědění... Jeho interpretace jak rozumím jeho obsahu: Komenský obrátil pozornost k učebnicím, pro které máme dnešní název pedagogické texty (viz téma č.1). Už ve své době vznášel požadavek na jejich autory, aby mysleli méně na sebe a více na ty, kteří z učebnic získávají nové poznatky. Neznamená to, že by pedagogické texty měly být málo odborné ( přesné ), odbornost by však měla být zprostředkována takovým způsobem, kterému budou čtenáři rozumět. Za nejpodstatnější Komenský považoval způsob (formu, styl), jakým psané slovo promlouvá ke čtenáři. Jeho základním znakem má být dialogičnost ve smyslu rozmluvy mezi autorem, přibližovanými poznatky a studentem. Takováto interakce podporuje příjímání nových znalostí, urychluje zvnitřnění a upevňuje jejich místo v našem poznatkovém systému. Moje stanovisko (a příklad): Mnohokrát se mi stalo, že jsem hodnotili výkon učitele slovy: Určitě je to odborník ve svém oboru, ale naučit neumí. Nebo naopak jsem ocenil vyváženost pedagogicko-didaktické složky s hloubkou vědních znalostí. Obdobné hodnocení platí i pro pedagogické texty, ze kterých čerpáme nové poznatky. Na jejich pojetí a celkový přístup také klademe požadavek, aby byly nám uživatelům přístupné při zachování odbornosti i náročnosti. Ona přístupnost by měla vyplývat nejen z volby jazykových prostředků (jak konkrétně k nám autor promlouvá), didaktické transformace poznatků (jakými metodami a postupy převádí vědecké poznatky do podoby srozumitelného učiva), ale také použitým stylem. Líbí se mi především ty publikace, kde nepřicházím k balíku hotových poznatků, naopak jsem lehce zmaten nejednotností pohledů na popisované téma. Nezbývá mi (v nejlepším slova smyslu) než hledat pravdu v polemice (či dialogu) se všemi směry autorova uvažování a mým osobním názorem. O prospěšnosti tohoto způsobu by mohly nejlépe hovořit zbývající mozkové závity, které vlastním. Naopak se občas setkávám s knihami, jejichž sdělovaný obsah přes veškerou snahu autora i čtenáře zůstává nesrozumitelný a těžko pochopitelný. Jako příklad mám na mysli (cituji): referenční uživatelskou příručku k jednomu výkonnému a oblíbenému grafickému editoru. Softwarový manuál je sice plný barevných ilustrací, příkladů a vzorových postupů, nicméně pro běžného uživatele je styl a vedení čtenáře mnohastránkovým textem trnitou cestou, která příliš nerozšiřuje jeho poznání. Možná je nepodstatné, možná má význam, že autory jsou inženýři, jejichž jména jsem dosud nezaznamenal v pedagogických souvislostech. Je jeho obsah současný dnešní nadčasový? O pojetí a obsahu mnohých učebnic můžeme směle polemizovat a diskutovat, ne tak o citátu J.A.K, který jsem si z mnoha vybral. Pro všechny dnešní i budoucí tvůrce pedagogických textů bezpečně platí to, co nám zanechal na necelých třech řádcích Praktická aplikace úkoly, činnosti, dovednosti 38

49 Váš úkol je stejný, jak byl uveden na předchozím příkladu. Záměrem je vybrat jeden citát, porozumět jeho obsahu, vysvětlit ho dnešními jazykovými prostředky, vyjádřit osobní názor s příklady a zdůvodnit, proč je či není dnešní současný - nadčasový. (Pozn. na další straně můžete pokračovat v této zajímavé činnosti) VÝBĚR CITÁTU Jeho interpretace jak rozumím jeho obsahu: Moje stanovisko (a příklad): Je jeho obsah současný dnešní nadčasový? Pojmy k zapamatování (klíčová slova) bonmot, citát, didaktika, encyklopedie, exil, faktografie, chialistický, interpretace, narativní, pansofie, reforma, rekatolizace, rekonstrukce, sympatie, tolerance. 39

50 Otázky k přemýšlení o Vyberte z uváděných citátů J. A. Komenského ty, u kterých jste přesvědčeni, že jsou poplatny době svého vzniku, a tedy nemají větší duchovní význam pro dnešní společnost, resp. pedagogiku. Stačí vybrat 1 2 a zdůvodnit vaše stanovisko. o Vyberte z uváděných citátů J. A. Komenského ty, u kterých jste přesvědčeni, že jsou nadčasové, a tedy mají větší duchovní význam pro současnost, ať již z obecnějšího důvodů nebo pro pedagogické myšlení, o dnešní společnost, resp. pedagogiku. Stačí vybrat 1 2 a zdůvodnit vaše stanovisko. o Uvažujete: nakolik se v díle Komenského (a tedy i jeho myšlenkách) projevila skutečnost, že byl duchovní a silně věřící člověk? Brání nebo naopak rozvíjí víra (v jeho případě) myšlenkový odkazu? o Nejen z cvičných důvodů prolistujte celými skripty a vyberte z úvodů kapitoly ty citáty a myšlenky, které jsou Vám blízké a zdůvodněte, proč a v čem. Souhrn 1.6 Shrnutí: důsledky pro práci s citáty a výroky moudrých Pokud jste nabyli dojmu, že jsme pod poměrně atraktivní téma citáty bonmoty slavné výroky rafinovaně uschovali poznatky o J.A. Komenském, nebudete daleko od pravdy. Nicméně záměr byl zřejmý: pokud chceme porozumět postojům a myšlenkám lidí, kteří nám imponují svými názory, bylo by dobré, kdybychom o nich věděli více, než kolik nám dává tušit věta či odstavec po nich pozůstalých citátů. Odpovědět na otázku v úvodu kapitoly: co s citáty, je jednoduché i složité zároveň. Pokud chceme být především pasivními adresáty cizího uvažování, opravdu stačí citát přečíst, zasmát se, přitakat či odsoudit jeho obsah. Jiná situace nastává, pokud chceme být v aktivnější interakci s myšlenkami i jeho autorem. Pak jde o hledání hlubších souvislostí, obsahu, s častým srovnáváním autorových postojů s našimi a ve finalitě pak přijetí poznatků ve smyslu osobního obohacení. Vyzkoušíme si to druhé na následujícím příkladu. Tahák (dobré rady nad zlato) Vůbec nemusíte mít obavu ze situace, kdy máte říci, co si myslíte o myšlence nebo citátu, jehož znění čtete poprvé a třeba před větším počtem posluchačů. Klidně můžete začít slovy, že textu zatím nerozumíte, ale že se to pokusíte změnit. Prvotní je získat čas. Pak výrok opakovaně pročítejte, až se dostane na úroveň bezproblémového vnímání a dojde k vytváření prvních myšlenkových spojů a vztahů. To již umožňuje, abyste do pléna sdělili řečnickou otázku tak o čem ten citát myšlenka vlastně je. Pokusíte se o převyprávění jeho obsahu svými slovy a dnešní dikcí. Naše zkušenosti říkají, že se začne rozjasňovat a mnozí studenti začnou postupně v plném rozsahu chápat, o co autorovi jde. V interpretaci můžete zdůraznit zajímavé myšlenky slova postoje, které se vám velmi hodí při formulování vlastního názoru na dané téma. Polemiku (srovnávání) moudrých vět s naším postojem ocení obvykle všichni zúčastnění i v případě nesouhlasu či zdůvodněného odmítání. Možná se hned 40

51 nepodaří nalézt vhodný příklad, který by doložil vztah k tématu, nevadí. Podstatnější je, že jsme to nevzdali a naopak si vyzkoušeli zajímavou formu rozvíjení našich myšlenkových a komunikačních dovedností. Literatura BLOCH, A. (1993), HOLUB, M. (1987), KOMENSKÝ, J.A. (1947, 1948), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2009), PRŮCHA, J., WALTEROVÁ, E., MAREŠ, J. (1997) další reedice, SVATOŠ, T. (2009a). Pozn.: úplné bibliografické citace jsou uvedeny v závěrečném seznamu použité literatury. 41

52 CHAPTER 4: HOW TO MAKE ÚVODEM MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATIONS Talking about multimedia is a lot like talking about love. Everybody agrees that it's a good thing, everybody wants it, wants to participate in it, but everybody has a different idea of what 'it' really is. Now the multimedia industry makes me think of teenagers dabbling in something that instinctively feels right. Georgia McCabe Objectives The first two chapters presented the issues of how to create and communicate text information. This chapter wants to combine the creation of information into a higher unit through presentation and explain what approaches we now take towards multimedia education and why presentations can be useful in the educational process. With regard to the skills acquired, the student will be able to, after studying this chapter understand the basic terms relating to the material means of instruction and focusing on the new technologies in education ; describe the multimedia chain and characterise its elements; determine the general principles for the creation of multimedia presentations; apply them in the bootstrapped creation of a presentation with a specific subject area within the studied teaching qualifications. Intensity of Acquisition Low intensity - to understand the educational theory and to verify it in skill-based practice. Situation I really have a positive attitude to technical means and unlike Miroslav Horníček (as he once put it), I can see the difference between an iron and other electrical appliances. This is also why I welcomed the once new opportunity to produce media presentations for my students. The necessary technical equipment was available even at that time: a computer with the necessary program equipment (the well-known PowerPoint of MS Office), as well as a robust data projector which produced reliable light in the auditorium for 300 listeners! After one year of using this method in my lectures, I asked my students for feedback to the then state-of-the-art exploitation of technology in the university practice. I, of course, expected clearly positive reactions and so-to-say even a standing ovation. All of this came partly true; nonetheless, I can still remember one student writing the following opinion: The presentations are a disaster; the text is lost in loads of colours; my eyes are tired from flying over the headings up and down, and the best 'smasher' is that in the end, the author gives himself a big hand through a recorded sound effect'. I believe that the following chapter will give my readers a chance for their presentations to receive much more lenient reactions than 42

53 my early work did. Basic Theory Perspective 4.1 VAGUE TERMINOLOGY There are many terminological ambiguities about multimedia, so for a good insight, let us now define a few key terms: Multi-: As the first part of many compound words, many dictionaries and encyclopaedias say it means multiplicity', multiple of something. Medium: This one is generally connoted to the word mediation as a mediating agent, means, environment or person. Dictionaries and encyclopaedias specify this term depending on the field it is used in. In theories of communication, medium is a component mediating the process of transmission of information, the technical means of communication. The medium is the message (Marshall McLuhan) Electronic educational media (EEM) mean educational programs mediated to users through electronic media aimed at facilitating the process of learning, self-learning and the current and future self-development of a learning subject through an elaborate structure of text, visual and auditory information. New technologies in education mean time-accentuated educational procedures drawing on the material and technical development and bringing new and nontraditional opportunities for the teacher s teaching activities and student s learning, and program support of these procedures. The current scientific sources give a variety of definitions of the term multimedia, most of which are articulated using the technical language, and educational intentions are rather indirectly indicated. For instance: Multimedia means computer-integrated, time-dependent or time-independent media which can be interactively (meaning individually and selectively) produced or analysed (Sokolowsky, Šedivá, 2002). For a good understanding, it is appropriate to explain what new technologies in education mean, how they follow the standard instructional means and why they are different and what is typical of them. 4.2 NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION In the educational context, the term technology in education (with the later attribute 'new') is used very often and in many forms. It is a part of the didactic vocabulary (didactics = theory of teaching and education) and has both theoretic and practical forms. Most frequently, technologies in education are a part of the didactic system contained in each teaching hour or providing material and program support during a lesson enhancing its overall effect. The general meaning of the term educational technology is linked to each educational and instructional activity where it is the basic didactic variable. For instance, Maňák (1994) says in the general model of an educational activity that educational technology is the second most important part of the didactic model together with stages of teaching. 43

54 Another meaning of this term expresses specific material, technical and software support of teaching. The standard terminology speaks about teaching aids, didactic equipment and teaching programs (or teaching software). Categorisation of didactic means is not coherent, or it develops over time depending on the technical and technological progress intervening into normal lessons. The classical means of educational technology include equipment enabling curriculum visualisation (based on overhead, film or television projection), equipment reproducing acoustic information (based on optic, magnetic or mechanic sound recordings) and other means. Basically, they are used independently during lessons and do not normally create any interconnected didactic units. The third meaning of this term (new educational technologies) includes the current technically-technological didactic units symbolising the term multimedia. It means an intentional combination of a variety of didactic (material and non-material) means in a single and meaningful functional unit. The following definition must be mentioned to unite the approach to this topic area in its further interpretation (Průcha, Walterová and Mareš, 1995, p. 228): Technology in education: In a broader context, it means projection and objectivisation of such technology procedures enabling optimal management of a learner s learning in educational situations. It is not a set of knowledge recommended to be used in practice where it is up to the teacher and the learner what they choose, but it comprises comprehensive management procedures 'built in' special programs (in special textbooks, computer programs, trainers, simulators). Their projection draws on the knowledge from cognitive psychology, psychology of motivation, psychology of management, theory of regulation, artificial intelligence, etc. In a narrower perspective, it means the exploitation of technical means (computers, television equipment, etc.) in education. Standard didactic means basis of new technologies in education New educational technologies open up new opportunities not only for the current, but also for the future education. They draw on the previous development of material and non-material means of education, thus creating the necessary continuity. Current educational technologies are based on the classical (standard) didactic means known and used by teachers and learners since the 1960s. No single typology is known and used even in this area. It is usually due to a non-uniform selection of the classification criterion. The most general classification covers the basic nature of didactic means which are further divided into material (tangible) and non-material (intellectual) means. The material means are then subdivided into teaching aids and didactic equipment. Maňák s classification (1994, pp ) is a classical and fully convenient typology. The current trends in technology-supported education involve the mutual connection of particular means and their integration with other technologies (especially audio-visual technologies and computer networks). In a simplified way, this group of interconnected didactic means (meaning both hardware and software) is called multimedia. New multimedia-based technologies in education The new educational technologies grew up on the basis of classical (standard) didactic means. They have outmatched them in particular through interconnection and 44

55 opening of new opportunities for all participants in education. The new educational technologies apparently have at least three components: a) application and possibilities of computer networks (known as intranet and internet, online libraries, video- and audio-conferences); b) multimedia (hypertext, video sequences, animation, graphically produced information); c) a variety of mobile means for fast access to information (Freely according to Průcha, Walterová and Mareš, 2003 p. 139). What do the multimedia definitions have in common? To pass educational information, several types of presentations can be used text information, computer graphics, auditory and audio-visual components and dynamic presentation methods (as provided schematically in Figure 1), Attention is centred on the didactic aspects (no multimedia presentation is accidental; it always performs pre-defined intentions and objectives; the didactic principle of a learner s activity and the illustrative nature are on the front burner; the roles of the teacher and multimedia in relation to the learner are identified, including the outcomes, i.e. changes to be achieved as a result of instruction); Psychological aspects are both considered and used' (aspects of sensory perception during human learning; active participation in learning; motivation, effects of visualisation and repetition on remembering and its quality, etc.); Interactivity is principally used (active selection and access to the mediaunited information, or management of the learning process and its evaluation); Multimedia presentations are mediated through more sophisticated technical systems where computer technology plays a crucial role. Only computer technology can transform information from a variety of sources into a common environment through the process of digitalisation. The result (=multimedia presentation) is displayed on a television screen or projected through a data projector. (The most recent presentation possibilities offer individual visual display units (VDUs) for virtual reality, glasses and monitors for augmented reality, etc.) The increasing number of multimedia presentations is a trend in the use of multimedia in school and out-of-school (e.g. corporate) education, which is a proof of constant interest in their creation. The following definition of multimedia education can thus be formed on the basis of the above information: It is one of the new educational technologies which uses in order to perform the educational intentions - the parallel effects of educational information from a variety of media sources that are intentionally and purposefully united (commonly in an electronic format) and interactively offered to a learner for sensory perception and intellectual analysis. Figure 3: Multimedia Presentation Components (According to Chapman and Chapman, 2004) 45

56 (hyper)text graphics pictures sound video animation Multimedia Presentation Multimedia presentation components Text component of multimedia presentations In multimedia presentations, the text component accounts for more than 50% of all presented information ( Its aim is not only to bring cognitive content, but also to search and combine knowledge units through text references (this is the so-called hypertext activated by the user). On the one hand, the text is produced fairly fast (in the usual graphic editor), but on the other hand, there are many problems with its specific form. Graphic component of media presentations The purpose of graphic information in the educational multimedia is to mediate the curriculum (subject matter) to users in a visual way, most frequently through pictures, figures, tables, charts, schemes or photographs. The scenic background and control elements (buttons, icons, pictograms) also have their own graphic form. The quality of the graphic aspect of a presentation is reflected in efforts for a single visual style. Acoustic component of media presentations Likewise, the aim of the acoustic component is to open up another information channel through activation of auditory perception. The acoustic part usually has two purposes: It is a bearer of additional information and an accompanying element (auditory background) creating the necessary atmosphere. The multimedia understand only digital acoustic information. This is why all acoustic components (voice recordings, instrumental accompaniment, or theme music) must be digitised and saved in an acoustic format which the user of the presentation has available. Audio-visual component of media presentations The means of audio-visual communication (in particular television) have been accompanying education for several decades and have had a certain tradition in various types of school in our conditions, as well. Logically, their development heads towards their functional integration within multimedia programs where they bear dynamic actions with a visual and auditory component. 4.3 WORKING WITH VISUAL MATERIALS Term: visual materials: (according to Mareš, 1995) 46

57 It is a collective term for a wide scale of materials, including those giving a fairly true picture of reality (photographs, instructional film sequences, video programme, realistic drawing) or even more general and abstract expression of reality based on certain conventions (a simple picture or drawing, map, scheme, diagram, and chart). Such didactically shaped materials, dominated by non-verbal elements, can thus be used in learning. The majority of texts one uses to learn from have at least two aspects: verbal and non-verbal (visual). The latter aspect (non-verbal or visual) is harder to grasp in terms of research. Looking at human learning from a learner s development perspective (from the position of developmental psychology), we can see clear differences during the preschool, school and adult periods. Learning from visual materials is based on an analysis of visual information. Its principle is both about capturing the perceived image and determining the place where it can be gradually stored, and about mental processes analysing the image perceived. The information contained in an image is clearly perceived on a selective basis. The image can be decomposed into individual elements; their mutual relations are identified. The image elements are combined in certain groups and prioritised. The selected information is then stored in sensory memory. Certain information, meaning the prioritised information, is recoded and stored in short-term memory. During subsequent selection, the information which one regards as important moves to long-term memory (for months or years), which results in the reorganisation of the existing stored information. If necessary, the visual information is normally accessible in individual types of memory and can be retrieved in order to be re-used. Levels of communicating visual information Similarly to verbal communication, visual communication, too, offers three levels of information: Syntactic: Asking questions like: In what manner is it displayed? How do the individual elements relate to each other? Answers can be different: In the front, at the back, from the outside, inside, touching, intersecting, following, growing from Semantic: Asking questions like: What is it? What is its meaning-sense? Pragmatic: Asking questions like: Can I do anything according to this picture? What is the best procedure to follow during the displayed activity? Table 2: Aspects for Analysing an Illustration (Goldsmith, 1987, p. 55) Communication levels Visual factors syntactic semantic pragmatic Illustration s integrity Spatial localisation Emphasis scaling Illustration-text relation

58 Detailed research has assigned four visual factors to these three levels (Goldsmith, 1987). The number of aspects to analyse an illustration (visual material) has been expanded to twelve (see Table 5). Functions of visual information The visual materials contained in didactic texts can fulfil a range of functions (even several at a time). We will specify the psycho-didactic functions of images with an emphasis on the relations between the image the text the curriculum. Decorative function The picture has no material relation to the remaining text. It can be provided for a variety of reasons. For instance, it should fill in a too empty space or make the text more interesting and thus more easily to sell for a normal reader. Representative function Its aim is to create adequate image ideas in learners. The picture has no direct relation to the text, but is its visual paraphrase. The concepts and relations described in the text are concretised and displayed collectively. It can be a fairly realistic illustration of things and phenomena at various degrees of schematisation (charts and diagrams). Organising function Its aim is to arrange the existing knowledge and ideas in an appropriate manner and feed them with coherence. Another mission is to provide a learner with a guideline like how is this related to each other, what to do if, what happens if. For instance, this group includes visual instructions for performing a certain activity, phased images, an orientation map or a map of a certain locality, a flowchart of a certain activity. Interpreting function Its aim is to facilitate the learners understanding of the curriculum which is known to make the biggest difficulties. The visual material has an uneasy task: to create the right ideas in learners and prevent any misapprehensions. Transforming function Its aim is to affect the manner in which a learner learns and the way of analysing information. 4.4 MODELS OF MULTIMEDIA EDUCATION Teacher and student amid new educational technologies An effective use of multimedia in education is conditioned by many circumstances. Remarkably, it is primarily the degree of a learner's independence to study or his/her dependence on the educational and social environment which is worth mentioning (in addition to intentions). Generally, there are five basic educational models differentiating the distance between an educator and an educated person: Table 3: Models of Education and Role of Multimedia (Svatoš, 2006) Model of education Non-contact instructionopen education (public media, Role of multimedia Commonly the only source of information volumes, means of motivation and positive 48

59 foundations) Non-contact instructiondistance learning (organised by a school institution) Part-time study Contact (full-time) form of study-higher level Contact (full-time) form of study-lower level stimulation, learning management to a lesser extent, no interactivity A means of education management, source of information with interactivity, source of feedback, initiator of self-education and selfevaluation Prevailing source of targeted information, selflearning coordinator relating to direct instruction, assignments for consultations substitution of a teaching hour, presentation of the curriculum in its entirety, integration of sources of information in a single media whole Segment of the teaching hour project (audiovisual illustration, exposition of a certain part of the curriculum, testing and other common didactic functions) A pedagogue and students meet every day during normal contact instruction. A multimedia presentation combined with the teacher s real influence can effectively regulate student learning and provide the necessary assistance. The image of the student (and especially of his/her learning process and knowledge of needs) is fairly vague and distant in distant forms of study. Tham and Werner (2005, in: Mareš, 2004) pointed to this fact, speaking about invisible students for whom it is very difficult to create the mechanisms for managing their learning. A user of electronic educational media is apparently a crucial variable which should impact on the creative reasoning when producing and using multimedia programs in educational practice. The new educational technologies are a step forward in the development of didactic means supporting the educational intentions. They are generally characterised by: integrity (interconnection of particular means into higher units); multimedia nature (various information presented from one source); interactivity (a user is actively engaged in the teaching-learning process); higher importance of the relationship between hardware (technical means) and software (educational programs); independence of educational roles (especially greater independence for a learner); opening of relatively new forms of study (distance learning, e-learning, blended learning, individualised instruction) based on the management of an individual s learning activities and supporting self-education. 49

60 These technologies are on the boundary of technical equipment, media technologies and educational use. Their description is usually ambiguous for they represent the focus of individual curriculum subjects. 4.5 CREATION OF MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATIONS Production of multimedia presentations (authoring) Technologically, as well as from the user s perspective, a multimedia presentation is normally a set of internally arranged educational information (text, auditory, graphic or audio-visual information) searched by the user (the instructor or the learner) through the user interface (searching software) and subsequently displayed on a computer's screen or projecting screen. The very essence of the media education makes it clear that creating a presentation is a sophisticated procedure assuming teamwork (especially if made at a professional level) and professional specialisation. The pedagogue author of the media project plays a crucial and indispensable role. A presentation must follow the input intentions and pathways to their continuous fulfilment; dose the curriculum units with regard to the learners psychological and didactic profile; ensure the necessary study activities and continuous motivations; guarantee the functionality and interconnectedness of all presentation parts; intermediate feedback and evaluate learning activities, etc. Sophisticated projects are mostly developed in the forms of education focused on independent learning activities relating to the part-time forms of study and distance learning ( non-contact forms of instruction ). In direct instruction, the new educational technologies play a less important role and often account for a minor part of the teaching process. (This can be documented by recent publications about general didactics, cp. SKALKOVÁ, J. Obecná didaktika. Praha: Grada, 2007, 2. rozšířené vydání; or: KALHOUS, Z., OBST, O. Školní didaktika. Praha: Portál, Vyd. 1.). This is why they can be developed (usually through self-help) with lower demands for team cooperation and quality of the final product. Still, individual components of a multimedia presentation must be produced with regard to the entrusted functions and their importance in the educational whole. Practical approach to multimedia production (Myška, 2008) When preparing a presentation, its author must, among other things, consider the following: Whether the presentation is designed for self-instruction (for being viewed on a computer screen by one person) or whether it is to be used as a supportive means by the instructor during a lecture. How many people will take part in the presentation (the size of the lecture hall and the screen); 50

61 The audio-visual equipment, the projector output, the sound system installation, the option to play audio- and video-recordings. The sociological composition of the audience (age, highest education); What the audience knows about the topic beforehand; To what extent the audience is interested in the topic; Whether the audience has a positive or negative attitude to the topic; How much time do we have to hold this lecture. The purpose of the presentation is normally to provide information to the audience; support the audience s or an individual s decision-making process regarding a certain matter; acquire new information or reinforce and widen the curriculum during selfinstruction; Blue and greenish colours are most appropriate; as well as dark background and light fonts are preferred on the screen. We can use yellow or red to draw the audience s attention. If the slides are to be printed out, we should choose light background and dark fonts. Be sure to make a suitable choice of the font size depending on the size of the room where the presentation will be held and on the number of viewers (e.g. size 40 for headings and 30 for the basic text). Generally, we should choose the same format for all slides in the presentation (with the exception of a special and important chapter) Possible deficiencies of a presentation Taking the communication perspective, a teacher can make mistakes in the content of the verbal expression or in its written format (presentation, records). An oral presentation can have the following mistakes: using parasite words (well, actually, in fact, okay, etc.); interlarding the expression with foreign and scholarly words without explaining them, using unknown slang abbreviations, phrases, etc.; stylistic mistakes, mispronunciation, bad case endings, etc. A written presentation can be characterised by the following deficiencies: a disorganised and poorly arranged presentation structure; poorly legible text models (e.g. foil) small font size, excessive amount of text; too many mistakes and mistyped characters; too many slides, e.g. fast clicking ; inappropriately selected type and background in a PowerPoint presentation; incorrect presentation methodology; poorly distributed time for presentation. Practical Application Assignments, Activities, Skills ASSIGNMENT: Please choose any topic (chapter) from any textbook within the subject area of your teaching qualifications and read it. Then prepare a multimedia presentation (e.g. 51

62 in PowerPoint) with at least three slides containing both text and graphic information. Use the following steps: a) Set your presentation objective (see Chapter 5 and 6 of this textbook); b) Try to divide your objectives (as a practice) into instructional (cognitive, bringing knowledge) and educational objectives (emotional, postural, educational); c) Make an annotation (i.e. condensed content; see Chapter 1) summarising the essential information contained in your presentation; d) Prepare a structure of your presentation, i.e. divide the content into units following each other and creating a specific content of individual presentation slides; e) Define the basic terms typical of the curriculum you use; f) Create individual slides (see part D/) to contain both text and visual information (photographs, schemes, representations, charts, etc.); please have the correct distribution over the slide area in mind; g) Choose the correct font (e.g. Ariel, Tahoma, Century Gotic, etc.), its size (at least 18; and differentiate the simple text from chapter and sub-chapter headings), and choose the correct distribution over the slide area ; h) Choose an appropriate background (you can use presentation templates) and align the graphics of the templates with your concept; i) Fuel the presentation with the necessary dynamics (switching between the slides, movement of certain parts if it is functional); j) Try the whole and make a rehearsal of your verbal expression in cooperation with your presentation. Note: The pictures below show a part of a presentation prepared in accordance with the steps described above. And the following chapters will give you a notion of how to work with objectives, content and other didactic variables. Figure 4: Opening Slide of a Didactic Presentation 52

63 ř ř ř OBECNÁ DIDAKTIKA ukázka prezentace Název: Cíl prezentace: Anotace: Osnova: Pojmy: PROČ Č vysvěě změě nit LETADLA LÉTAJL TAJÍ? tlit princip vznáš ášení, objasnit něě n pojmy z aerodynamiky, vztah k létaní které létání rozvinutá lidská čč innost, víme v ale pročč letadla létají? K porozuměě ní je třt eba znát aerodynamik dynamiku u a leteckou konstrukci obrazová motivace, vzduch jako prostř edí, letadlo ve vzduchu, profily ptákůů pt, konstrukce odpor, prouděě ní,, vztlak, 3 prostorové osy, zatáčč ení,, klopení,, kloněě ní,, profil-žž ebro, Figure 5: Slide about Air as the Environment Vzduch jako prostř edí Situace s vlakem, odpor, prouděě ní, profil a vztlak Vztah tvaru a odporu: Kolmá deska, Koule, Rovinná deska, Profil 3 Figure 6: Final Slide Deliberately Inappropriate Version 53

64 Profil ptáků ů a profil letadel B Profily ptačč ích křř k ídel a letadel se v mnohém podobají,, ke vztlaku oba použž ívají zakřř ivení profilu (v důů sledku rozdílu rychlostí obtékání profilu) 6 Mistakes in the slide production (Figure 6): oversized content, overlapping of sources of information, low-quality copies of models, a too small font size and a too detailed text. Terms to Remember (Key Words) Animation, audio-visual information, blended learning, computer networks, didactic equipment, distance learning, educational objectives, e-learning, feedback, hypertext, instructional objectives, multimedia, new technologies in education, presentation, slide, standard teaching aids, syntax, technology of education, visual information. Issues for Thought o What criteria must a presentation fulfil to become a multimedia presentation (in your opinion)? Please specify: o What criteria must a presentation fulfil to become a didactic presentation (in your opinion)? Please specify: o Think about a teacher s activities and name and justify those about which we can say that they can substitute a teacher during a lesson. o Please consider two teaching alternatives: a) normal when the teacher is present as the main source of information; b) e-learning when the main source of information is available in an electronic (digitised) format. Take a critical approach to a learner s position in both types of instruction and his/her role as a learning and socialising being. 54

65 Summary The recent development in the real educational practice has been inextricably linked with the use of material means of instruction. The multimedia-based means have become an addition to the traditional aids, bringing new dimensions into the learning and teaching process. However, it remains true that they are only mediators of didactic objectives and intentions, but in many aspects, they can have a greater effect than the usual opinion and word of the teacher. It has been proved that it is within a pedagogue s powers to work with the available computer and projection equipment, but not every instructor can create a suitable media content fulfilling the necessary functions. PowerPoint presentations are the most widely used type of presentations containing at least two sources of information: text information and visual models. On the other end of the scale, there are sophisticated educational systems not only presenting information in a variety of forms, but also managing learning processes, working adaptively with the learners performance and guiding them through optimal ways depending on their individual properties. Crib (Good Advice Is Better Than Gold) From our experience we know that students take different approaches to the production of self-directed presentations, but there are two basic approaches: A defensive' approach which is typical of students being at their wits end and seeing great obstacles in their construction. The other group includes excited students looking forward to making a presentation and having ambitions to 'push' as many suggestions, effects or information in general into their content as possible. Their efforts result in a visualisation like How Doggie and Pussycat Were Making a Cake'. Let us try the middle course. It is not difficult to make a presentation if we know the fundaments of THE pedagogical (WHAT, WHAT FOR, FOR WHOM, HOW, etc.) and of the manual (how to operate computer software). The first tries will give us not only the precious experience but also a unique element for pedagogy, i.e. that there are many successful though different ways for how to achieve the same goal and objective. Working with multimedia provides space for creativity and will definitely result in the feelings of joy and satisfaction Literature BLOCH, A. (1993), BURNETT, R. (2004), BUSHER, H. (1989), ČIŽINSKÝ, D., MAREŠ, Jan (1998), FIALOVÁ, I. et all. (1994), HALSALL, F. (2000), HOLSINGER, E. (1995), HOLUB, M. (1987), CHAPMAN, N., CHAPMAN, J. (2004), KULIČ, V. (1992), MAREŠ, J. (1976, 1995), MAYER, R. E. (2001), NĚMEČEK, M. et all. (1985), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2009), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2006), PRŮCHA, J., WALTEROVÁ, E., MAREŠ, J. (1997) další reedice, SLAVÍK, J., (1997), SVATOŠ, T. (2006b, 2009a, 2009b), VRBA, J, VŠETULOVÁ, M. (2003). Note: Full bibliographic quotations are provided in the list of literature. CHAPTER 5: HOW TO ÚVODEM WORK WITH OBJECTIVES "The straight line is not always the shortest distance between two points. Anonymous 55 One always has to have a target but is not always successful in hitting it. Jan Werich

66 Objectives The purpose of this chapter is clear: To discuss one of the most important attributes of pedagogy objectives and intents. On the one hand, each educational activity should be clearly intentional (leading to a certain objective), but on the other hand, it is difficult to set the objectives and implement them in practice. With regard to the skills acquired, the student will be able to, after studying this chapter, understand the essence of the objective-directed focus of education; differentiate individual types of objectives and characterise them; create relations among objectives and other basic didactic variables; apply theoretical principles of educational intents in the specific formulation of objectives according to the examples provided. Intensity of Acquisition Middle intensity - to understand the educational theory and to verify it in skill-based practice. Situation (Common for Chapters 5 and 6) There is one situation which stuck in my memory and which involved interesting communication between a student who was about to make a practical teaching attempt and a pedagogue who was to judge her written preparation for the coming lesson. When asked his initial question: What is the objective of your future lesson?, the student gave a prompt answer: Prague the capital city of the Czech Republic. The pedagogue repeated his question and received the same student answer. With this answer, the fate of the student-teacher was sealed at that moment, because it was followed by this piece of advice from her pedagogue: When you make it clear what the difference between an objective and content of teaching is, please come again and we will discuss your plan as two teachers. I am mentioning this as a classical example of misunderstanding of the terms objective and content or as an example of a lack of understanding of the two terms. One term cannot be apparently replaced by the other. If Prague the capital city of the Czech Republic is the intention, we do not know what happens to this topic, whether pupils will be informed about it (it will be a new subject matter) or whether it will be a subject of revision, application, verification. Each of these objectives is different; each of them involves a different method and procedure and each of them represents absolutely different mutual activities for the teacher and the pupil. 5.1 OBJECTIVE KEY EDUCATIONAL CATEGORY Freedom without an objective is nothing but slavery of personal whims. (Rýdl, 1995) The teaching objective is an intended and expected result against which the teacher and pupils are directed.' (Šturma, 1996) 56

67 Educational objectives are historically conditioned. They depend on many factors: on the society s historical epoch, on the characteristic conditions of the political and economic establishment, on the cultural and social conditions, on the level of science and the character of work. That is also why the society always had a different conception of the human being, objectives and educational practices in each historical era. (Spilková, 1996). Educational concepts (conceptions of education and instruction) have an immediate impact on objectives. They are based on various philosophical, psychological and other theories. The concepts which are based on the assumption that the child s development completely depends on the child s internal powers reject any objectives. Other concepts require objectives to be defined precisely and in detail (these primarily include the concepts adopted by totalitarian regimes). We can now encounter both views. However, extremes are never far-sighted. We can recommend mostly unambiguous and meaningful objectives, because they improve efficiency of educational processes. In the hierarchy of objectives, we can differentiate attitudes and values (towards one s self, towards nature, education); skills (e.g. work with information); and knowledge. Educational objectives are articulated in teaching documents such as standards, curricula, educational programmes (school curricula), graduate profiles. They are also included in international documents about education, in school acts (which also set out objectives for individual school stages). The teaching and educational objectives are specified in the content of lessons. Categorisation of objectives based on various criteria: from the temporal perspective (long-term vs. short-term objectives); from the perspective of their concreteness (general vs. specific objectives); from the perspective of who formulates the objective and for whom (group vs. individual objectives; the objective is formulated by the teacher, by the pupil for himself/herself or by both of them together); from the perspective of their content (according to the subjects taught or a specific topic); from the perspective of institutions (according to the school type where the above perspectives are also reflected /in respect of time, content, but also age, etc.), and other perspectives. 5.2 GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Figure 7: Setting the General Instructional Objectives according to Tyller s Principle (modified according to Pasch and coll., 1998, p. 45). MASTERING SOCIETAL NEEDS SUBJECT S PUPIL S CONTENT PERSONAL NEEDS AND INTERESTS 57

68 Didactic transformation of the curriculum (subject matter) GENERAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES When thinking over the general objective, we must consider the cycle, stage and type of the school, its focus and the profile of this institution s graduate. When articulating the general and specific instructional objective, we must remember to categorise the objectives into three areas (domains, objective items): cognitive, training (conative, psychomotor) and attitudinal (affective, value - we sometimes speak about educational objectives of instruction). These three dimensions of educational objectives correspond to the three basic personality elements. The categorisation into three areas of objectives has a practical importance. It enables to implement and check the balance of educational activities so that we influence pupils in a comprehensive way and develop the entire personality. If we realise this as early as when specifying our objectives, we will adjust the instructional content and strategies to this principle, thus enriching the entire educational effect. The complexity of objectives need not be addressed individually for each teaching unit, but is sufficient for any thematic whole. Conditions for Effective Work with Instructional Objective For an objective to actually improve efficiency of the work between the teacher and the pupil, several conditions must be satisfied: 1) Acceptance of the objective by the pupil This happens if the pupil sees its meaning and is involved in the setting of the objective together with the teacher; in such event, they seek not only the most suitable objectives, but also the steps and ways to achieve them (during lessons, pupils act in the spirit of their needs and interests and based on their own goals and objectives); 2) Satisfaction of the requirements for an objective s formulation (see below). 5.3 HOW TO FORMULATE INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Both long-term and short-term objectives must be workable, evaluable and formulated in the pupil s activities. As for efficiency, the objective for a specific lesson (teaching unit or thematic whole) must meet the following requirements: It must be adequate, functional and realisable, specific and clear and formulated in a way to enable verification of its fulfilment (i.e. it must be evaluable). It is recommended to express the objective in the pupil s performance. It is good to use the so-called Bloom s taxonomy of learning domains (instructional objectives) to define objectives in the cognitive area. It indicates not only the required levels of cognitive activities in a hierarchical system, but also offers verbs to be used to express these instructional objectives (see Annex 6). 58

69 Poláková (1999) gives three requirements for the formulation of instructional objectives: The target (required) performance of the learning subject (through an observable activity); The performance standard with a scale for evaluating the performance quality. The formulation of objectives (both when creating a curriculum and planning a specific lesson) is related to 1) the selection and arrangement of the subject matter and thus to its didactic analysis; Through this formulation, the teacher will realise what knowledge must be unconditionally acquired by all pupils to be known and what knowledge is only to be provided, what skills (motor, psychomotor, mental) and to what level must be developed, what attitudes and values will be strengthened (the didactic analysis of the subject matter will be in more detail described in the next chapter). 2) the realisation of teaching methods and organisational forms; 3) the realisation of methods or forms of establishing the results and evaluations achieved. 5.4 OBJECTIVE AS TEACHING SYSTEM ELEMENT The instructional objective is interconnected with other didactic categories. Under certain circumstances, they have a positive impact on all other elements in the teaching system. Figure 8: Impact of Instructional Objective on Selected Elements in the Teaching System content teaching methods instructional objective organisational forms of work checking and evaluation (method, performance conditions, etc.) time The scheme shows only a one-sided relation between objectives and instructional elements. It is in fact both-sided (e.g. a new work procedure which a teacher wants to apply during the lesson will have an impact on all the instructional elements, including the objective). This figure, however, should highlight its impact on the planning and course of the instructional process. We are aware that an objective is also influenced by the needs of a learner, field of study, etc. The examples below containing incomplete sentences schematically indicate the relationship between an objective and other instructional elements (here presented ideally through the most frequent means): 1) Objective: The pupils will explain * content: knowledge * method: presentation * form of organisation: mass instruction: * verification and evaluation: Pupils will orally explain... based on questions..., with a drawing 59

70 *time: 1 lesson 2) Objective: The pupils apply content: knowledge, skills method: problem presentation, training methods * organisation form of the lesson: mass, group, independent work *verification and evaluation: Pupils independently solve 2 out of 4 analogy problems scaled by their difficulty. *time: 2 lessons 3) Objective: Pupils make a solution proposal so that it suits (e.g. economic, environmental, aesthetic goals) based on the pre-set criteria evaluate the best and the most original solution proposal. content: knowledge, skills, habits, attitudes, experience *method: heuristic, project *form of organisation: Individual, cooperative form *verification and evaluation: They submit a proposal as a group and evaluate the best one according to agreed aspects *time: 3 lessons The examples of instructional objectives indicated above clearly show that they impact on the structuring of the curriculum elements. In the first case, pupils (students) primarily acquire information. In the last case, the objective results in a richer structure of the curriculum; for instance, pupils acquire richer and varied skills applicable in normal life and experience. In this case, their attitudes towards the cognitive processes and to the problems resolved are created in a more intensive way. The recommended work with objectives (specifically their formulation) requires from the teacher fairly time-consuming preparatory activities. On the other hand, the positive impact on the course and results of learning is indisputable. Practical Application Assignments, Activities, Skills Annex 6 contains a table with samples of formulation of objectives according to the Bloom s taxonomy. Below is only a part of this table and your task is to supplement a verb to the right using the specific topic of your teaching qualification. Objective category by acquisition level Knowledge (Remembering specific information) Typical verbs and their ties used to define goals 60

71 Comprehension (Understanding) Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation (Evaluating judgment) Terms to Remember (Key Words) Bloom s taxonomy of learning domains (objectives); long-term objectives, specific objectives; short-term objectives; general objectives; Dave s taxonomy of objectives; types of objectives; Niemierk s taxonomy of objectives; requirements for objective formulation; structure (components) of objectives; school educational programme; curriculum; key competences. Issues for Thought o Why are educational and instructional objectives helpful? o The text mentions the positive impact on the instruction in the event that the objectives are used in accordance with the aforementioned recommendations. What do the positive effects consist in? o What is in your experience the greatest problem when formulating objectives? o How are objectives formulated within the respective framework educational programmes for your instructional subject (or educational area)? If they are not formulated according to the recommended requirements, please try to reformulate them. o Is there any relation between the age of learners and the type of instructional 61

72 objectives? What kind of a relation? o What is the impact of objectives if they are formulated a) through teacher s activities, b) through activities of educated persons controlled by objectives? o What is the relation between expected outcomes (instructional outcomes) specified in the framework educational programme and key competences? Summary Educational activities centred on objectives are among the chief characteristics of education. Without intents, we cannot speak about education, we cannot even speak about its stages nor can its effects be verified. On the one hand, it is a logical and understandable sign of education while on the other hand, there are many problems in formulating and implementing objectives. General objectives are very easy to set and formulate (e.g. development of learners in conformity to their age and mental properties, etc.), but difficulties arise upon when they are to be used operatively (action, concretisation). Categorisation of objectives by various circumstances and criteria can be problematic, too. For training reasons in the conditions of pre-service education, objectives are categorised as educational and upbringing although they are closely tied and cannot be easily separated. This division aims at pointing to two basic aspects of instruction, i.e. guidance towards the fulfilment of attitudes, relations, opinions, etc. and towards the fulfilment of skills (in the broadest sense of the word) and knowledge. An idea of what didactic activities should be performed with the curriculum during a lesson and what relation they should have to the positive changes on the part of learners can be of good support when setting specific instructional intents. Crib (Good Advice Is Better Than Gold) If we are to develop objectives of instruction (even for training reasons), we should at first satisfy a few conditions: a) we should have in-depth knowledge of the curriculum (knowledge content) to be applied during instruction (what a simple condition!); b) we should have it clear what the intent was in the previous lesson what we follow so as to connect 'the new stuff' with the previous knowledge; c) we should know the learners with whom we will fulfil the objectives and what we 'ideally' imagine that the learners will know and master after our intervention, at what they will be more or less skilful and what attitudes they should have when leaving the classroom. It is not to the detriment at all if we imagine the concept of the lesson from the viewpoint of both of its actors, especially from the perspectives of learners, within a tolerable dual role. And it will apparently do no harm if we seek inspiration for the specific verbal formulation of objectives for certain subject matter in the work of our more experienced colleagues or in appropriate literature (see Bloom's taxonomy of learning domains). On the other hand, we know that objectives in instruction are inseparable of procedures and methods of their implementation, which is a topic which you have not encountered at this stage of your teaching study yet and which is a domain of field didactics. Literature (Common for Chapters 5 and 6) 62

73 BERTRAND, Y. (1998), BLACK, A., DAVERN, L. (1998), BRUNER, J. S. (1965), BYČKOVSKÝ, P. et all. (1981), CARLGREN, F. (1991), DOLEŽALOVÁ, J. (2002, 2009, 2011), FISHER, R. (1997), GRECMANOVÁ, H., URBANOVSKÁ, E., NOVOTNÝ, P. (2000), HEJNÝ, M. et all. (1990), HOLUB, M. (1987), HORÁK, F. (1988), JANIŠ, K. 2003), JANIŠ, K., KRAUS, B., VACEK, P. (1998), KASÍKOVÁ, H. (1997), KASÍKOVÁ, H. (1999), KOVALIKOVÁ, S. (1995), KYRIACOU, CH. (1996), MAŇÁK, J. (1990), MAŇÁK, J., ŠVEC, V. (2004), Národní program rozvoje vzdělávání v České republice (2001), PAŘÍZEK, V. (1984, 1996a, 1996b, 2000), PASCH, M. et all. (1998), PETTY, G. (1996), PIKE, G., SELBY, D. (1994), POLÁKOVÁ, E. (1999), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2009), PRŮCHA, J. (1997), PRŮCHA, J. (1983), PRŮCHA, J. (2002), PRŮCHA, J. (1999), PRŮCHA, J., WALTEROVÁ, E., MAREŠ, J. (1997) další reedice, Rámcové vzdělávací programy, (2002), RÝDL, K. (1998), ŘEZÁČ, J. (1998), SCHÖN, D. A. (1983), SKALKOVÁ, J. (1995, 2007), SPILKOVÁ, V. (1997, 2004), SVATOŠ, T. (2006a), ŠIKULOVÁ, R., MÜLLEROVÁ, L. (2001), ŠTURMA, J. (1996), ŠVEC, V. (1998, 1999, 2002, 2005), VALENTA, J. et all. (1993), VALENTA, J. (2000), VALIŠOVÁ, A. (1997), VALIŠOVÁ, A., KASÍKOVÁ, H. (2011), VAŠUTOVÁ, J. et. all. (2008), VORLÍČEK, CH. (2000), VYBÍRAL, Z. (2000), WALTEROVÁ, E. (1989), Note: Full bibliographic quotations are provided in the list of literature. 63

74 CHAPTER 6: HOW ÚVODEM TO WORK WITH CONTENT Try to learn something about everything and everything about something. M. Holub If you don t know, we will teach you; if you can t, we will help you; if you don t want, we don t need you. Jan Werich Objectives The previous chapter has made it clear that there is an inseparable relation between objectives of education and its content. This chapter is an integral continuation of the previous text, as is apparent from the same starting situation and the list of reference sources. The purpose of the first chapter is to expand the didactic reasoning with the variable named content of education viewed from the perspective of representative pedeutologic literature. With regard to the skills acquired, the student will be able to, after studying this chapter, understand the concept of educational content viewed from the positions of philosophy of education, general pedagogy, general didactics and school education; determine and differentiate the components of educational content through various characteristics; analyse the factors influencing the selection and structure of content (of the curriculum); apply the knowledge presented in examples and assignments. Intensity of Acquisition High intensity - to understand the educational theory and to verify it in skill-based practice. Situation (Common for Chapters 5 and 6) There is one situation which stuck in my memory and which involved interesting communication between a student who was about to make a practical teaching attempt and a pedagogue who was to judge her written preparation for the coming lesson. When asked his initial question: What is the objective of your future lesson?, the student gave a prompt answer: Prague the capital city of the Czech Republic. The pedagogue repeated his question and received the same student answer. With this answer, the fate of the student-teacher was sealed at that moment, because it was followed by this piece of advice from her pedagogue: When you make it clear for yourself what the difference between an objective and content of teaching is, please come again and we will discuss your plan as two teachers. I am mentioning this as a classical example of misunderstanding in the terms objective and content or as an example of a lack of understanding of the two terms. One term cannot be apparently replaced by the other. If Prague the capital city of the Czech Republic is the intention, we do not know what happens to this topic, whether learners will be 64

75 informed about it (it will be a new subject matter) or whether it will be a subject of revision, application, verification. Each of these objectives is different; each of them involves a different method and procedure and each of them represents absolutely different mutual activities for the teacher and the learner. Basic Theory Perspective 6.1 CONTENT OF EDUCATION BASIC DEFINITION Definition: The authors of the Dictionary of Pedagogy ( Pedagogický slovník ) define content of education (curriculum, learning content) as follows: It is a means of human cultivation reflecting the level of cognition and social experience and providing for integrity and continuity of the societal development. It reflects the system of values, ideas and social behavioural patterns, cultural traditions, scholar and artistic cognition, socio-political and economic needs The content of education is a structured and functionally arranged selection of educational content adequate to the objectives of the respective school grade (type) and respecting the environment, age, predispositions and experience of learners It is captured in school documents (curricula, educational programmes, etc.). The very content of instruction means the curriculum actually implemented during lessons. (Průcha, Walterová, Mareš, 2001, p ) Factors influencing content of education: needs of the society (relating to the activities of people in the decisive spheres of life in society: at work, in social relations, in health and the environment, in care for the young and in the life patterns during leisure activities); development of the social cognition (art, science) and practice; development and possibilities of both learners and teachers, as well as objective circumstances and means of instruction (Pařízek, 1984, p. 10). Figure 9: Factors of Educational Content NEEDS OF THE SOCIETY CONTENT OF EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL COGNITION AND PRACTICE INSTRUCTION AND ITS: CONDITIONS MEANS - TEACHER - LEARNER 65

76 Sources of educational content For the content collected from various areas of life in society to become a curriculum, it must be transformed. A curriculum is created through the processing of contents linking various areas of culture (science and technology, art, activities and values) into school education, i.e. into the curricula, textbooks, in the instructional process. Here we can speak about didactic transformation. (Skalková, 1999, p. 63) This transformation takes into account categories of objectives, learners particularities relating to age and the role of the teacher. This means that the scientific knowledge and its structure cannot be transferred into lessons without any transformation and adjustment to the given conditions and, in the first place, to the learners' compass. 6.2 COMPONENTS OF CONTENT OF EDUCATION Writers concerned with the content of education define three to five content components (elements). Cipro (1967, p. 58), as well as Walterová (1989), structure the content of education from the viewpoint of its educational function as follows: informative component (knowledge tools to a further study); instrumental or conative - component (skills and activities to have understanding of modern science, technology and culture); formative or value - component (learner s interests, attitudes, values, motivation, etc., to form the learner s personality traits). Cipro points out that education as a whole must perform all the three functions even though different functions prevail at various school system stages. The initial instruction is dominated by the instrumental function while the formative and informative elements come in later (1967). Skalková also defines three components of the content of education which in fact correspond to the structure above. They include: 1. material knowledge; 2. operant, procedural component, and 3. value component (1995, p. 68). Pařízek (1996, pp. 8-14) whose content structure is used by the most of the current pedagogues when making curriculum analysis distinguishes four content components: knowledge-based (facts, terms, relations between phenomena and knowledge, evaluation, laws, hypotheses and theories); skill-based (intellectual, sensory, motor skills) (author s note: we must note that this also includes social skills); value-based (ethical, intellectual, emotional, religious, aesthetic, health and occupational); personality traits emotional and volitional, physical and intellectual. The author notes that the knowledge-based and skill-based components are inseparable and that through the acquisition of knowledge, activities and values, they also foster one s personality traits. Maňák (1997, p. 18) also included thought operations among knowledge, skills, habits and attitudes. Skatkin (In Kasíková, 1997, p. 59) and Kovaliková (1995, pp ) separately set aside the learners experience within the curriculum elements, thus 66

77 legitimately underlining its importance for the acquisition of the curriculum and its application. In addition, Kovaliková provides justification for this element based on the new results of the brain research. Table 4 gives a summarising overview of the selected structuring of the content of education. Table 4: Structuring of Educational Content by Various Authors M. Cipro, E. Walterová informative J. Skalková V. Pařízek J. Maňák material knowledge knowledge-based knowledge instrumental operant skill-based skills formative value-based value-based habits personality traits thought operations attitudes Various components of objectives, i.e. various components of the educational content and instruction, prevailed at different historical periods (Vorlíček, 2000, p. 57). We will later point to other factors affecting the selection of the content of teaching (curriculum) and its structure. 6.3 FACTORS AFFECTING THE SELECTION OF THE CONTENT OF EDUCATION There are varied factors influencing the selection of the content (curriculum). They never act separately; they always blend and amplify one another. For instance, they include objectives of education, theories of education, theories of curriculum selection, school type and grade, a teacher s approach to instruction, national traditions, ideas included in supranational educational projects (e.g. the European dimension of education), as well as reactions to future prognoses. We have already mentioned the objectives of instruction, some theories of education, concepts of instruction, as well as educational documents. We will now focus only on brief notes related to other factors. Objectives of education and instruction The induced elements of the curriculum should also correspond to the components of objectives. Theory of education and theory of curriculum selection The differences in what should be taught and included in a curriculum are also based on various theories of curriculum selection (e.g. Bruner's theory of structures or Chlup's theory of fundamental curriculum, scientistic theory or pragmatic pedagogy, theory of typical, exemplary and fundamental curriculum, etc. (for details see Pařízek, 1996, pp ) Teaching concepts Each teaching concept is characterised by the composition of the curriculum. It is reflecting the theory on which it is based. We can see major differences between the classic alternative schools and modern schools. 67

78 Examples: Influenced by religious philosophy, Waldorf schools prefer panhuman values, social consciousness, and cultivation of emotions. And these values are also actually implemented, not only proclaimed. Based on anthroposophy, the curriculum is passed with a certain selection of topics and learning quantities for various age groups. Affected by the theory of multiple intelligence, the integrated thematic instruction selects and arranges the content so as to correspond to the ways the brain learns (for details, see Kovaliková, 1995). The author recommends that rather terms than isolated pieces of knowledge be taught. They should be created through the learners own experience, exploration, lived experience (see Kovalikova again). M. Hejný (1990) also recommends construction and experiments for their strong motivating drive and effects on the development of mathematical thinking. Curriculum, standards, educational programmes and other school documents These documents articulate not only objectives, but also content of the curriculum. They are influenced by theories of education. In the Czech Republic, they are now mostly defined on the basis of humanity and the constructivist theory of education. Teachers must become familiar with these documents to be able to competently transform them from the general into the specific form when planning and implementing their lessons. (Note: Despite being a bearer of the content of education and instruction, a textbook is not binding in terms of the scope and depth of its content, or even of the procedure during a lesson). Teaching methods and organisational forms of work The content of instruction is connected with all elements of the complex and dynamic system of instruction. It has one of the most immediate and closest relations to methods and organisational forms of work. Methods and organisational forms of teaching affect the scope and the structure of the content of instruction. They also impact on the character of interaction between a learner and the curriculum. For instance, when giving a presentation, a teacher passes the curriculum on the learners in a well-arranged system and compact structure, mostly within a collective form of instruction. The objective is to understand and remember what has been communicated. However, in the problem-type form of teaching, learners learn a certain principle and procedure or solve a problem through independent theoretical and practical activities. They work on their own or in groups with intensive thought activity and using their current experience. This is why both the quantity and quality of the curriculum structuring of this type of teaching is different from a curriculum s presentation by the teacher. The new curriculum (knowledge to be remembered) does not get to the learner that fast and in such a wide scope as during a presentation, but it will involve the learner s intensive thought activities and a variety of thought operations. If the induced learning activities take place during cooperative teaching, the learner gets enriched with the lived experience and experience resulting from social contacts, which has a positive effect on learning processes. These examples indicate that methods have their own organisational framework (form). They involve either independent learning, learning in a cooperating group or learning within the entire class. Each alternative conditions the character of interaction between a learner and a teacher, between a learner and his/her peers, and also between a learner and the curriculum. It also provides different degrees of personal 68

79 engagement and responsibility of each and every learner. This is why it has a different impact on a learner s cognitive and social development, which is part of the objectives of modern and effective teaching (Vašutová, 1998, p. 161). Besides other components, the teaching methods and organisational forms of work form the base of teaching strategies which can be characterised as a general structure of the didactic procedure (Vašutová, 1998). They, too, have an impact on the method of curriculum structuring. School type and grade, learners age When addressing the issue of structuring content in education, it is important to know that the first years of school attendance must induce holistic experience in learners, which will later be followed by specialised cognition and by organisation of the subject-categorisation of the curriculum in higher years. This is also why the project method is more intensively applied at lower educational levels than in higher years of education. The immediate structuring of the curriculum during a lesson is affected by the learners educational needs and interests, their intellectual predispositions and particularities, by the previous knowledge and experience. The school grade and type (its professional focus) are decisive factors, too. There is a difference between technical schools and schools targeting humanistic studies; between schools equipping their learners (students) with special professional competences and schools with a general focus. Teacher s approach to the curriculum The teacher s approach to the curriculum is affected by his/her idea of what a lesson should look like, what a learner should master, what means should be used to achieve this, as well as by his/her personality and professional predispositions and experience. National traditions If we compare the structure of educational content in the Czech Republic and abroad, we can make a conclusion that it is also conditioned by the tradition. In England and in the USA, stronger emphasis is placed on the skill-based component of education. The situation is the opposite in the Czech Republic. It is rather the sum of knowledge which an individual remembers than the ability to use it in practice which has a tradition and gets respect here. Thoughts of supranational educational projects Today, we also often speak about the European dimension in education. Generally and based on humanistic ideas, it has articulated the requirement for preferential navigation towards human values through skills and knowledge. This aspect is highlighted in particular by Kalhous and Obst (2002), Spilková (1997) and other authors. Průcha and Walterová, too, recommend the reinforcement of the formative and active component of education as the current trend in curriculum planning (In: Spilková a kol., 1996, p. 24). With the Czech Republic s accession to the European Union, higher requirements are imposed on the mastering of language competences, information and communication technologies and abilities (and motivations) for lifelong learning. Future prognoses We have already indicated that it is not only the current situation and needs of the society, but also the future prognoses which impact on the setting of objectives 69

80 (goals) and the content of education. These ideas are increasingly breaking into the projecting work relating to the educational contents (see the work of Průcha and Pařízek) because of the increasing changes taking place around us and the school s need to react to them with its activities. The so-called global education is an example of the current school of pedagogy seeking to systematically prepare the young generation for the understanding of the interconnectedness of the world and for the solution of global problems, in particular relating to the environment. For details about global education, see e.g. Pike, Selby (1994), Horká, Hrdličková (1998) or environmental education. 6.4 DIDACTIC ANALYSIS OF CURRICULUM Definition: Didactic analysis of the curriculum is a teacher s thought activity focusing on the separation of the curriculum elements. By analysing the curriculum, one can more easily make the decision which curriculum is basic and valuable and what structure it will take. Didactic analysis of the curriculum is a sophisticated thought activity requiring a teacher s expertise and detached view. It is a good precondition for effective management of the teaching process. Didactic analysis of the curriculum is also a material part of the development of educational programmes at individual schools. For details about didactic analysis of the curriculum, see V. Švec a kol., 1996, Vališová, 1997, and others. Procedure to be used in didactic analysis of the curriculum: 1) Didactic analysis of the curriculum can also include the work with teaching objectives as we have said earlier. 2) There is also a stage of the curriculum selection and its formation into a thematic unit and its arrangement. Here it is important to consider the following aspects: the basic terms and concepts, facts and theories (to choose only the important ones and structure them); the necessary skills; to determine the basic relations within the curriculum (using structural maps, schemas and classifications); educational values of the selected curriculum; it is about defining the learner s personality qualities, attitudes and value orientation to be developed; 3) During the following stage of didactic analysis of the curriculum, the teacher thinks over the activities to be used for a learner to acquire the learning content, as well as over the teaching methods, organisational forms of work and didactic means to be chosen. 4) Vališová recommends (and it has been confirmed by practice) that questions and assignments be articulated during didactic analysis of the curriculum in order to motivate and activate the learner as much as possible (Vališová, 1997, p. 75). 6.5 CURRICULUM STRUCTURING FORMS 70

81 The structuring of the curriculum into the subjects of study clearly prevails in the local school system. The subjects of study copy the respective fields of science and their content is adjusted to the age capacity of children. This structure has both its pros and cons. J. S. Bruner, the author of a remarkable theory which impacted on the teaching methods in the 1960s and has been inspiring for the local system until today, sought to resolve the issue of the knowledge quantity in the content of lessons. He recommended that teachers give their students such knowledge structures of the subject of study which represent natural relations within a certain science. This enables to understand mutual relations within its content. If it is expressed in a language adequate to a child s age, it facilitates the child s fast orientation in the basic scientific principles and relations, helps to acquire and understand a variety of new problems in the given area (Bruner, 1965). The curriculum in structures is passed down in the subjects of study. This type of instruction has positive features under the given conditions. However, problems with the subject arrangement of content occur if the intersubject relations are not induced and if the curriculum is passed down to the learner in a passive manner. This results in the encyclopaedic nature and verbalism of knowledge. Learners do not get a holistic view of the world, a certain problem or subject either. Options of redress: The current life reality and integrative processes going on in scientific findings are best reflected in the teaching of complex subjects (which is possible thanks to the areas of education within the framework educational programmes) and the teaching using the project method. Complex (or integrated) subjects combine a variety of fields of study such as history, geography and civic and citizenship or environmental education, biology, etc. within one subject (Průcha, Walterová, 1983, Spilková a kol., 1996, RVP, 2007). The separateness of the curriculum of individual subjects can also be addressed by teaching methods and organisational forms which will remove this insufficiency. Such methods include the project method applied in project teaching, stage teaching, block teaching and module teaching. The project arrangement of the curriculum can be implemented using the project method. It can be characterised as a purposive, organised and elaborated procedure (activities) where learners solve theoretical and practical aspects of a complex situation which is important and interesting for them (also from the teacher s perspective). The activities developed are centred on a certain idea. It is most frequently a problem, or a general theme or a specific motivation. The project work brings about changes in the entire personality of the learner. It develops not only the intellectual aspects, but also social and emotional feelings, qualities (e.g. responsibility) and skills. When implementing a project (solving a problem, a situation), learners use their knowledge from a variety of disciplines, apply various levels of thought activities (analysis, synthesis, deduction, etc.) (freely according to Valenta, 1993). Projects are characterised by practical activities and useful results. Project teaching has had its tradition in the Czech Republic since the reform movement in the 1930s. Many schools (even secondary schools) are today again attempting to include this method in their activities. Schools and secondary schools 71

82 have recently implemented projects relating to the issues of the European Union or projects where students worked at fictitious firms (see Pařízek, 2000). In project teaching, the content is communicated in a less arranged form in terms of the logic of this field of science. Significantly enough, it is a complex and meaningful process close to normal life. The approach to activities is motivating for learners as it enriches their individual experience and emotions. The aforementioned incompleteness of knowledge that may seem to be a drawback of the project method can be remedied by the teacher by giving and arranging the content in the logical and material context with a short explanation, etc. Compared to a classic lesson, some organisational forms of teaching such as block and stage teaching provide greater flexibility of time, a long-term and deeper focus of attention on the topic discussed. They facilitate a deeper, more comprehensive and in some cases also multidisciplinary view of the themes discussed. They form an organisational condition of project teaching. The module arrangement of the curriculum offers a specific structure of the teaching content. Modules are relatively compact units that can be included in the instruction, connected, combined or replaced depending on objectives, specific needs and study profile (Průcha, Walterová, Mareš, 2001, p. 127). Module is a learning content section independent of the other curricula, which is why it can be prepared absolutely independently. A module is often a certain problem (Rýdl, 1998, p. 29). Pařízek compares it to a building set making it possible to combine parts as necessary (Pařízek, 1996a, p. 21). In this case, too, the curriculum is not arranged from the perspective of one discipline, but the learner (student, course attendant) is provided with a more complex (multidisciplinary, broader and deeper) view of the problem or theme. Similarly to projects, it is again difficult to maintain the curriculum system. Examples: The module system of the primary school teaching studies can serve as an example (see Spilková, 1997b). Educational projects of the Ministry of the Interior are another example. In 2002, the ministry had about twenty employees trained in the area of economic crimes using the module system. Module names and themes: organised crime, financial crime, etc. Workshop is another form we want to draw attention to. Workshop is a form of course or working group organisation where opinions and experience are compared, skills are trained and where workshop participants jointly search and find problem solutions formulated by them. For the work to be efficient and managed by workshop participants, a variety of teamwork methods are applied (Průcha, Walterová, Mareš, 2001, p. 45). Workshops are mostly applied in adult training. Practical Application Assignments, Activities, Skills Analyse the content of planning a simulated lesson (see Chapter 8). What elements are prevailing? Please give the reasons. Search the available sources (literature) to see the findings of brain researches. How are they reflected in instruction? Design a specific project of module instruction in your field of study - and possibilities of its implementation in the seminar instruction of General Didactics. 72

83 Write down the changes that we are currently witnessing and what significant moments in the changed life conditions whether now or in the future will impact on the content of school education. What life competencies (or skills for life) do you want to develop when teaching your subject and which ones do you have to strengthen or even newly integrate in your instruction. Terms to Remember (Key Words) Bloom s taxonomy of learning objectives, content of instruction (education), curriculum, curriculum arrangement, curriculum structure (items), didactic analysis of the curriculum, framework educational programme, school educational programme, syllabus. Issues for Thought o Use your own words to explain the relation between: content of education means of teaching organisational forms teaching objectives teaching methods level of science, technology, society. o Recall the meaning of didactic analysis of the curriculum. Think: is it a form of the teacher s lesson planning? If it is, say why. o Get familiar with the Framework Educational Programme for the respective school levels and types. Focus on the structure of the educational content. How do you see it? Summary Developing the content of (school) education is a highly sophisticated and complicated process. It has multiple levels: from the most general ones, including the needs, status and values of the society, up to the lowest level at which a specific pedagogue works at his/her school and teaches specific learners a specific subject. From our perspective, there is no danger that we would be those choosing the curriculum for the respective field of study (maybe in the case of the development of new and specific subjects, J. D.) or type of instruction. Nonetheless, the concept of the framework or school educational programmes is based on the democratic method of selecting the curriculum, updating it and amending it so that a specific school (or instructor) could choose and form the communicated curriculum according to its/his/her professional ideas and in an optimal manner. We have several times emphasised that general didactics only opens the door to (not only) this topic area and that its true values will be communicated to students during the lessons of their subject-related didactics. Crib (Good Advice Is Better Than Gold) This chapter and the previous one dealt with the foundation stones of the educational work. We have become familiar with the categories of objective and content rather through the necessary theory than practice. Let us admit that it is too early to make any deeper insight even though the following chapter focuses on the creation of the teaching plan, including the setting of the target intentions and work with a specific 73

84 curriculum. If we are facing the task to create a specific teaching content, the easiest way to do is to communicate with instructors from the school practice and let them explain their ways of making didactic analyses of the curriculum finalised in a written plan. Then, we can use observations to see the transformation from the plan to authentic education and the way the pedagogue adjusts his/her immediate conduct to achieve the necessary intentions through acquisition of the pre-determined curriculum. Literature (Common for Chapters 5 and 6) BERTRAND, Y. (1998), BLACK, A., DAVERN, L. (1998), BRUNER, J. S. (1965), BYČKOVSKÝ, P. et all. (1981), CARLGREN, F. (1991), DOLEŽALOVÁ, J. (2002, 2009, 2011), FISHER, R. (1997), GRECMANOVÁ, H., URBANOVSKÁ, E., NOVOTNÝ, P. (2000), HEJNÝ, M. et all. (1990), HOLUB, M. (1987), HORÁK, F. (1988), JANIŠ, K. 2003), JANIŠ, K., KRAUS, B., VACEK, P. (1998), KASÍKOVÁ, H. (1997), KASÍKOVÁ, H. (1999), KOVALIKOVÁ, S. (1995), KYRIACOU, CH. (1996), MAŇÁK, J. (1990), MAŇÁK, J., ŠVEC, V. (2004), Národní program rozvoje vzdělávání v České republice (National Programme of Educational Development in the Czech Republic) (2001), PAŘÍZEK, V. (1984, 1996a, 1996b, 2000), PASCH, M. et all. (1998), PETTY, G. (1996), PIKE, G., SELBY, D. (1994), POLÁKOVÁ, E. (1999), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2009), PRŮCHA, J. (1997), PRŮCHA, J. (1983), PRŮCHA, J. (2002), PRŮCHA, J. (1999), PRŮCHA, J., WALTEROVÁ, E., MAREŠ, J. (1997) other re-editions, Rámcové vzdělávací programy (Framework Educational Programmes), (2002), RÝDL, K. (1998), ŘEZÁČ, J. (1998), SCHÖN, D. A. (1983), SKALKOVÁ, J. (1995, 2007), SPILKOVÁ, V. (1997, 2004), SVATOŠ, T. (2006a), ŠIKULOVÁ, R., MÜLLEROVÁ, L. (2001), ŠTURMA, J. (1996), ŠVEC, V. (1998, 1999, 2002, 2005), VALENTA, J. et all. (1993), VALENTA, J. (2000), VALIŠOVÁ, A. (1997), VALIŠOVÁ, A., KASÍKOVÁ, H. (2011), VAŠUTOVÁ, J. et. all. (2008), VORLÍČEK, CH. (2000), VYBÍRAL, Z. (2000), WALTEROVÁ, E. (1989), Note: Full bibliographic quotations are provided in the list of literature. 74

85 CHAPTER 7: HOW ÚVODEM TO PLAN A LESSON Futility factor: No experiment is ever a complete failure it can always serve as a bad example. Science is for those who learn. Poetry for those who know. Murphy s Laws M. Holub Objectives This chapter opens up the imaginary second part of this study text where the reader embarks on more demanding topics in general didactics and its communication context. Its aim is to show the scope of the term lesson planning to prospective teachers and to guide them toward a theoretical understanding of this issue and to appropriate attempts to create their own concept of the future instruction. With regard to the skills acquired, the student will be able to, after studying this chapter understand the term lesson planning, not only in the narrow sense of the word (i.e. planning of a specific teaching lesson); reconstruct the didactic system according to J. Maňák as a conceptual inspiration for the future practice; characterise the stages of a classical combined (i.e. multi-focal) lesson and determine its didactic profile; apply the didactic system in practical examples of block planning for special topic areas within the studied qualification. Intensity of Acquisition Middle intensity - to understand the educational theory and to verify it in skill-based practice. Situation If I take a look at the students who are now participating in a didactics seminar, they can be divided into two groups should I judge from their seating positions and external behaviour. The first group is a relaxed one; with legs stretched out, a light smile and a wandering look over the classroom, all of this speaks volumes about their feeling that today there is no danger that they would display any increased activity in front of their colleagues. The other group, having some educational news prepared for today s seminar, a micro-teaching or individual performance, can be recognised by their vain attempts to concentrate and by the clearly nervous expectations of what comes next. When it is their turn or when it is over, one can hear sighs of relief, and the face that was pale and transparent just a minute ago regains its natural colour indicating that the basic life functions are working again. The common reflections of their acts are closed by a negativist sigh that they cannot imagine themselves slaving away the entire lesson if the micro-teaching session has taken so much effort. We can all remember our teaching beginnings and we can note that we were not principally different. We can recall how intensive feelings we had about the occasional 75

86 transformations from the role of the student into the role of the student-teacher, how we have gradually gained firm ground and confidence with the growing load (e.g. during the continuous teaching practice). In this period (which we can tenderly call the period of pedagogical pre-natality), we probably reached the well-known and many times repeated rule of proportion saying that a teaching performance is directly proportional to the effort we have invested into preparations and planning. We hereby open up (and believe it is the right time to do it) the fifth chapter which is set to answer the following question (using the minimum theory combined with practical procedures): How to plan a lesson teaching attempts? Basic Theory Perspective 7.1 ABOUT THE LESSON PLANNING APPROACH Surprisingly enough, the well-known Dictionary of Pedagogy ( Pedagogický slovník, Průcha, Walterová and Mareš, 1997 ) does not contain the term planning of instruction teacher s plan of a lesson. This does not mean that the authors have avoided this topic. Let us remind you of the aged publication by Rys (1979) which directly dealt with the preparation for and planning of the pedagogical influence. We can say that both the older and the current educational (or didactic) textbook devote more or less space to the preparatory stage of prospective teaching. The more classic approach is primarily based on an overview of the possible teaching methods and procedures which can be used in the future lesson project (e.g. Pretty 1996, coll. 1996, Maňák and Švec 2004, Šimoník 2005 and other.). The current view of this topic is an intersection of teacher competences and skills, which include various aspects of lesson projects or activities related to their planning and preparation (e.g. Švec, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005,, Vyskočilová 2002, Průcha 2004, Janík 2005, and others). However, there are in fact only few publications giving advice on how to design and write a teacher s plan, mostly referring to the above mentioned book by Rys and the collective text by Švec, Filová and Šimoník (1996). The last and final group includes the works taking a detached view to this issue and saying that the everyday teaching is influenced by higher factors (educational paradigms, a teacher s approach to teaching, effects from macro- and micro-environments, etc.). Here are a few examples: Spilková (2004), Koťa (1994), Mareš, Slavík, Svatoš and Švec (1996), Maňák (1990 and 2003). Do not panic, we do not want to flood you with a sum of information and make an in-depth analysis of individual schools or authors views. The above lines were to persuade you that the issue of lesson planning or preparation is one of the fundamental areas on which pedagogy-didactics (both in the past and now) has always commented and in which it is continuously interested. Below we will work through a system of questions and answers. Here we have drawn inspiration on the works by Maňák, Švec, Mareš, Spilková and Koťa. 7.2 ARE THERE MORE TYPES OF LESSON PLANNING? Figure 10: Levels of Preparation for a Lesson (Svatoš 2005) Teacher s approach to instruction Didactic analysis of future instruction Written block plan (preconcept) idea of the lesson, basic framework, considerations about objectives, concept, difficulty, impact of experience 76 considerations about objectives, the curriculum, terms and their relations, induced learners activities in cooperation with the teacher

87 Classic written lesson plan 1.7 Answer: brief written plan, content stages and their didactic characteristics (see the example) detailed chronological project of teaching content, inventory of necessary methods and means, socification of tasks, characteristics of mutual activities, expectations Yes, we do differentiate at least four basic approaches to a teacher's preparation for a lesson. The first two represent rather an idea view of teaching as my profession while the other two have taken the form of a written document. The first level is mentioned by Mareš, for instance, when he considers a teacher s approach to a lesson that is a product of many years of teaching and contains all the collected experience and our holistic approach to this profession. Similarly, Koťa says that the form of our everyday educational activities is influenced by many years of self-reflection and the resulting modifications in our approach to education, learners, the school and our self. A didactic analysis of the curriculum can also be an intangible product (idea idea of prospective instruction) which is connected with a specific curriculum and (as Skalková puts it) which is based on considerations about the instructional and learning objectives, terms and relations between them, about the teacher s collaboration with learners and the importance of the curriculum for the development of a learning human being. The block plan (preparation) will be explained in the answer to Question C, but it is a brief form of planned teaching and its basic stages as compared to the classic written preparation for a lesson which takes the form of a detailed script of all relating didactic actions in the future teaching project. We refer to Appendix 5 where a simple form is provided. 7.3 WHAT ARE THE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING AND CREATING A TEACHER S PLAN? Figure 11: Didactic System According to J. Maňák ( ) Conditions Objectives - accomplishment Means theory, relations, methodology, macroenvironment, microenvironment Objecti ve of instructi on planning, organisation, preparation, modernisation, innovation 77

88 Content - curricul um Content structure TYPE OF INSTRUCTION informative - heuristic productive - regulative EIP (educational and instructional process) STAGES: motivation exposition, fixation diagnosis application TECHNOLOGIES: methods means, organisational forms 1.8 Answer: EIP outcome Maňák, too, is considering both more general and more specific circumstances having an influence on a teacher s everyday teaching, which, in the end, is reflected in a written preparation as the basic pedagogical document. In the first group, he includes conditions and means being a kind of a transpersonal extension which cannot be directly influenced by the teacher from his/her position as a pedagogue, but its nature and condition have a stronger effect on the teacher s everyday pedagogical influence. Examples include the state and development of pedagogical-psychological theories, the state concept of education and preferred models, school legislation, continuous innovation and modernisation of the educating system, up to the quality of the prevailing relations to the school system and education in the society. The remaining part of figure 5 gives a more specific didactic model showing schematically how a plan for a lesson is produced, implemented and what results it brings. A wise and clever reader will surely understand that this is the entire didactic landscape with all of its fundamental terms, relations and continuities. Then it will really be enough to acquire this scheme and materialise it in a specific curriculum. 78

89 The general applicability can be summarised as follows: At first, we must always respect the objectives (lesson intentions) related to the specific curriculum. The curriculum is normally distributed into lower content units (It has its own structure.). The objectiveness and the content together determine the type of a lesson to be considered, which will basically characterise the educational and instructional process (commonly known as lessons teaching hours). This process has two components: a procedural component (stages of a lesson) and a technological component. Both of them must be filled with specific procedures and activities to enable a comparison between the planned and actual results after the lesson. 1.9 Notes on objectives intents of a lesson: Not only the above lines and scheme clearly show that a teacher s didactic reasoning about the prospective instruction depends on the following terms: objectives intentions. The dominant position of these terms is clear and is based on the most fundamental pedagogical theorem saying that 'education is intentional=leading to a certain, pre-defined objective'. Its accomplishment is realised through a set of numerous methods and procedures. It has almost become a rule that each didactic theoretician (or each author of some work about didactics) has his/her own approach to teaching methods and a specific list of them. The category of objectives is considered not only in our reasoning about the future lesson. We should be that brave to make it clear with our first words in a lesson what intentions we plan to reach together after the end of the lesson. However, the many years of practice have shown that teachers feel more comfortable' in not communicating to the learners what the objective of the lesson is; they prefer saying what the topic area is, which does not bind them to anything ( Today, we will talk about alkali metal salts about the Hussite period about the construction of compound sentences about an inclined plane ). After the lesson, both the satisfied pedagogue and the learners can say: Yes, we have talked about. However, we know nothing about the extent of their understanding or about their relation to the curriculum, about the fulfilled expectations, about the initial intentions and their fulfilment. For your inspiration, use Appendix 6 which contains a dictionary of action verbs to define teaching objectives in accordance with Bloom s taxonomy (in: Švec, Filová a Šimoník, 1996, p. 27). And what is most important regarding objectives and the continuing content: the next Chapter 6 contains detailed information about what teaching and learning objectives are and what their relation to the curriculum is. 79

90 7.4 WHAT IS THE CONTENT OF A PRE-CONCEPT OF A CLASSIC COMBINED LESSON? Figure 12: Stages Structure of a Combined Teaching Hour (Svatoš, 2006) Stages of classic (combined) teaching hour Prologue (introduction) Motivation (stimulation) Mobilisation of previous knowledge system intentions, previous and new knowledge, outputs useful value of curriculum, aroused interest, efforts necessary to reach objectives repetition of previous curriculum, its sorting and activation, Exposition of new knowledge Fixation of new curriculum Practicing - repetitions new knowledge and information and its adequate approximation to students, strengthening, integration into current knowledge structure, systematisation, mental map reflection of th degree of understanding What is the practical importance of the Practical application curriculum? Knowledge, personal and social practice 1.10 Answer: Comparisons comparison of input intentions (objectives) and their accomplishment; what next? We are facing a task of making a written draft outline of a prospective lesson and we consider this to be a normal teaching hour. This means that this lesson will comprise several didactic procedures within the pre-set 45 minutes. Such lessons are called combined or multi-focal lessons. Any such lesson has its particular stages (see Maňák s didactic system) with particular intentions and didactic activities, but creating a unity and coherence. Figure 4 clearly shows that the start of a lesson (prologue) should provide the understanding of what this lesson will be about and what results should be achieved after its completion. The prologue alone is not enough, so it is up to the pedagogue to arouse the necessary interest in learners (motivate them) and determine what efforts must be taken to accomplish the contemplated objectives. The systematic nature is one of the old didactic principles, saying that permanent knowledge can be created only through regular and systematic acquisition linking the new knowledge to the previous one. A combined lesson, too, should not omit the part reminding of the previous curriculum 80

91 (mobilisation of the previous knowledge system) which creates a natural knowledge base for the new information. Approximation of the new curriculum (exposition of the new knowledge) is one of the most sophisticated didactic procedures giving the notion about the overall level of the teacher, his/her approach to the curriculum and primarily to the way and level of learning. The teacher s psycho-didactic competence is mostly manifested during this stage of the lesson, saying that I teach in a way that I know that my pupils/students are capable of learning. Now we have communicated the new knowledge in the best way we could and it is necessary to ensure that its supply was meaningful, i.e. learners must find new relations to what they have already known. This stage is called fixation and systematisation of the curriculum, and it is, among other things, also important for more permanent remembering and retrieval later on. The concluding parts of the lesson include practising or repetitions, which are important not only for the learners, but also for the instructor. The general level of practising will definitely show to what extent the new curriculum has been successfully exposed, which is an indirect indicator of our teaching abilities and skills. Attempts to apply the new knowledge in examples and demonstrations (practical application) are the activities for which no time is usually left during the lesson. It is always a pity if it is so. We deprive the learners of another (often more accessible) view of the presented curriculum, which is reflected in their relation to the learning content and after all, also to us, the instructors. Every lesson should be finished with a joint (!) contemplation of the instructor and the learners about to what extent the planned objectives have been met (comparison of the input and the output ) and what is ahead of us in the coming lesson (do not forget about the systematic nature ). An important (although timeless for you) note at the end: each stage of a lesson described above accomplishes particular objectives through specific teaching methods and didactic procedures. By giving any description of these methods, we would transcend the borders of general didactics and come too early to the territory of subject-related didactics. But we are at least free to give examples of certain teaching and didactic procedures Notes on teaching methods and didactic procedures during a lesson: Allow me to say in advance that I have chosen two publications speaking about the issue of teaching methods in an effort to innovate them, expand them and enrich them with current (modern) procedures. Maňák s slim book (2001) gives an overview of both classic teaching methods and the characteristics of the procedures aimed at activating learners and bringing them towards creative collaboration with the instructor. The group of traditional teaching methods includes the usual work with an educational text, an instructional interview and its alternatives, dialogue procedures and discussion activities, written products or descriptions of an experimental activity. We must admit that the characteristics of the other group of methods having an attribute of activating creative are much more interesting. Here Maňák includes the procedures based on the verbal interaction between and among the lesson s stakeholders; let us mention the well-known brainstorming, panel discussions or the so-called synectics method. Now we have appeared in the group of situational procedures which are usually based on imagine this situation, creating ways of 81

92 understanding through active role playing or role acceptance using staging procedures, drama procedures (psycho- or socio-drama). The last example of creative procedures is called 'didactic games, fulfilling the instructional and educational objectives in a playful form, often using competitiveness and creativity of stakeholders. Another publication on this topic is the translated work by Flechsig (1995), bringing the western didactic procedures to the local educational environment. It must be taken as an inspiration enriching the procedures currently employed. The author mentions 20 didactic models aimed at developing the communication predispositions during the teaching or learning process. We can see they include the well-known procedures employed all the way from primary schools to universities. For instance, it is a didactic dialogue, dispute (meaning an arguing dialogue), excursion, frontal methods, (didactic) games, projects, lectures or workshops. The less common procedures include: assistance, distant learning, individual learning, cabinet (acquisition of knowledge in a specially created environment), conference, cooperative procedures, a roundtable, practical studies and their presentations, networking (a network of persons mutually communicating the new knowledge), tutorial procedures (students in the teacher's role), exhibitions (acquiring knowledge in 'public places'). We can make a figurative comparison of the issue of teaching methods and didactic procedures to a pedagogical hypermarket offering users a large selection of traditional and less embedded procedures to accomplish the educational objectives. However, their appropriate selection and application is much more complicated and goes beyond the intentions we have set when creating this text. Practical Application Assignments, Activities, Skills So this bit of theory has in fact been a bit more sophisticated and voluminous than in other chapters. But this was a must due to the topic area alone. Let us assume that this information has been useful and will facilitate your completion of the tasks given at the end of this chapter. As usually, the author will again try to solve the first example as an inspiration and informal instructions for the readers. Again, we must add that practising through making written concepts of a lesson is a difficult task for a student and should rather be considered as a loan for the future Example ASSIGNMENT: Let us choose any subject where we have a textbook available and let us choose a specific curriculum (subject matter). We have chosen physics for the seventh grade of primary school and the topic of Velocity of a uniform motion. We use the following textbook: Kol. (1991). Our task is to make a teaching pre-concept for a combined lesson in accordance with Figure 6. SOLUTION: Table 5: Teaching Pre-concept Example Characteristics and Stages Basic Characteristics of Contemplated Lesson 82

93 School Educational Establishment: primary school Form: 7C School Year: 2013/2014 Day: 15. Subject: physics Month: October Lesson: 8-9 Type of Lesson: combined Year: 2013 Note: contents for 2 lessons Instructional Objectives: To strengthen the notion of the difference between a uniform and non-uniform motion; to deduce a formula for the calculation of velocity of a uniform rectilinear motion Educational Objectives: To create a model for safe behaviour in the street based on the information acquired Specific Curriculum: A body performing a uniform motion; velocity as a physical quantity; velocity as the distance that a figure covers per unit of time a formula for calculating velocity; units Terms: uniform and non-uniform motion; distance; time; velocity; quantity and its measurement; quantity identification; quantity units; basic unit Final Knowledge Outcome: To be able to explain velocity as a physical quantity; to calculate velocity of a body from the distance and time measured; to have an understanding of units and their conversion Note: To verify the knowledge and use it in practice, pupils carry out laboratory wok in any of the subsequent lessons Stages and Brief Content of Contemplated Lesson PROLOGUE (Introduction) MOTIVATION (Stimulation) MOBILISATION of the Previous Knowledge System In a teaching monologue, inform the pupils about the objectives and course of the lesson. Remind them that they have already encountered this subject matter in previous years (e.g. the physical quantity of time); the outcome of the lesson should consist in the knowledge of the theory of uniform motion and in the skill to apply theory in typical examples (to calculate, to consider, to compare); Use a media demonstration (BESIP: How pedestrians behave on a crossing ) to show an illustrative example of a pedestrian knocked down by a driven car. During your discussion with pupils, emphasise the usefulness of the knowledge about a steadily (uniformly) moving vehicle for our safety; Show a presentation and repeat the previous curriculum about rectilinear motion and the basic physical quantities (in particular about time); Try to systemise the knowledge and make a difference in its significance; Practise various 83

94 methods for measuring time (as a physical unit) with available devices; EXPOSITION of the New Knowledge FIXATION of the New Curriculum EXERCISES - Repetition PRACTICAL Application COMPARISONS Present an experiment: Release a toy car on a plane plate and measure the time and distance between two points. Change the distance and repeat the experiment. Deduce the term velocity of a uniform motion and write down the formula for its calculation (distance s divided by the travelling time t ); Provide the basic velocity unit (meters per second; m/s) and other units (kilometres per hour; km/h). Compute a sample problem; explain the procedure and outcome in the necessary units or repeat the entire sample procedure so that the method of solving the problem is obvious; Show your presentation with incomplete sentences containing the basic knowledge from today s lesson (from the new curriculum); The pupils (working in three groups) are to complete the sentences and compare and justify the results in all groups; Two pupils will be solving the problems given in the textbook (p. 24) on the reverse sides of the blackboard. Other pupils will be solving the same assignments (A-B) in the class and the course and results of their work will then be compared; Use your presentation to show a simple traffic situation in front of the school; there is a vehicle travelling at uniform velocity and approaching a pedestrian crossing; we use the problem method to bring the learners to answer the following question: How long will it take for the vehicle to pass the crossing? Compare the procedures and results for solving this problem. In the final dialogue with the pupils, consider to what extent you have managed to accomplish the objectives identified at the beginning of the lesson. In the end, communicate the objectives and topics for the next lesson (average velocity of non-uniform motion); Note: We have consulted this pre-concept with primary school physics and mathematics teachers and found out that it is over-dimensioned for the common school practice. Its structure and stages would rather fit into two consecutive lessons. Well, even a writer must sometimes face reality and adjust the otherwise well-meant procedures to real situations MICRO-TEACHING Assignment: The assignment is foreseeable: Make a written pre-concept of a future lesson with ideas following Table 5, i.e. it will again be designed for a combined type of a lesson. It is up to you to choose the subject and curriculum and to use your own 84

95 fantasy and creativity to tune yourself in the pleasurable idea of the future instruction. Use the well-known form to perform your assignment. School Educational Establishment: Form: School Year: Subject: Lesson: Type of Lesson: combined Day: Month: Year: 20.. Note: Instructional Objectives: Educational Objectives: Specific Curriculum: Terms: Final Knowledge Outcome: Note: PROLOGUE (Introduction) Stages and Brief Content of Contemplated Lesson MOTIVATION (Stimulation) MOBILISATION of the Previous Knowledge System EXPOSITION of the New Knowledge 85

96 FIXATION of the New Curriculum EXERCISES - Repetition PRACTICAL Application COMPARISONS Terms to Remember (Key Words) comparisons of objectives and outcomes, diagnosis, didactic analysis, educational practice, educational skills, exposition of the new knowledge, heuristic, learner s performance, macro-environment, mental map, methodology, micro-environment, mobilisation of the knowledge system, paradigm, pre-concept of a lesson, prologue, reflection of the educational performance, stimulation, knowledge systematisation, teaching competencies.. Issues for Thought o We have said at the beginning of this chapter that the teacher s preparation for a lesson/teaching plan can be understood both from a general perspective and in specific form. Please explain the concept under which also your university 86

97 study is a kind of a pedagogue s preparation for a lesson. o Search the dictionary of foreign terms, the Dictionary of Pedagogy, the Pedagogical Encyclopaedia, the internet, etc. to find the term pre-concept and explain it in general and in relation to the teacher planning. o Why do we think that the (internalised) knowledge of Maňák s didactic system makes us pedagogues? Why does his concept include a way to understand the teacher s work? o The structure of stages of a classic combined lesson contains a fixation part. What is its mission? Why is it different from the identification with the new curriculum and from practising? o You had a practical assignment to prepare a block plan for your lesson. Remember its content and comment on the most difficult parts and why it was so. And vice versa. Summary The students of General Didactics are in a slightly complicated position. They are still the students who have just become familiar with the basic knowledge of general education and didactics, and the notion of teaching a lesson at school on one s own (autonomously) is still far away. On the other hand, the disciplines that they study should help them speed up their successful entry into school so that their first teaching attempts do not become an unguided hazard with the health of those who are to earn money for our well-earned rest in in the retirement in the coming decades. We believe that general didactics should pave the way for subject-related didactics by introducing some generally applicable principles (including block planning, teaching pre-concepts) in an acceptable theoretical format and by providing appropriate examples for practising and obtaining the first experience. The latter will be discussed in more detail in the next paragraphs. Crib (Good Advice Is Better Than Gold) If we have an assignment to prepare a teaching pre-concept on our own, we should accept it as a slightly timeless challenge to prove our creativity and relationship to the future everyday role as a teacher. As students of general didactics, we know quite a lot and we can use it to perform the assignment. But let us also be honest that we do not know a lot of things either and so it exceptionally comes in hand that we are not alone to meet this task. Where can we seek advice and assistance? For example, it can be our nearest and dearest who have also been diagnosed as pedagogues ; we can get ideas from our older colleagues or use subject-related departments and consult the issue with their methodists. But we can also, with thrilling sensation, go and see our former teachers at primary or secondary schools to gain precious advice from the old school stagers during a friendly talk. However, we can never be sure whether our perfect and verified written plan will be a safe guideline for our real lesson. We have heard many times that the teacher study is mostly about lengthy theories that are sometimes (during the last years) alternated with the practical opportunity to teach at faculty schools. We believe that it is part of the true reflection of pre-service teacher training. But each view and judgment has two sides. According to the opinion 87

98 that is rather on the other side of the coin, one should be ready for teaching attempts and implement them only when the future teacher s professionalism is at the required level. This is why teaching attempts are as a rule preceded by the training of teaching situations through micro-teaching that will be explained in the last but one chapter. Note: Appendix 7 contains a form to train the preparation of a written plan. Literature BERTRAND, Y. (1998), BLACK, A., DAVERN, L. (1998), BLOCH, A. (1993), BUDIŠ, all. (1995), DOLEŽALOVÁ, J. (2002, 2009, 2011), DYTRTOVÁ, R., KRHUTOVÁ, M. (2009), FLEICHSIG, K.H. (1995), GAVORA, P. (2005b), HOLUB, M. (1987), JANÍK, T. (2005), JANÍK, T., Havel, J. (2005), JANIŠ, K. (2003), JANIŠ, K., KRAUS, B., VACEK, P. (1998), JUKLOVÁ, K. (2008), KALHOUS, S., OBST, O. (2002), KASÁČOVÁ B. (2009), Kol. (1991, 1998), KOMENSKÝ, J.A. (1947, 1948), KORTHAGEN, F. et all. (2011), KOŤA, J. (1994), MAŇÁK, J. (1990), MAŇÁK, J., ŠVEC, V. (2004), PETTY, G. (1996), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2009), PRŮCHA, J., WALTEROVÁ, E., MAREŠ, J. (1997) other reeditions. SKALKOVÁ, J. (1999), SPILKOVÁ, V. (2004), SVATOŠ, T. (2003, 2006a), ŠIMONÍK, O. (2005), ŠVEC, V. (1998, 1999, 2002, 2005), ŠVEC, V., FILOVÁ, H. ŠIMONIK, O. (1996), VAŠUTOVÁ, J. et. all. ( 2008). Note: Full bibliographic citations are provided in the list of literature. 88

99 KAPITOLA 8: JAK NACVIČOVAT ÚVODEM VYUČOVÁNÍ Loftovo postesknutí: Nos nelze dost dobře nestrkat nikam. Murphyho zákony Když mi bylo čtrnáct, byl můj táta takový ignorant, že jsem ho sotva vystál. Ale když mi pak bylo jednadvacet, byl jsem překvapen, jak se stařík za těch sedm let naučil. M. Holub Cíle Věřme že logicky po kapitolách o přípravě na vyučování a stanovování cílů a obsahu je zařazen text, jehož záměrem je přinést informace o možnostech nácviku a simulování role pedagoga jako účinného prostředku profesního rozvoje. Tyto postupy souhrnně označované jako mikrovyučování tvoři most mezi didakticko-komunikační přípravou a reálným působením ve školním prostředí. Pohledem osvojovaných dovedností student po prostudovaní bude schopen: Identifikovat a pojmenovat podstatu mikrovyučování a jeho významných fází, Zrekonstruovat schéma tzv. komunikační situace a vysvětlit její jednotlivé části, Vysvětlit základní pojmy (reflexe, sebereflexe, profáze, postraze atd.), Aplikovat teorii mikrovyučování na příkladu své přípravy, jak byla popsána v tématu č. 5. Náročnost na osvojení Pro porozumění pedagogické teorii i pro ověření v dovednostní praxi střední. Situace Dnes už to zní skoro jako pohádka: bylo - nebylo. A ono bylo a před dvaceti lety. Tehdy se na mne obrátila studentka učitelství pro 1. stupeň základní školy V.M. s dotazem, zda vím o nějakých postupech, které umožňují budoucím pedagogům nacvičit některé části budoucího vyučování nanečisto ještě před tím, než v podmínkách průběžné pedagogické praxe odučí celou vyučovací hodinu. Studentka se velmi obávala, jak zvládne výkladovou část vyučování a byla ochotna spolčit se nejen s ďáblem, dokonce s metodiky fakulty, jen aby nacvičila potřebnou část hodiny. Protože byla V. M. = velmi mladá a chtěla být V. M. = výborná metodička, nabídli jsme ji s týmem didaktiků u nás v té době ojedinělé řešení. Na otázku z titulku kapitoly: jak nacvičovat vyučování, můžeme odpovědět: procedurou tzv. mikrovyučování (microteachingu). Jde o postup, se kterým zahraniční učitelskou veřejnost poprvé seznámili Allen a Ryan (1969) a jež za dobu existence dal vzniknout dalším podobným postupům, které našly své místo v zajímavém světě technologie vzdělávání. Téma pohledem základní teorie 8.1 MIKROVYUČOVÁNÍ A JEHO PODSTATA 89

100 S mikrovyučováním jako účinnou metodou učitelské přípravy se setkáváme v zahraniční literatuře přibližně od poloviny 60. let minulého století. Obdobně jako v zahraničí našlo mikrovyučování i v našich podmínkách nadšené domácí propagátory. S prvními vážněji míněnými pokusy, datovanými do počátku 70. let 20. stol., se setkáváme v pracích Hapaly, Kratochvíla, Januse a dalších. Na rozdíl od jiných postupů (ve své době slibně rozvíjených) má mikrovyučování i dnes své pevné místo ve vzdělávání, především budoucích učitelů a ve firemním managementu Mikrovyučování a jeho podstata Původní záměry mikrovyučování vystihuje i dnes heslo v Pedagogickém slovníku (Průcha,J., Walterová,E., Mareš,J. 1995, s. 119), z nějž citujeme: Heslo MIKROVYUČOVÁNÍ Postup užívaný v učitelské přípravě při nácviku pedagogických dovedností. Principem je zjednodušení (miniaturizace) podmínek pro vyučovací činnost učitele. Sníží se počet žáků ve třídě (např. na 10), zkrátí se vyučovací jednotka (např. na 5-15 minut), zredukuje se škála nacvičovaných dovedností (např. jen výklad, jen opakování, jen procvičování). Adept procházející výcvikem absolvuje v rámci mikrovyučování tuto sekvenci činností: příprava výuky - provedení zkrácené výuky - důkladný rozbor, na němž se podílejí specialisté i kolegové (často s využitím videozáznamu) - promýšlení připomínek a přepracování koncepce - opětovné provedení výuky s jinou skupinou žáků - opětovný rozbor adeptovy činnosti. Cíle, příprava, organizace, prekoncept výuky Obr. 13: Etapy mikrovyučování Dnešní mikrovyučování, jak ho známe z uskutečňování v podmínkách učitelského studia na našich vysokých školách, je potomkem původního záměru, který byl rozšířen a povýšen na vzdělávací koncepci. Základním prvkem je mikrovýstup, který si můžeme představit jako záměrně připravenou a reflektovanou pedagogickou situaci (Slavík 1995, Švec 1996). Sledujeme-li pozorně obrázek č. 11, zjišťujeme, že mikrovyučování má svou vnitřní strukturu a jejím základním stavebním kamenem je tzv. mikrovýstup. Tab. 6: Fáze mikrovýstupu jako pedagogické situace (Svatoš 2000) ČÁST PREFÁZE JEDNAJÍCÍ SUBJEKT vyučující: student: Mikrovýstup A provedení, rozbor, přepracování Konečná podoba, zobecnění pro další pedagogickou praxi Mikrovýstup B provedení, rozbor, přepracování Mikrovýstup C (je-li potřeba, se stejným obsahem) OBSAH ČINNOSTI zadání (smysl, teoretický kontext) rozvíjené dovednosti a soubory, úskalí a možné chyby, mediální ilustrace, objasnění nejasného prekoncepční analýza prožitkový rámec "před", hledání předchozího analogického jednání, 90

101 ČÁST MIKROVÝSTUP (s televizním záznamem) POSTFÁZE ZPĚTNÁ VAZBA NOVÁ KONSTRUKCE JEDNAJÍCÍ SUBJEKT jedinec, dvojice, skupina: student: skupina: skupina versus student: vyučující: všichni zúčastnění: student: OBSAH ČINNOSTI prekoncept akce, jistoty, očekávání a otazníky, komunikační aktivita rozvíjející určený soubor pedagogických - komunikativních dovedností sebereflexní analýza: prožitkový rámec po naplnění očekávání, bilancování, pojmenování komunikačních změn dlouhodobější povahy, adresná reflexe, osobní názory a postoje vzájemný dialog s obhajováním a objasňováním postojů a osobního mínění stimulující hodnocení, inventura kladných a diskutabilních stránek mikrovýstupu, další inspirace video (audio) reprodukce, hodnocení, (pozorovací archy, dotazníky) opakovaná, resp. modifikovaná činnost (jak příště jinak a lépe ) I když se mikrovýstupy v A, B případně C od sebe liší konkrétním obsahem, je zřejmé, že jejich obecná struktura uvnitř zůstává stejná a jako celek představuje pedagogickou (nacvičujeme-li pedagogické dovednosti) nebo komunikační situaci (nacvičujeme-li komunikační dovednosti). 8.2 CO JE MIKROVVÝSTUP? Mikrovýstup je cvičná, záměrně navozená a monitorovaná pedagogická (komunikační) situace, jejímž hlavním smyslem je poskytnout příležitost k utváření, upevnění, rozvíjení nebo obměně pedagogických (komunikativních) dovedností. Na straně komunikanta (jednajícího studenta) záměrně vytváří stimulující napětí (plynoucí z novosti, nezkušenosti..), jež vede k pedagogické (komunikační) aktivitě, která je reflektována okolím a sebehodnocena. Podmínkou účinného nácviku je, aby se týkal každého jednotlivce zvlášť, s ohledem na jeho individuální potřeby, dosavadní dispozice, dovednosti a postoje. Mikrovýstup jako nácviková metoda je jednou z účinných cest od vnější regulace chování k autoregulaci, od vnějších zásahů k autonomnímu projevu Podívejme se ve větším detailu na tabulku č. 6 a pokusme se jej lidsky vysvětlit. Už letmý pohled říká, že se jedná o pět mezi sebou spojených činností, kterými musí projít student, rozhodne-li se pro nácvik. V první části (PREFÁZI) je mu významně k ruce pedagog, který vysvětlí, co bude záměrem mikrovýstupu, zadá úkol, sdělí potřebnou teorii, určí, které dovednosti je potřeba rozvíjet, s jakými chybami se student může setkat. Jsou-li k dispozici filmy, televizní záznamy atd., tak je promítnuty v takové podobě, aby nebyly chápány jako 91

102 návody na opakování či kopírování. Od připravujícího se studenta se očekává, že připraví prekoncept činnosti, který doplní popisem prožívání před" akcí. Je velmi dobré, když se snaží hledat předchozí podobné jednání, resp. situaci, ve které byl, a ujasní si jistoty i otazníky s činností, která ho čeká. Takto připraven a vybaven uskuteční připravenou didaktickou činnost před svými kolegy podle připraveného prekonceptu. Jeho jednání (AKCE) má podobu sledovatelných dovedností, resp. jako diváci a posluchači můžeme pozorovat vnější stránku dovedností, která však úzce souvisí s vnitřními stránkami předváděných činností. Nejen pro lepší zapamatování je výkon studenta snímán a zaznamenán prostředky videotechniky. Určitě namítnete, že jde o velkou zátěž samo o sobě, a natož s televizní asistencí. Máte pravdu, vědomí co řeknu, pak uvidím a uslyším, je v mnoha směrech svazující. Na druhou stranu si připomeneme známý vztah mezi cvičištěm a bojištěm, jak se traduje ve zlidovělém přísloví. A o tom to je Předpokládejme, že vystupující student přežil bez úhony popisovanou část mikrovýstupu a dále ho čeká ohlédnutí po svém výstupu (POSTFÁZE). K jejímu průběhu přispívají všichni zúčastnění. Nejprve se ale slova ujímá hlavní aktér a popisuje, jaké má prožitky po akci, jak se naplnila jeho očekávání, a snaží se pojmenovat, co by v příští podobné situaci zachoval a co naopak změnil a proč. Připomeňme, že většinovým znakem studentských sebereflexí, jak je po mnoho let slýcháme při nácviku, je velmi kritický tón vůči sobě samému, jenž se dá vyjádřit silnými slovy: sebezničení, sebeznehodnocení, verbální demontáž apod. Proto je nutné, aby do hodnocení vstoupila reflexe ostatních přítomných. Jejich názorová paleta obvykle upravuje velmi kritický pohled aktéra na sebe sama a zároveň začíná přinášet cenné ovoce v podobě nápadů, návrhů a konceptů jak příště jinak. V obdobném duchu se do diskuse zapojuje i přítomný pedagog, od nějž se neočekávají silná slova ani kladným či záporným směrem. Spíše by měla být na místě polemika, zakončená úvahami co a jak dál. Téměř jsme zapomněli, že máme k dispozici audiovizuální (televizní) nahrávku akce, jejíž přehrávka má podobu zpětné vazby. Nezpochybnitelným způsobem z ní můžeme opět vyčíst jednotlivé elementy jednání a pedagogickou situaci jako celek. S výhodou využijeme všech obvyklých technických vymožeností, které videotechnika skýtá (zastavení zopakování zpomalení apod.) Pochopitelně vždy s jasným účelem a taktem nám vrozeným. Je-li součástí zpětné vazby vyplnění dotazníků či pozorovacích archů, provádíme to po přehrávce didaktické akce (např. Svatoš a Holý 2005). Konečnou fází mikrovýstupu (jako nácvikové pedagogické situace) je tzv. nová konstrukce jednání. Je logickým završením výše zmiňovaných útrap a má podobu upravené (modifikované) činnosti, která by měla přinést vyšší celkovou kvalitu v další podobné situaci. Ve schématu, které jsme před chvílí popsali, mají své nepřehlédnutelné a nezaměnitelné místo postupy hodnocení, spojené s reflexivními a sebereflexivními činnostmi. Považujeme je za tak významnou složku učitelské přípravy, resp. mikrovyučování, že jim věnujeme prostor a potřebnou pozornost v dalším textu. 8.3 REXLEXE A SEBEREFLEXE Obdobně jako vyučující po každodenní pedagogické činnosti, také student učitelství po mikrovýstupu si klade otázky, jak svou pedagogicko-komunikativní roli zvládal, jak jeho sdělování vnímali jeho adresáti, jak ovlivnil společné činnosti, jak se dařilo přetvářet prekoncept mikrovýstupu v autentické jednání a konečně: jak jinak postupovat v obdobných situacích. Budoucí učitel na rozdíl od zkušeného pedagoga hledá odpovědi obtížněji a ve větší závislosti na okolí (ostatních studentech, vyučujícím 92

103 atd.). Ukazuje se, že studentské interpretace svého komunikativního či pedagogického jednání jsou často neúplné a mnohé v nich chybí. Důvodů je nejméně pět a vlastně odrážejí poněkud zvláštní pozici člověka, který se učí učit : nevybavování si předchozích způsobů jednání ze situací obdobného typu (student učitelství mnohdy nemá na co vzpomínat a s čím srovnávat), přílišná závislost na konkrétním průběhu výuky (chybí mu nadhled a projevuje se silný vliv situací, ke kterým v mikrovyučování nepředvídaně došlo), upjatost na jedno řešení, jednání... postup (ve větší míře není schopen kreativního jednání), neodpovídající postupy (kroky) reflexivní činnosti (může být poškozen" neprofesionálním a neodborným hodnocením) a s tím související užití nevhodných metod reflexe a sebereflexe. Správně prováděná reflexe a sebereflexe mikrovyučování má svá nesporná pozitiva. Předmětem reflexní analýzy je praktická a konkrétní činnost, která probíhala v ohraničeném" ději, v zapamatovatelných a vybavitelných souvislostech. Pro všechny zúčastněné není obtížné spojit dovednostní situaci s proběhlým dějem, s konkrétními reakcemi posluchačů apod. Smyslem rozboru mikrovýstupů není hledání jediného řešení, naopak. Legitimní možnost různého individuálního ztvárnění obdobných dovednostních situací upevňuje vědomí svobodné a tvořivé podstaty učitelství a posiluje studentovu osobní i profesní identitu. Způsob, jakým se budoucí učitel s řešením nácvikových situací vyrovnává, jak zvnitřňuje hodnocení druhých, jak obhajuje své postoje a upravuje (modifikuje) další obdobnou činnost, napovídá o jeho rodících se profesních kvalitách. Je potřebné zdůraznit, že výsledky reflexivních postupů mají velký význam především pro jednajícího studenta a záměrně v pozadí zůstávají většinové - skupinové názory. S jakými reflexivními a sebereflexivními postupy se v dovednostním nácviku můžeme setkat? a) sebereflexivní bilance Naše zkušenosti ukazují, že mezi nejvýznamnější reflexivní metody můžeme zařadit tzv. sebereflexivní bilance, které popisují stavy "před" mikrovýstupem a "po" něm. Jejich podoba může být formálně různá, např. volný nebo návodnými otázkami vedený písemný popis očekávání a skutečnosti a jejich vzájemné srovnávání. Na obr. 11 uvádíme sebereflexivní bilanční dotazník, se kterým po mnoho let pracujeme při nácviku dovedností budoucích učitelů. Obsahově studentské zápisy nejčastěji vypovídají o těchto dílčích tématech: individuální představa o činnosti, která je čeká, očekávané obtíže i jistoty, naplnění nebo neuskutečnění očekávání, výčet pozitivních a negativních znaků proběhlé činnosti, pojmenování prvků, které se objeví v budoucím (obdobném) jednání. Často také vystupující studenti ve stavech po popisují proměny v psychickém stavu, dávají si dobrá předsevzetí k sobě samým a konečně se rozepisují o trvalejších a obecnějších změnách, ke kterým došlo nebo o které budou v dalším jednání programově usilovat. Připomínáme několikrát uvedenou skutečnost, že studentská bilancování (v písemné nebo mluvené podobě) je součástí každého mikrovýstupu a je spojeno reflektujícím hodnocením zbývajících účastníků nácviku - včetně vyučujícího. Především v této podobě (jak je naším přesvědčením) může sebereflexivní bilance přispívat ke vzniku posunů ve studentském sebeobrazu (jaký jsem, jak se vnímám a jak mne 93

104 vnímají a hodnotí ostatní), což blahodárně přispívá k urychlování a prohlubování profesní přípravy B) sebereflexivní deníky Na půdě moravské, přesněji na Pedagogické fakultě MU v Brně, mají dlouholeté zkušenosti s jinými postupy reflexe a sebereflexe v dovednostním nácviku (kupř. Švec 1996). Výchozí myšlenkou je zavedení, průběžné doplňování a analýza sebereflexivních deníků, které vlastní každý student a do nějž zapisuje a hodnotí všechny aktivity, kterými v delším období procházel. Jde o postup, jehož záměrem je v delším čase postihnout proměny studentského uvažování a načrtnout trendy jeho dalšího profesionalizačního vývoje. Vraťme se k proceduře sebereflexe a reflexe mikrovyučování a v závěru připomeňme, jaká pravidla by měla být dodržována při hodnocení studentských výkonů zásady správného hodnocení mikrovýstupů každý hodnotí každého, také vystupující student hodnotí sám sebe, hodnocení se skládá jednak z připravené osnovy hodnocení, dílem z volných výpovědí, každý mikrovýstup by měl být chápán jako alternativní a také tak hodnocen, reflexe má obvykle dvě hodnotící roviny: komunikativní (výrazovou) a rovinu obsahovou (pedagogicko-didaktickou), při sebehodnocení by neměly chybět výpovědi o prožitcích před, při a po výstupu, hodnocený student má možnost obhajovat svůj postup, hodnocený student má možnost opakování (opravy, modifikace..) mikrovýstupu, jestliže to situace vyžaduje, vyučující by se měl zdržet jednoznačně správných či odmítavých soudů (může studenta poškodit), jeho hodnocení by mělo mít podobu úvahy, rozvahy nad výkonem, inspirace, naznačení dalších možností apod. hodnocení má v sobě obsahovat prvky teorie i praxe, při hodnocení jiným studentem jsou oba natočeni k sobě a hovoří k sobě (hodnocení nemůže probíhat "přes" vyučujícího). všichni studenti by měli při mikrovýstupu i hodnocení na sebe vidět, reflexe (resp. sebereflexe) by se měla dotýkat jak psychických stavů (proměny motivace, prožívání, návratnost mentální investice do výkonu atd.), tak i konkrétních dovedností (jejich provádění, celkové úrovně a budoucích úprav a podob). V následující tabulce (tab. č. 7) uvádíme příklady nacvičovaných a později reflektovaných dovedností komunikativní a didaktické povahy. Ve skutečnosti nejde o jednotlivé činnosti, ale o složitější dovednostní struktury (někdy se jim říká dovednostní trsy ). Určitě nejde o vyčerpávající přehled, dovednostní celky uvádíme spíše pro inspiraci a jako námět ke konkrétnímu reflexivnímu posouzení (sebehodnocení). 94

105 Tab. 7: Příklady nacvičovaných a reflektovaných dovedností (abecedně) interpretovat připravený obsah sdělení před adresáty modifikovat budoucí činnost na základě reflexe a sebereflexe proběhlé činnosti pojmenovat po výkonu polemické stránky didaktické činnosti pojmenovat po výkonu pozitivní stránky didaktické činnosti posoudit obsah učiva z pohledu jeho významu (učivo základní x elementární x redundantní) provést sebehodnocení po mikrovýstupu (rekonstruovat etapu přípravy) připravovat mikrovýstup s vědomím pozice adresátů připravovat mikrovýstup s vědomím prostředí, ve kterém se bude odehrávat přiřadit k dílčímu obsahu odpovídající metody, vedoucí k očekávaným cílům reflektovat kvalitu mimoslovního projevu - všechny složky neverbálního sdělování reflektovat kvalitu slovního projevu - zejména jazykových prostředků a zvukové stránky řeči reflektovat míru splnění vstupních výchovně vzdělávacích cílů s jejich realizací rozpracovat výchovné a vzdělávací záměry do fází mikrovyučování stanovit cíle a výchovně vzdělávací záměry na příkladu konkrétního učiva stanovit materiálně technické a psychohygienické podmínky vyučování stanovit míru přípravy a improvizace před mikrovýstupem ujasnit požadované žákovské činnosti, resp. míru kooperace vyučujícího se žáky uplatnit při mikrovýstupu fantazii a tvořivost v celkovém projevu utřídit základní pojmy učiva a vyjasnit vztahy mezi nimi vnímat nepříznivé reakce posluchačů a regulovat vnější chování očekávaným způsobem vnímat příznivé reakce posluchačů a regulovat vnější chování očekávaným způsobem vyjmenovat způsoby hodnocení a reflektování úrovně žákovských činností vysvětlit své postoje a názory s ohledem na téma a adresáty sdělení vytipovat (v přípravě) očekávané obtíže v mimoslovním projevu - v mimickém vyjadřování vytipovat (v přípravě) očekávané obtíže v mimoslovním projevu - v motorické aktivitě vytipovat (v přípravě) očekávané obtíže v mimoslovním projevu - v haptickém vyjadřování vytipovat (v přípravě) očekávané obtíže v mimoslovním projevu - v posturologii vytipovat (v přípravě) očekávané obtíže v mimoslovním projevu - v proxemickém 95

106 vyjadřování vytipovat (v přípravě) očekávané obtíže v mimoslovním projevu ve zrakovém kontaktu vytipovat (v přípravě) očekávané obtíže ve slovním projevu - zaměřeno na sdělovaný obsah vytipovat (v přípravě) očekávané obtíže ve slovním projevu - zaměřeno na zvukovou stránku zakončit mikrovýstup odpovídajícím způsobem (komunikačně, didakticky, celkovým pojetím) zkonstruovat časově obsahový koncept mikrovyučování s detailizací dílčích učebních celků zveřejnit své pocity a prožitky s ohledem na téma a adresáty sdělení zvolit v přípravě vhodné jazykové prostředky Praktická aplikace úkoly, činnosti, dovednosti V kapitole o nácviku vyučování není dost dobře možné, aby autor aplikoval potřebné znalosti na příkladu konkrétní činnosti. Proto také není možné ani nacvičovat a konkretizovat postupy reflexe či sebereflexe. Nicméně pro větší připravenost vás budoucích učitelů na mikrovýstup, jehož zadání bude následovat, přinášíme na obr. 14 příklad jednoduchého formuláře, který lze použít pro sebereflexivní bilancování stavů před a po mikrovýstupu. Obr. 14: Formulář pro sebereflexivní bilancování v dovednostním nácviku (Svatoš 2001) PROTOKOL O MIKROVÝSTUPU Student(ka): Aprobace: ročník studijní skupina: Charakteristika mikrovýstupu: Cíl mikrovýstupu (MV): Téma MV: Datum MV a prostředí: Videozáznam: ANO / NE Čas MV: min. vteřin Poznámky: Část A: POCITY A STAVY PŘED MIKROVÝSTUPEM 96

107 Většina úvah o mikrovýstupu, který mě teď čeká, se týkala Na mikrovýstup jsem se připravoval(a) tak, že jsem... Myslím si, že mikrovýstup by mohl dopadnout dobře, kdybych využil(a) svých schopností Očekávám od videozáznamu mikrovýstupu... což umožní, abych příště Část B: POCITY A STAVY PO MIKROVÝSTUPU Záměry, které jsem si stanovil(a) před mikrovýstupem, se mi Podle očekávání jsem což si vysvětluji tím, že Naopak mě překvapilo, jak jsem Bylo to tím, že

108 Své reakce bych charakterizoval(a) jako a, i když Myslím si, že se mi podařilo Nespokojen(á) jsem ale s Příště budu to znamená více....., méně * pro interní potřebu katedry pedagogiky a psychologie připravil T. Svatoš (c) 2001 * 2 Mikrovýstup - zadání Čeká vás určitě nejnáročnější úkol ze všech, které jsou zadány v této publikaci. Záměrem je připravit simulovanou pedagogickou situaci ve formě prekonceptu vyučování a formou mikrovyučování situaci uskutečnit, zaznamenat, analyzovat a navrhnout upravený model původní představy didaktické činnosti. Na druhou stranu by vás zadání nemělo příliš překvapit, protože většina předchozích témat vám dala příležitost k postupnému vyladění na blížící se mikrovyučování. Připomeňme si, že jsme se v prvním tématu učili pracovat s pedagogickým textem, ve druhé kapitole jsme pronikali do tajů sociální a pedagogické komunikace a měli příležitost nacvičovat komunikativní dovednosti všemi výrazovými prostředky, ve čtvrté jsme konstruovali didaktickou prezentaci a páté téma bylo bližším seznámením 98

109 s problematikou přípravy vyučujícího na výuku a konečně tato kapitola vám přiblížila mikrovyučování jako nácvikovou proceduru Zadání: a) Tvorba prekonceptu vyučování Zvolte si jakýkoliv předmět, ke kterému máte k dispozici učebnici, a vyberte konkrétní učivo. Z uvedeného učiva vytvořte prekoncept vyučování v hodině smíšeného typu - podle příkladu na obr. 10 a zapište do formuláře v Příloze č. 7. Podle svého uvážení zvolte jednu z dílčích fází vyučovací hodiny, kterou chcete v podmínkách mikrovyučování nacvičit a později reflektovat. Výběr zdůvodněte. b ) Konzultace s vyučujícím Vaši představu budoucího vyučování konzultujte s vyučujícím, společně připravte podmínky (např. učební pomůcky a didaktickou techniku) a seznamte se s prostředím budoucího vyučování. Dohodněte se na časově obsahové charakteristice vyučování, roli posluchačů a technologii snímání a záznamu vašeho výkonu. d ) Nacvičované dovednosti, resp. komunikativní a didaktické činnosti Při konzultaci pojmenujte a vyčleňte ty didaktické a komunikativní činnosti (s využitím inspirací z obr. 10), které stojí v centru vaší pozornosti a jejichž podobu a úroveň chcete nacvičovat. Tato informace je také důležitá pro obsluhu technického zařízení, aby snímání mikrovyučování bylo orientováno potřebným směrem. e ) Popis stavů před mikrovyučováním Bezprostředně před mikrovýstupem vyplňte záhlaví formuláře pro sebereflexivní bilancování (uvádíme na obr. 11) a také část A: pocity a stavy před mikrovýstupem a zapište do formuláře v Příloze č. 7. Formulář je vodítkem uvažování před mikrovýstupem, další vaše úvahy zapište na volné listy, aby bylo možné pozdější srovnávání rozšířit a prohloubit. f ) Realizace prekonceptu části vyučování Uskutečněte v dohodnutých podmínkách Váš mikrovýstup, který bude realizací vašeho prekonceptu vyučování v daném prostředí. Zaměřte se na nacvičované dovednosti (dovednostní celky) a využívejte Vám dostupných komunikačních prostředků a ovládnutých vyučovacích postupů. Pokuste se při realizací prekonceptu vyučování vnímat ty dílčí situace, o kterých jste při přípravě neuvažovali, které však výrazněji mění povahu a děj vyučování. Pokuste se na nepředvídané situace reagovat nejlepším možným způsobem, k čemuž využijte všech komunikačních a improvizačních dovedností. g ) Sebereflexivní bilancování Bezprostředně po mikrovýstupu vyplňte do formuláře pro sebereflexivní bilancování část B (stavy po ). Opět podotýkáme, že jde o vodítko uvažování po mikrovýstupu a další vaše úvahy je možné zapsat na volné listy. Proveďte sebereflexní analýzu vašeho mikrovýstupu, zaměřte se na srovnání prožitků před, při a po mikrovýstupu. Srovnávejte fázi přípravy s její realizací, pojmenujte míru naplnění (nebo nenaplnění) očekávání. Vyjádřete se k úrovni a provedení vytipovaných dovedností a uvažujte o jejich příčinách. Pokuste se popsat změny, které ve Vašem mikrovýstupu nastaly nebo v podobné (opakované) příležitosti nastanou. 99

110 h ) Reflexivní bilancování Sledujte odezvu, jakou Vaše vystoupení vyvolalo mezi účastníky. Vyslechněte jejich reflexivní názory, osobní postoje a poznámky ke komunikativní i pedagogickodidaktické stránce mikrovyučování. Ve vzájemném dialogu obhajujte své názory a objasňujte osobní mínění. Pokuste se o polemické vnímání připomínek a uvažujte o všech kladných a diskutabilních stránkách mikrovýstupu. i ) Zpětná vazba Po televizní přehrávce doplňte sebeobraz o další postřehy a názory všech přítomných. Pokuste se vnímat sebe sama nezaujatě a soustředěně. j ) Nová konstrukce Uskutečněte závěrečné sebehodnocení a hodnocení celého mikrovyučování. Využijte všech poznatků, které vzešly z přípravy, realizace a reflexe mikrovyučování. Uvažujte o nadčasovém významu celého pokusu a potřebných změnách (modifikacích), které se projeví jako nová konstrukce budoucího jednání v podobné situaci a obdobných podmínkách. Konečně: vyjádřete se k významu skončeného mikrovýstupu z pohledu vaší profesionalizace. Pojmy k zapamatování (klíčová slova) analogie, audiovizuální nahrávka, autentické jednání, bilancování, didaktická akce, konstrukce nové činnosti, kreativní jednání, management, mentální investice, microteaching, mikrovyučování, modifikovaná činnost, postfáze, pozorovací arch, profáze, profesionalizační etapa, simulovaná situace, trajektorie. Otázky k přemýšlení o V textu jsme uvedli některá schémata, která jsou významná pro porozumění pojmu mikrovyučování mikrovýstup. Vyhledejte vyobrazení č. 11 a 12 a vysvětlete jejich obsah. o Co student, který nacvičuje vyučování formou mikrovýstupu tímto postupem získává? o Jak se na zisku podílí skutečnost, že jeho výkon je snímán a zaznamenán (a později i reprodukován) audiovizuálními prostředky? o V čem je podle Vás účinný postup, založený na uvažování PŘED a následně PO mikrovýstupu? (připomeňte si schéma č. 12). o Také pro Vás bude platit, že Vašem mikrovýstupu budete pro jeho celkové zhodnocení potřebovat jak sebereflexi (Váš pohled na věc ) + reflexi (tedy názor Vašich kolegů, kteří mikrovystoupení sledovali, proč?) Souhrn Uvažujeme-li dnes o postupech, které mají dát budoucímu učiteli již v podmínkách pregraduálního vzdělávání příležitost získávat potřebné dovednosti, bude mezi těmi nejpřednějšími zcela jistě procedura, které říkáme mikrovyučování microteaching. Cenné je, že se student učitelství ocitá v simulované (realitě podobné) situaci, která má všechny znaky skutečného vyučování, nicméně je zaměřena na výcvik dovedností a 100

111 jeho hodnocení a sebehodnocení. Probíhají-li všechny postupy a fáze nácviku podle doporučení (jak jsme o nich hovořili), je výsledkem konkrétní zkušenost vyrůstající z konkrétní situace a jednání, která po reflexi přináší inspirace pro potřebnou změnu budoucího jednání. Odborně řečeno: mikrovyučování (a všechny další dobře provedené nácvikové postupy) urychlují individuální profesní cestu (trajektorii) jedince a významně přispívají k jeho připravenosti na běžnou pedagogickou činnost. Téměř jsem zapomněl na někdejší studentku V. M., která svým příběhem otevírala kapitolu o nácviku vyučování. Rád a s oceněním vzpomínám na to, že prošla všemi fázemi mikrovyučování (obr. 11) tedy třikrát stála před kamerou a třikrát rozebírala kvalitu svého mikrovyučování a teprve poté (resp. po úpravách) se postavila před žáky na základní škole. Ve vyučovacím pokusu prokázala, že mentální investice do přípravy vůbec nebyla marná a že jí ve výsledku přinesla prožitky radosti a spokojenosti nad zvládnutým vyučováním. Tahák (dobré rady nad zlato) Cesta od stavu učím se do stavu vyučuji druhé má svá pravidla a je spojena s dlouhodobým vývojem. Není dobrým místem pro urychlené experimentování ( házení do vody ), naopak by v ní měly převládat postupné kroky, gradace zátěže a nácvik před tím, než opravdu vstoupíme do školy v roli učitele. Naše zkušenosti říkají, že první vyučovací pokusy zvládají především ti studenti, kteří využívají každé příležitosti a podoby přípravy: účastní se hospitací na školách, v seminářích aktivně vystupují a zveřejňují své názory a postoje. V neposlední řadě jde o budoucí pedagogy, kteří využívají mikrovýstupů a dalších nácvikových forem k osahání budoucí role a jejího vnímání všemi zúčastněnými. Opačná taktika nebýt viděn, nebýt slyšen je kontraproduktivní: oddalováním situací zkouším laboruji předvádím jako přibližuje příležitost k vyučovacím pokusům s nebezpečím rizika nepřipravenosti a neúspěchu. Literatura ALLEN,D., RYAN,K. (1969), BLOCH, A. (1993), BUDIŠ, J. et all. (1995), BUSHER, H. (1989), HOLUB, M. (1987), HORKÁ, H. (1997), JANÍK, T., JANÍKOVÁ, M. (2006), KLINZING,H.G., FLODEN,R.D. (1991), MAREŠ, J. (1976), MAREŠ, J., SLAVÍK, J., SVATOŠ, T. a ŠVEC, V. (1995), NEZVALOVÁ, D. (1994), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2009), PRŮCHA, J., WALTEROVÁ, E., MAREŠ, J. (1997) další reedice, SPOUSTA, V et all. (2000), STONES, E., MORRIS, S. (1976), SVATOŠ, T. (1997, 2006a, 2006b, 2011), ŠEĎOVÁ, K., ŠVAŘÍČEK, R., ŠALAMOUNOVÁ, Z. (2012), ŠMAHEL, I., ŘEZÁČ, J. (1996), ŠVAŘÍČEK, R., ŠEĎOVÁ, K. (2007), ŠVEC, V. (1999), ŠVEC, V., FILOVÁ, H. SIMONIK, O. (1996), VYBÍRAL, Z. (2000), WALKER, R., ADELMAN, C. A (1978), WALLACE, M. J. (1994), WHITTE, B. C. (2000). Pozn.: úplné bibliografické citace jsou uvedeny v seznamu použité literatury. 101

112 KAPITOLA 9: JAK ÚVODEM HODNOTIT VYUČOVÁNÍ Poznatek Mae Westové: Chybovat je lidské, ale pocit je to božský. Murphyho zákony Není to tím, že nevidí řešení. Je to tím, že nevidí problém. M. Holub Cíle Záměrem poslední kapitoly je přinést základní poznatky o evaluaci (=hodnocení) vyučování a jejích obvyklých i méně používaných metodách. V širších souvislostech se uzavírá kruh témat, která této kapitole předcházela: víme jak psát přípravu na vyučování, jak pracovat s cíli a obsahem, jak nacvičovat a uskutečňovat první vyučovací pokusy a konečně se dozvíme, jak hodnotit průběh a výsledky edukace. Pohledem osvojovaných dovedností student po prostudovaní bude schopen: Pojmenovat evaluační postupy a to především ty které jsou spojeny s běžnou školní praxí, rozumět, Nacvičovat i v praxi uskutečňovat hospitační činnost tak,a b byla metodicky správná i poznatkově objevná, Hodnotit vyučování prostřednictvím pozorovacích archů, Aplikovat hodnocení vyučování prostřednictvím některé z náročnějších metod mikroanalýzy průběhu edukace ve cvičných i reálných podmínkách škol. Náročnost na osvojení Pro porozumění pedagogické teorii i pro ověření v dovednostní praxi střední. Situace Asi stárnu, znělo mou myslí, když jsem se v poslední době často přistihl, jak si promítám některé dávné vzpomínky z časů, kdy jsem byl čerstvě přijat na učitelskou fakultu a vychutnával novotou vonící roli vysokoškolského studenta. Přiznávám, že jsem skoro nevěděl, co obnáší studovat na učitele, nicméně už první týdny na škole podporovaly mé sebevědomí, které po svém zvyšovali rodiče, pečující o mé duševní i materiální potřeby. Hmatatelné důkazy byly pravidelně uschovány v objemných taškách, po jejichž otevření na vysokoškolských kolejích došlo k velkému třesku vůní z jídlem přecpaných nádob. Určitě jsem nebyl sám v situaci, kdy starostliví rodiče jednali podle neověřené hypotézy, že rozvoj šedé kůry mozkové je přímo úměrný energetickému příjmu média cnedlikus bohemicus, nebo alespoň dvakrát obalovaného řízku podle babiččina receptu. Ve vzpomínkovém scénáři je také jedna událost, která se hodí jako úvodní příběh posledního tématu publikace. Někdy zkraje druhého ročníku nás čekalo první nahlédnutí do běžné školy v podobě tzv. hospitace (staročesky náslechu ). Byli jsme už usazeni na židlích vzadu učebny, na klíně poznámky a čekali na zazvonění. Nevím, koho v tu chvíli napadlo se polohlasně zeptat, co budeme zapisovat?. Otázka tichou poštou obletěla všechny přítomné a zastavila se u pedagoga, který nás doprovázel. Jeho odpověď byla rychlá a rázná: zapisujte všechno, co uvidíte. A tak se stalo. Není 102

113 třeba dodávat, jak naše hospitační záznamy vypadaly a co obsahovaly. Z logiky věcí také vyplývá, že ze směsi osobních a neúplných poznámek se nedal vytvořit objektivizující obrázek sledovaného vyučování a jeho základních charakteristik. Na vině byla nepřipravenost na hospitační činnost a neadresné (příliš laické a obecné) zadání pozorovacího úkolu. Otázka co budeme zapisovat měla být širší a znít jak sledovat a hodnotit vyučování, co všechno je třeba vykonat, aby naše návštěva ve škole měla smysl a přinesla potřebná data a poznatky. Téma pohledem základní teorie 9.1 POZOROVÁNÍ A HODNOCENÍ V PEDAGOGICE Téma hodnocení vyučování patří k tradičním ve starší i novější pedagogické literatuře. Je to pochopitelné, protože každého učitele zajímá, jak se duševní energie vložená do přípravy odrazila v její realizaci a jak změnila žáky studenty v jejich vědomostech, názorech, postojích či dovednostech. Tento směr uvažování by nás opět přivedl k tématice reflexe a sebereflexe, které jsme věnovali prostor v předchozí kapitole. Nás však bude více zajímat procedura vnímání a hodnocení vyučování z pozice návštěvy ve škole, která má různým účastníkům přinést poznatky o výuce, ať již pro obohacení zkušeností, získání nových impulzů pro svou didaktickou činnost nebo z důvodů obvyklé kontroly pedagogovy práce, jak je pravidelně konají orgány školské správy. V dalších řádcích budeme věnovat pozornost hospitaci a jejím základním zřetelům. A začneme poněkud zeširoka Pozorování a hodnocení výchovy, resp. pedagogických jevů a dějů, má své letitě používané postupy, metody, možnosti i omezení. Základní obtíže jsou dány jednak metodologickou náročností pozorování a hodnocení, zároveň je obvyklé, že předmětem pozorování a hodnocení jsou velmi složité jevy, které se projevují vnějšími znaky (jsou sledovatelné), ale vždy souvisí s vnitřními (obtížně dostupnými) příčinami. Moudře a obecně řečeno: Hodnocení výchovy a vzdělávání je typické obecnou složitostí probíhajících dějů, z čehož plyne obtížnost v jejich úplné poznatelnosti, utřídění (systematizaci) i zobecnění. Oproti přírodním vědám (nebo technice) je sledování, popis, hodnocení a interpretace zjištění ve společenských vědách (sociologii, psychologii pedagogických vědách) daleko obtížnější, nejednoznačnější a více ovlivňující (i když to není záměrem) zkoumaný jev. 2.2 Kterými metodami je možné výchovu (výchovné jevy) poznávat? Badatelské metody v pedagogických vědách můžeme roztřídit (klasifikovat) podle nejrůznějších kritérií. Uveďme zažitou základní typologii, která postupy rozděluje na metody teoretické a empirické. Teoretické metody jsou spojeny se základními duševními procesy: metoda analýzy, syntézy, indukce, dedukce, komparace, generalizace atd. Empirické metody pedagogického hodnocení a zkoumání jsou bezprostředně spojeny s výchovně vzdělávací skutečností. Při rozboru sledované praktické činnosti je však potřebné použít také metody teoretického poznání. Tím se naplňuje vztah teorie a praktické činnosti. 103

114 Metody empirického výzkumu v pedagogických vědách se obvykle člení na: pozorování (observace, součástí hospitace) rozhovoru (dialogu, interview) dotazníku (ankety) pedagogického experimentu (nejnáročnější metoda, resp. soubor metod) studia dokumentů (např. historickosrovnávací metoda) sociometrických šetření (např. měření sociálně komunikativního klimatu atd.) Není záměrem detailněji pojednat o všech metodách a postupech, které můžeme využít tehdy, chceme-li poznávat a hodnotit pedagogické jevy, děje a trendy. Nejsme k tomu kompetentní, ani to není cílem skript. Čtenářům s hlubším zájmem o toto téma doporučujeme např. publikace Průchy (1996, 1999), Gavory (1996) a dalších. Z množiny inventovaných metod se zaměříme bezprostředně na ty, které mají společného jmenovatele v pojmech hospitace pozorování. 2.3 Co je hospitace a k jakým účelům slouží? Je sympatické, že v překladu slovo hospitatio znamená být na návštěvě = vykonat návštěvu Budeme-li se držet původního výkladu, pak hospitant navštěvuje školu (obecně pedagogické prostředí) a má se chovat jako host, který sice přišel s určitým záměrem, nicméně má respektovat prostředí, do kterého vstupuje, a roli i pozici jejích účastníků. Nejobecnější vymezení pojmu hospitace říká, že jde o metodu (či soubor metod), jejímž prostřednictvím se získávají informace o činitelích pedagogického procesu, o jeho průběhu, výsledcích, práci jeho účastníků a podmínkách, za nichž se vyučování uskutečnilo. Je zřejmé, že důvodů, proč navštěvujeme školní prostředí, je mnoho a ty úzce souvisí se vztahem, který existuje mezi hospitantem a navštíveným a jejich profesionální úrovní. Z tohoto pohledu můžeme záměry hospitační činnosti rozdělit do tří situací. Záměrem je: získávat první zkušenosti z cizí výchovně vzdělávací činnosti (situace studentů učitelství nebo začínajících pedagogů, kterým chybí osobní zkušenosti a pro něž je pohled na cizí vyučování důvodem k napodobení ve svých vyučovacím pokusech), rozvíjet další pedagogické zkušenosti z tvořivé práce jiných učitelů (situace, kdy pedagog s potřebnými zkušenostmi a praxí navštěvuje výuku kolegy, který pracuje s novou a zajímavou metodikou nebo výchovně vzdělávací koncepcí, sledované vyučování je inspirací k vlastnímu laborování a obměně současných metodických postupů). Specifickou podmnožinu tvoří tzv. kolegiální hospitace, jejichž posláním je poskytnout kolegovi příležitost k neformálnímu náhledu na práci druhého pedagoga, který obvykle působí na stejné škole a zajímá se o jiný pohled na vyučování, obvykle stejného předmětu či tématu), kontrolovat a hodnotit (zřejmě nejčastější důvod hospitační činnosti, který provádí management školy, orgány školské správy nebo instituce školní inspekce). 104

115 2.4 Je hospitace totéž co pozorování? Lapidárně řečeno - není. Pozorování (observace) je základní metodickou formou hospitace a tvoří její jednu součást. Nebo jinak: hospitační procedura je složena z několika fází (budeme o nich hovořit v dalším textu) a pozorování bývá jednou z jejích součástí. Pozorovat (sledovat, vnímat ) se jeví jako jednoduchá a člověku přirozeně blízká činnost. V případě pozorování pedagogických jevů a dějů je však potřebné splnit některé požadavky, aby pozorování mohlo přinést očekávané výsledky. Především je třeba se na pozorování připravit a podle potřeby i nacvičit v simulovaných podmínkách. Ještě předtím bychom ale měli znát záměry cíle pozorování, které by měly být přiměřené naší pozici, úrovni vykazovaných dovedností a zkušeností. Trojlístek požadavků: cílevědomé - plánovité - soustavné hovoří o základních předpokladech, které by měly být naplněny, aby hospitační činnost nesla znaky profesionality a snahy po objektivnosti. Hlubší zahloubání v tématu pozorování přinese zjištění, že není pozorování jako pozorování a že existují různé typologie pozorování jako badatelské činnosti. Příklady klasifikace observační činnosti opět uvádíme jako ilustraci a nebudeme se pouštět do hlubších charakteristik a srovnávání. Z pohledu času se pozorovávání obvykle rozděluje na krátkodobé a dlouhodobé (longitudinální), nebo sledování v časovém vzorku či průběžné. Pro naše účely je zajímavé členění, které hovoří o přímém pozorování (jsme účastni ve vyučování v autentickém prostředí) nebo zprostředkovaném technickými prostředky (nejčastěji televizní záznam výuky). Podstatou pozorování (jako významné součásti hospitační činnosti) je jednota smyslového a racionálního při poznávání výchovně-vzdělávací skutečnosti. Jak tomu rozumět? Ať jde o přímou nebo zprostředkovanou hospitaci, vždy pozorujeme (smyslově vnímáme) vyučování a jeho znaky, o kterých také uvažujeme, ptáme se po příčinách a hledáme širší souvislosti (vykazujeme intelektuální činnost). Ještě o jedné okolnosti je třeba se zmínit v případě přímého pozorování ve škole. Vzpomeňte na původní význam slova hospitace = návštěva. Obdobně jako se chováme při návštěvě příbuzných či známých, měli bychom vystupovat a jednat při hospitaci v cizím edukačním prostředí. Je přirozené, že naše návštěva v soukromí druhých není provázena volným pohybem po všech místnostech obývaných hostiteli (včetně pořizování bohaté fotodokumentace nebo přemísťováním nábytku na vhodnější místo). Obdobně přirozené by mělo být co nejméně zasahovat do přirozeného průběhu vyučování, které sledujeme. Bohatě už stačí naše přítomnost na citlivém území, ve kterém se odehrává pedagogický děj, který scenáristicky připravil, režíroval i herecky zvládl někdo jiný. Nám je přisouzena pozice zdvořilého a taktního diváka (takže: při hospitaci nešustit se sáčky bonbonů). 2.5 Co lze na vyučovací hodině pozorovat sledovat - hodnotit? Každé vyučování bývá velmi rozmanité a typické nejrůznějšími svými charakteristikami a znaky. V mnoha případech bývá originální také prací jednotlivých učitelů i interakcí mezi jejími účastníky. To samo o sobě vyvolává otázku, zda je vůbec možné sledovat různé vyučovací hodiny a poté je vzájemně srovnávat. Domníváme se, že to lze v případech společných témat, která mohou být předmětem (obsahem) 105

116 hospitační činnosti bez rozdílu vyučovaných předmětů, úroveň profesních kompetencí či věku žáků studentů. Uvedeme některá a okomentujeme je: Předmětem (obsahem) hospitační činnosti může nejčastěji být vyučování: jako charakteristický celek (sledujeme její časově obsahovou strukturu, pozorujeme didaktické činnosti, které za sebou následovaly, a dáváme je do vztahu k činnostem učitele a žáků, jako příklad uvádíme pozorovací archy na obr. 13 a v Přílohách č. 8 a 9), jako k cíli vedoucí postupy (orientujeme se na výukové činnosti učitele a učební postupy žáků, sledujeme použité vyučovací metody a organizační formy, zaměřujeme se na využití vyučovacích prostředků, vytváření pracovních podmínek apod.), jako realizace učitelské přípravy (zajímáme se, jak byla naplněna vstupní učitelova představa o vyučování, a konformujeme ji s jejím uskutečněním v reálném prostředí školy), jako srovnání vstupu a výstupu (sledujeme a hodnotíme vstupní záměry a jejich splnění na konci výuky, zajímáme se o míru nového žákovského poznání, úroveň nově utvářených dovedností, míru praktického využití a další), jako prostor pro interakci a komunikaci mezi jejími účastníky (pozorujeme a hodnotíme komunikační procesy mezi účastníky vyučování, sledujeme úroveň sdělování, dotazování, snažíme se poznat charakteristiku sociálně komunikativního klimatu ve třídě ). Pozn.: nemusíme se přesvědčovat, že různý předmět hospitační činnosti vyžaduje také potřebné zkušenosti pozorovatele. Zatímco pořízení časově obsahové charakteristiky vyučování je v podstatě lehký úkol, pozorování a hodnocení metodické činnosti učitele je těžším zadáním, které předpokládá základní orientaci v oborových didaktikách i osobní zkušenosti. 2.6 Jak by měla hospitace probíhat? Tab. 8: Fáze hospitační činnosti FÁZE HOSPITACE Příprava Pozorování Pohospitační rozbor Stanovení obecnějších závěrů Archivace výsledků CHARAKTERISTIKA A VÝSTUP Ujasnění záměrů, vytvoření podmínek, organizační zajištění, konzultace s vyučujícím, volba metody a způsob záznamu dat Přímé (zprostředkované) pozorování vyučování, spojené se záznamem - zápisem sledovaných jevů, poznámky k pohospitačnímu rozboru Rekonstrukce proběhlého vyučování, hledání vztahů mezi jevovou stránkou a příčinami, diskuse ke sledovaným stránkám vyučování a polemika možných variantách Včlenění nových informací do poznatkového systému hospitanta, vytvoření modelu pro budoucí jednání Uspořádání společných zápisů do složek a zpřístupnění ostatním, v opakovaném pozorování možnost srovnání výuky a stanovení vývojových 106

117 trendů Jak je zřejmé, hospitace opravdu nezačíná usazením hospitujících na připravené židle. Jde o komplexnější a vzájemně propojenou proceduru, kde každá fáze má své záměry a význam. Proto nelze říci, co je v hospitačním postupu nejdůležitější. Naše zkušenosti však říkají, že kvalitu hospitační činnosti (nejen v přípravě budoucích učitelů) výrazně ovlivňuje především míra přípravy a celková úroveň pohospitačního rozboru, v obojím jsou dosud skryté rezervy Mnozí badatelé se již před lety snažili hospitační procedury racionalizovat a usnadnit tak, aby průběh i výsledky hospitací byly více srovnatelné. Jedním z účinných prostředků, které po těchto snahách vznikly, jsou tzv. pozorovací archy. Zpravidla mají podobu písemného protokolu (tabulky), který slouží k zjednodušujícímu zápisu sledovaných jevů. Možnosti zápisu (záznamu) jsou různé: v některých případech jde o volnou výpověď o jevech podle přiloženého vzoru, v jiném případě pozorovatel zatrhuje stupeň nabízené škály, charakteristický pro daný jev (resp. míru výskytu, intenzity apod.) nebo se využívá schematického znázornění (tzv. piktogramů) či dokončení (dotvoření) neúplných vět. Tabulkové provedení usnadňuje částečnou i celkovou orientaci v hospitačním zápise, umožňuje téměř okamžitě po hospitaci komentovat první výsledky pozorování a sjednocovat závěry různých pozorovatelů pracujících s jedním typem pozorovacího archu. Máme připravené čtyři příklady pozorovacích archů pro sledování vyučování. První je opravdu letitý (uvádíme v Příloze č. 8) a byl publikován (včetně metodiky) v Rysově knize z roku Svou mimořádně zajímavou procedurou vyhodnocení předběhl dobu o několik desetiletí Druhá ukázka (arch ČOS v1.0) je v následujícím vyobrazení (v podobném tvaru se používá na řadě institucí, které mají v popisu práce hodnotit vyučování ať již v chronologickém průběhu nebo ve shrnujícím rezultátu). Škola výchovné zařízení: Obr. 15: Hospitační arch ČOS v1.0 třída: škol.rok: předmět: vyuč.hodina: učivo den: měsíc: rok: poznámky: cíle: vzdělávací: výchovné: Tematika pozorování: Údaje o hospitujícím jméno a příjmení: ročník: aprobace: Pedagogický vedoucí praxe: VLASTNÍ HOSPITAČNÍ ZÁZNAM Časová orientace 9.2 POZOROVACÍ ARCHY Charakteristika sledovaných pedagogických jevů - situací - proměnných Poznámky k rozboru 107

118 2.6.1 Otázky k pohospitačnímu rozboru: POHOSPITAČNÍ ROZBOR * Pro interní potřebu katedry pedagogiky a psychologie připravil T. Svatoš (2000) * Zjišťujeme, že formulář pamatuje také na velmi důležitou část hospitační metodiky, kterou je pohospitační rozbor. O čem všem by měli hospitanti po shlédnutém vyučování uvažovat? Inspirací může být pozorovací arch ČOS v2.0, který je uveden v Příloze č. 9. Konečně poslední ukázkou je na obr. 14 hospitační arch ZASU 1 (Tuček a Svatoš 1986), který sumuje (celkově vyhodnocuje) 18 pedagogických jevů po proběhlém vyučování. Hospitant při pozorování pořizuje poznámky tak, aby po 108

119 skončené výuce mohl kvalitu daného jevu ohodnotit jedním stupněm škály (od 1 do 5 nejvyšší kvalita). K celkovému vyhodnocení můžeme použít statistických metod (např. spočítáme tzv. Spearmenův koeficient, to v případě hodnocení jednoho vyučujícího vícero hospitanty nebo jednoho pedagoga ve vícero vyučovacích hodinách). Dodejme, že s archem ZASU 1 může pracovat hospitant s určitou praxí. Obr. 16: Hospitační arch ZASU 1 (Tuček a Svatoš 1986) Poř. J e v - k a t e g o r i e : kategoriální celek Stupeň škály hodnocení Cíl a jeho konkretizace Přijetí cíle žáky Dosažení cíle Cíl Osobní projev učitele Učitelovy otázky výraz osobního projevu Rozhodování učitele Prostředky řízení (stimulaceinhibice) Práce učitele se třídou Práce učitele s jednotlivci Reakce učitele na chybu žáka interaktivní zřetele, vztahy ve třídě Aktivita žáků Práce žáků s učivem žáci - studenti ve třídě Učitelův výběr učiva Kontrola a hodnocení žáků Adekvátnost vyučovacích metod Spojení teorie s praxí didaktické zřetele Využití učeb.pomůcek a didak. techniky Organizace vyučování - činností podmínky vyučování Dosud jsme hovořili o hodnocení vyučování, resp. jedné vyučovací hodiny, a uvedli jsme, že můžeme (mimo jiné) hodnotit její průběh (arch ČOS v1.0) nebo její výsledky (arch ZASU 1). Dnešní pohled na hodnocení pedagogické činnosti dostává nový rozměr v tom, že přibývají snahy o hodnocení (resp. evaluaci) pedagogické činnosti vyučujících za delší časové období, než je jedna vyučovací jednotka. Obzvláště je to potřebné v podmínkách vysokých škol, které pracují specifickými postupy se skupinou univerzitních studentů. Jejich reflexe pedagogického působení konkrétních vyučujících může být vodítkem k úpravám (optimalizaci) výukové činnosti na vysoké škole. Po mnoho let se touto problematikou zabývá J. Mareš (1988). V Příloze č. 10 přinášíme náš pokus o tzv. evaluační dotazník (EDO OD-1), který po několik let používáme pro hodnocení pedagogicko-psychologických disciplín na pracovišti autora skript. Lze jej aplikovat na všechny podobné disciplíny a vzájemně porovnat. 9.3 METODA N. A. FLANDERSE (FIAS 1970) 109

120 K velkým tématům hodnocení vyučování patří otázka: zda je cennější sledovat a analyzovat průběh výuku, nebo její výsledky. Z ukázek, které jsme dosud uvedli, se ukazuje, že jednodušší a dostupnější je sledovat spíše výsledek, než průběh. K metodám, které jsou zaměřeny na procesuální stránku hodnocení vyučování po mnoho let patří i postup N. A. Flanderse, známý jako Metoda FIAS (Flandersova metoda interakční analýzy). Protože jde o postup na jedné straně náročný a velmi exaktní, na straně druhé ale lehce použitelný ve v učitelském vzdělávání i školské praxi, seznámíme se s jeho podstatou a vysvětlíme jeho možnosti. Princip metody Vycvičený pozorovatel sedí ve třídě a dění, které se tam odehrává, zařazuje do jedné z mnoha předem definovaných kategorií činností. Nezapisuje však název činnosti, ale její číselný kód. Kódování probíhá podle přesných pravidel, zpravidla ve třísekundových intervalech. Výsledkem pozorování je posloupnost číselných kódů (z jedné vyučovací hodiny jich bývá až 900). Získané údaje se pak zpracovávají, analyzují a interpretují. Původní Flandersova metoda obsahuje 10 kategorií činnosti (Flanders 1970 ): Učitel: 1. Akceptuje žákovy pocity, projevuje sympatie konstruktiv ním způsobem, 2. Chválí a povzbuzuje, žertuje, souhlasí s žákovým výkonem, 3. Využívá, akceptuje, objasňuje a rozvíjí myšlenky žáků, 4. Klade otázky, stimuluje žáky, nejde o řečnické otázky, 5. Vykládá, sděluje, přednáší, uvádí své názory, 6. Dává pokyny či příkazy, 7. Kritizuje, uplatňuje svou autoritu, chce změnit žákovo nevhodné chování nebo činnost. Žák: 8. Odpovídá učiteli, ale kontakt inicioval učitel, 9. Žák sám začíná hovor, je aktivní a iniciativní v kontaktu s učitelem, 10. Ticho nebo zmatek ve třídě, přestávky v komunikaci. Později byl počet kategorií rozšiřován, jejich podoba obměňována a doplňována. Uveďme modifikaci rozšířením sledovaných činnostních kategorií na 15 (Svatoš, Doležalová /2009/). Pozn.: učitelské činnosti zůstaly v podstatě stejné, změnily se sledované činnosti u žáků a to takto: 8 Z1. Klade dotazy, hledá oporu a pomoc u učitele (další osoby: asistent pedagoga, mentor, vychovatel, pracovník muzea, lektor atd.). 9 Z2. Klade dotazy, hledá oporu a pomoc u spolužáků (dominantní činnost jedince - jedinců ve skupinové nebo hromadné výuce). 10 Z3. Sděluje, vysvětluje, uvádí názory tlakem a působením učitele (další osoby). 11 Z4. Sděluje, vysvětluje, uvádí své názory z vlastní aktivity a motivace (dominantní činnost jedince - jedinců ve skupinové nebo hromadné výuce). 12 Z5. Řídí, modifikuje, poskytuje pomoc při činnosti druhého (druhých) v žákovské skupině. 13 Z6. Probíhá zřejmá skupinová diskuse v žákovské skupině. 110

121 14 Z7. Provádí (provádějí) samostatnou učební činnost bez zjevné interakce. Ostatní: 15. O1. Netvůrčí přestávka v interakci (ticho zmatek neproduktivní pauzy). Ukázka kódování metodou FIAS (1970) Princip metody nejlépe přiblíží názorná ukázka komunikace učitele (U) se žáky (Ž) ve 2. třídě základní školy (kódovací interval cca 3 sekundy): Přepis komunikace: kategorií metodou FIAS: U: Čím je pokryto 4 tělo slepice? 4 (ticho) 10 U: Podívejte se pořádně 6 na obrázek na tabuli. 6 U: To se týká Martine 7 taky tebe! 7 U: Nikdo neví? 5 Ani Jana? 4 Ž: Peřím. 8 U: Tak snad celou větou... 7 Ž: Tělo slepice je pokryto... 8 pokryto peřím. 8 U: Ano, správně. 2 U: Jaké je peří? Co se vám vybaví, 4 když slyšíte slovo "peří"? 4 Ž: Je lehký, bílý a dává se 9 do polštářů. 9 U: Lucka nám chtěla říct, že 3 peří slepice domácí má 3 význam pro člověka v tom, 3 že se jím vycpávají polštáře. 3 Ale máme i jiný užitek z 5 těchto domácích zvířat... 5 Číselné kódy se potom seskupují po dvojicích a zapisují do matice 10x10. Matice umožňuje určit, jak často se určitá činnost ve vyučování vyskytla, co po čem nejčastěji následovalo. (Lze také poznat s jakou pravděpodobností následuje po určité činnosti činnost jiná, nebo jaké vyučovací strategie ve sledované hodině převládaly apod. Metoda FIAS umožňuje rekonstruovat nejen celou vyučovací hodinu, ale také její libovolné části. Uživatel si může zvolit některý úsek z vyučovací hodiny, např. část, kdy bylo upevňováno nové učivo a ptát se, jaké činnosti byly typické pro pedagogické působení učitele, jaké pro učební činnost žáků a v jakých poměrech a vztazích. Ukázka analýzy kódování z grafického vyjádření 111

122 Pro ilustraci a také objasnění analýzy hodnocení metodou N. A. Flanderse uvádíme v grafu č. 1 výsledek kódování jedné konkrétní vyučovací hodiny. Jednalo se o výuku českého jazyka v 7. třídě základní školy, typem vyučovací hodiny byla hodina smíšená, tedy víceohniskový s rozmanitými didaktickými činnostmi učitele a žáků. Vyučoval pedagog s mnohaletou pedagogickou praxí. Dodáváme, že evaluační zápis metodou FIAS jsme prováděli při reálném (přímém) pozorování vyučování a využili jsme ke kódování a základnímu zpracování výpočetní techniku a software CodeNet. Bližší poznatky uvádíme v příspěvcích: Svatoš a Doležalová (2009), Svatoš (2011 a 2013). Pozorování a hodnocení vycházelo z upraveného systému FIAS, bylo o 15 sledovaných činnostech a kódování probíhalo vždy každou 3. sekundu. Jaký komentář přísluší údajům z grafu č. 1: Ukázalo se, že pohledem výsledků se jednalo o klasické vyučování, ve kterém najdeme mnoho činností učitele i žáků. Z tohoto pohledu byla sledovaná výuka participační, podstatě vyvážená v činnostech obou hlavních aktérů. Na straně učitele dominovala přímá pedagogická činnost (výklad, výukový dialog, interakce se žáky při práci s učebnicí), druhou nejčetnější činností byla organizace a řízení. De o logický nález, protože vyučován (jak smíšené vyučovací hodiny bávají) bylo náročné na změny činností, pro které musel pedagog vytvořit vhodné podmínky. Relativně častou činností učitele bylo kladení otázek, které měly dva záměry: motivovat žáky k součinnosti s vyučujícím, a zároveň prověřovat jejich pozornost a nabývané znalosti. Ostatní sledované činnosti byly v celkovém pohledu nevýznamné; na jednu straně jde o dobrou zprávu (např. v případě kategorie č. 7 = učitelovy snahy změnit žákovou nevhodné chování), na stranu druhou jsme očekávali větší podporu žákovské aktivity souhlasem, nebo pochvalami (kategorie U2). Graf 1: Ukázka kódování vyučování metodou FIAS (Svatoš, Doležalová) Část 2. Část 1. Část U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5 Z6 Z7 O1 Na straně žáka byla dominantní činnostní samostatná kategorie činnost, prováděná v lavici (Z7). S téměř stejnou intenzitou probíhaly žákovské činnosti Z3 a Z4, tedy aktivity jak vyvolané pedagogem, tak tzv. spontánní. Poslední významnější činností byla práce ve skupinách (Z6), která dokreslovala změny v organizačních formách výuky. 112

123 Uváděli jsme, že metoda FIAS umožňuje rekonstruovat nejen celou vyučovací hodinu, ale také její jednotlivé části. Proto jsme v grafu zobrazili také dynamiku vzniku a provádění jednotlivých sledovaných činností, a to tak, že jsme vyučovací hodinu rozdělili zhruba na 3 stejné úseky a po 15 minutách (3 části). Hodnotiteli se otevírá další možnost, kterou je srovnávání četnosti sledovaných činnostních kategorií právě v závislosti na průběhu vyučování. Praktická aplikace úkoly, činnosti, dovednosti Na jiném místě jsme doporučovali, abychom před skutečnou návštěvou konkrétní školy (máme-li tu možnost) využili příležitosti k nácviku hospitační činnosti, kupř. z televizního záznamu. Získáme tak první zkušenosti z pozorování a hodnocení vyučování takříkajíc nanečisto, zároveň využijeme všech možností, které poskytuje technika. Jako příklad uvádíme záznam ze simulovaného vyučování. 2.7 Příklad Zadání: V předchozí kapitole jsme vysvětlili princip mikrovyučování, metody, kterou může označit jako trénink základních pedagogických dovedností v simulovaném prostředí školy. Bude-li kombinován s analýzou z audiovizuálního záznamu, pak se obvykle urychluje nácvik potřebných dovedností a zároveň se urychluje i celková připravenost na autentickou školní praxi. V podobném duchu byla uskutečněna mikrovýstupová praxe studentů budoucích učitelů chemie. Jejich úkolem bylo uskutečnit mikrovýstup za asistence televizní techniky, ve které budou (po předchozí odborné a didaktické přípravě) demonstrovat chemický experiment před skupinou spolužáků. Naším úkolem bylo pořídit časově obsahovou charakteristiku simulovaného vyučování chemie a využít k zápisu pozorovací arch ČOS v1.0. Ukázku uvádíme jako motivační, jak by mohl zápis vypadat, nakolik by měl být detailní a být základem pro pohospitační rozbor Řešení: Škola výchovné zařízení: PedF Univerzity Hradec třída: 8. ročník ZŠ Králové škol.rok: 2010/2011 předmět: chemie vyuč.hodina: 1 Učivo: kyslík a jeho vlastnosti den: 7 měsíc: listopad rok: 2010 Pozn.: mikrovyučování cíle: vzdělávací: seznámit s kyslíkem, demonstrovat vliv na hořlavost a pojmenovat vlastnosti výchovné: připomenout význam chemických látek (peroxidu vodíku) pro zdraví člověka Tematika pozorování: časově obsahová charakteristika vyučování nácvik hospitace Údaje o hospitujícím jméno a příjmení: Tomáš Svatoš ročník: (raději neuvádět) aprobace: Vyučovala - pedagogický vedoucí praxe: vyučovala studentka Ladislava M. Časová orientace VLASTNÍ HOSPITAČNÍ ZÁZNAM Charakteristika sledovaných pedagogických jevů - situací - proměnných Poznámky (k rozboru) 113

124 00:00 00:25 01:05 01:30 01:55 02:10 02:25 03:00 03:30 03:40 04:05 04:22 04:35 Zahájení vyučování, učitelka (dále jen U) připomíná předchozí učivo (složení vzduchu), snaží se žáky (žž) motivovat předchozími experimenty, opakování 1: cíl zopakovat vlastnosti vzduchu (podporuje hoření, barva, složení ), výukový dialog s jednotlivými žáky, Pokračuje po přerušení: opakování 2: připomenout význam kyslíku pro hoření, role dusíku při hoření svíčky v uzavřeném prostoru, dialog, nové učivo: kyslík, cíl: charakterizovat tento plyn, připomenout chemickou značku, později dokázat jeho přítomnost ve vzduchu, popis chemické aparatury pro pozdější experiment, cíl: upevnit pojmy: kádinka, dělící nálevka, frakční baňka, odměrný válec (žáci sami pojmenovávají), pojmenování potřebných chemikálií: peroxid vodíku (připomenutí výchovného cíle ošetření ran), oxid manganičitý, příprava experimentu, U popisuje prováděné činnosti, žáci pozorují, jsou připraveny chemikálie v aparatuře, vlastní experiment: cíl: prokázat přítomnost vodíku v peroxidu působením oxidu manganičitého, U se ptá žž, co pozorují ve frakční baňce, většinou sama si odpovídá na dotazy, současně jímá kyslík do odměrného válce, důkaz kyslíku: zapaluje špejli a zasunuje ji do válce s najímaným kyslíkem, chvíli ji nechá hořet, poté sfoukne a žhnoucí špejli zasunuje do válce s najímaným plynem, špejle pouze žhne, důkaz se nezdařil, opakování pokusu: cíl dokázat kyslík, fixovat průběh a výsledky demonstrační činnosti, fixace nových poznatků: cílem je formou výukového dialogu upevnit nové poznatky (z konkrétního chování látky vyvodit jeho obecnou vlastnost = kyslík podporuje hoření), slovní zápis chemické reakce: cíl upevnit názvy (nikoliv chemické značky a vzorce) reagujících látek, závěreční opakování: vlastnosti kyslíku (hořlavost, barva, srovnání jeho hmotnosti se vzduchem zakončení vyučování. pouze slovně jen s několika žáky bojuje seznamuje s aparaturo u ukazuje názorně provádí chemický experiment žáci pozorují pokus opakuje a vede se žž rozhovor výukový monolog Otázky k pohospitačnímu rozboru: 1. Splnila vyučující cíle, které stanovila před vyučováním? 2. Zvládla manipulačně i odborně použití učebních pomůcek a chemikálií? 3. Co by v roli učitelky měla při další podobné činnosti pozměnit dělat jinak? 114

125 2.7.4 POHOSPITAČNÍ ROZBOR Studentka v roli učitelky s menšími obtížemi splnila základní cíle stanovené před výukou. Nejvíce se jí dařilo provádět a hodnotit chemický experiment, kterým dokazovala přítomnost kyslíku v jiné látce. Při demonstraci prokázala základní zručnost a potřebné dovednosti pracovat s chemickou aparaturou a chemikáliemi, méně se jí dařilo podporovat žákovskou aktivitu. Vyučující by mohla (v dalším vyučovacím pokusu) více usilovat o celistvější průběh vyučování (oceňujeme snahu dál vyučovat i po krátkém výpadku činnosti). Také by bylo užitečné více využít vztahu učiva k výchovnému působení na žáky pojmenovat význam pro osobní praxi). Přes tyto připomínky hodnotíme vyučovací pokus jako ukázku připravené a v zásadě ovládnuté role učitele v simulovaném prostředí. V předchozím příkladu jsme nacvičovali konkrétní hospitační dovednosti na ukázce vyučování. Zápis je tvořen sledem didaktických činností v časové posloupnosti, případně doplněn poznámkami. Podobným způsobem budete pracovat při posledním mikrovýstupu Zadání: Vaším úkolem je pořídit časově obsahovou charakteristiku skutečného vyučování na jakékoliv základní nebo střední škole. K zápisu využijte pozorovací arch ČOS v1.0 (formulář na obr. 15), pro rozbor pak náměty z Přílohy č. 9. Pojmy k zapamatování (klíčová slova) anketa, dedukce, experiment, generalizace, hospitace, ilustrace, indukce, inspekce, interview, inventář, kategoriální systém, klasifikace, laborování (elaborace), kvalitativní výzkum, kvantitativní výzkum, lapidární, longitudinální, náslech, pozorování, respekt, sociometrická šetření, syntéza, typologie. Otázky k přemýšlení o Z inventáře výzkumných metod vyberte jakékoliv dvě; porovnejte je mezi sebou pohledem kladných i polemických stránek (dotazník x rozhovor), o Vyjádřete Váš postoj k názoru, že: a) hospitace nerovná se pozorování, b) hospitace = náslech, c) kvantitativní metody jsou jiné než kvalitativní. Souhrn Evaluace v pedagogice je jako v dalších sociálních vědách velmi složitá. V souhrnu sice existuje mnoho kvantitativních i kvalitativních metod určených k popisu školní edukace, nicméně každá metoda má své přínosné i polemické stránky. Pro běžnou školní práci jsou nejrozšířenějšími metodami hospitační činnost (se základem v pozorování) a rozhovory. Hospitace má mnoho významů, nicméně v učitelském vzdělávání je prostředkem poznávání základních obrysů reálné výuky a poznávání práce jejích aktérů. Aby byla úspěšná, je třeba provádět všechny její fáze včetně pohospitační. K evaluaci vyučování přispívají zejména ty postupy, které jsou zaměřeny na průběhovou stránku edukace. Příkladem je metoda FIAS, jejíž užití v učitelském přípravě má svoji tradici a obohacuje ji o mikroanalytické přístupy, čímž se posiluje odborná i metodologická komptenece budoucích učitelů. 115

126 Tahák (dobré rady nad zlato) Úspěšnost pozorování a hodnocení vyučování je přímo úměrná několika okolnostem: ujasnění cílů a záměrů, míře naší připravenosti, znalostem o sledovaných pedagogických jevech a konec konců i zkušenostem, které s hospitačními postupy dosud máme. Zkušenosti získáváme jen praktickou činností a je dobré, když se jí nebráníme a naopak ji vyhledáváme (ať již v podobě nácviku nebo přímého hodnocení autentického vyučování). Jak si počínat při hospitaci? Měli bychom mít stále na mysli, že naše poznámky by měly v pohospitačním rozboru vést k tzv. rekonstrukci vyučování. Měly by být tak detailní a návodné, abychom si bez problémů vybavili, jak jsme vyučovacím činnostem rozuměli a v jakém sledu a vztazích. Pokusme se tedy zapisovat co nejvíce údajů z vyučování, pro urychlení využívejme různých zkratek a symbolů. Nesnažme se tzv. psát na čisto, výběr vhodných formulací by nás příliš zdržoval. Zapisujme také obsah zápisu na tabuli (nebo jiné projevy názornosti) lépe se nám vybaví další souvislosti. Konečně: těšme se na pohospitační rozbor, právě v něm můžeme prokázat naši schopnost pozorovat a obhajovat (pozměnit) své postoje. Literatura BLOCH, A. (1993), BUDIŠ, J. et all. (1995), BUSHER, H. (1989), FLANDERS, N. A. (1970), GAVORA, P. (1992, 1996, 2005a, 2008), HOLUB, M. (1987), HORKÁ, H. (1997), JANÍK, T., KRECHT, P., NAJVAR, P. et all. (2010), JUKLOVÁ, K. (2008), Kol. (1998), MAŇÁK, J., ŠVEC, Š, ŠVEC, V. (2005), MAŇÁK, J., ŠVEC, V. (2004), MANĚNOVÁ, M. 2012), MAREŠ, J. (1976, 1988), PELIKÁN, J. (1999), PÍŠOVÁ, M. et all. (2011), PRŮCHA, J. ed. (2009), PRŮCHA, J. (1996, 1997, 1999), PRŮCHA, J., WALTEROVÁ, E., MAREŠ, J. (1997) další reedice, RYS, S. (1975), SLAVÍK, J. (1999), SPOUSTA, V. et all. (2000), STONES, E., MORRIS, S. (1976), SVATOŠ, T. (1995, 2006a, 2006b, 2012), SVATOŠ, T., DOLEŽALOVÁ, J. (2011), ŠEĎOVÁ, K., ŠVAŘÍČEK, R., ŠALAMOUNOVÁ, Z. (2012), ŠVAŘÍČEK, R., ŠEĎOVÁ, K. (2007), ŠVEC, V. (1998, 1999), VAŠUTOVÁ, J. et. all. (2008), WALKER, R., ADELMAN, C. A (1978), WHITTE, B. C. (2000). Pozn.: úplné bibliografické citace jsou uvedeny v seznamu použité literatury. 116

127 2.8 ANNEX 1 Leading Figures in the Modern Czech Philosophical Thinking Jan Hladík Czech philosophy has always been closing on the European philosophic development. We have always been at least one generation behind. Bernard Bolzano was our greatest philosopher. Bernard Bolzano ( ) He was born as a son of an Italian art seller, Bolzano, and a Prague native of German origin, Maurerová. He spent all of his life in Prague and its vicinity. He was raised in the spirit of Josephinian Enlightenment. In 1800, he started studying theology, yet without any religious motivation but upon his mother s request and in the spirit of the Josephinian concept of the clerical profession as the most appropriate moral sphere of activity among people. In 1806, he became professor of the religious doctrine. It was established by the government to face the progressive thoughts of the revolutionary Enlightenment. But Bolzano used a completely different content to fill his activities. Josephinism originally tended to support the feudally bureaucratic state in a rational way. But with Bolzano, it mostly became the criticism of the status quo. During his work at university, Bolzano educated a range of generations of free-thinking clerics who later played an important role in the Czech national revival. He was accused of subversion. Although Josephinian officers and some noblemen supported Bolzano, the emperor decided in December 1819 after a denunciation that Bolzano should be dismissed with a reprimand and without any pension entitlement. In the Czech environment, Bolzano s trial reminded of Hus and the Hussite movement. The sufficient amount of leisure time enabled him to dig into scientific work. His efforts resulted in the theory on functions (completed in 1830) and in particular in his logic called Wissenschaftslehre (Theory of Science) also completed in 1830, but published in This work should have become part of general social reform. Science placed in perfectly prepared textbooks should have contributed to the spiritual growth and welfare of all. The theory of science should have reformed the entire philosophy by upgrading its to true science. His interpretations contain an ingenious criticism of almost all classical philosophical doctrines and in-depth knowledge about the most important philosophical categories. According to Bolzano, the ultimate moral law was one of the truths about one s self : You should act so as to be beneficiary as much as possible both for the whole and for any of its parts if you consider all possible consequences of your behaviour. Bolzano was one of the great scientific and philosophical personalities of the 19 th century who strove for deeper, logically more consistent science corresponding to science as such. Bolzano s philosophical and scientific activities can be characterised by efforts to prove the possibility of absolutely exact, unambiguous and objective cognition which could be used as the base to escalate the man's rule over the nature, as well as to gradually re-create the entire society. This notion followed the older Czech tradition, especially the all-corrective efforts of J. A. Komenský. Bolzano s importance consists primarily in his analysis of sciences, scientific procedures and internal structure. He often chose procedures and reached conclusions which anticipated the later concepts of modern logic and methodology. This is the nature of his method of the variety of ideas, the method of formal operations examining 117

128 statements such as sentences through their variable parts and the related methods of dealing with the issue of compatibility and deducibility of sentences, etc. In this respect, he was concerned with mathematics and its problems. Independently of the French mathematician Cauchy, he was one of the first to take a critical approach to the logical structure of mathematics (Paradoxes of the Infinite, Theory of Functions, Theory of Numbers). He also addressed ontology issues (i.e. issues about the being, existence), especially in his Athanasia or Reasons for the Immortality of the Soul' (1827). All existence is formed either through substances (through what persists for oneself) or adherences (through what persists on something else such as his learning). His approach to the substance followed Leibniz monadology. He attributes eternity, nondestructibility, soulfulness (imagination, activity, tendency to constant improvements) to the substance. Bolzano s disciples and supporters followed his social and reform teachings and his liberal Catholicism. Although he was not Czech, Bolzano's work was marked by the Czech environment where it originated. This is why he enjoys an important position in the history of the Czech philosophical thinking. Augustin Smetana In addition to Bolzano, Augustin Smetana ( ) was the most significant philosopher of the Czech society of the 19 th century. He worked at the Faculty of Humanities of University of Prague as philosophy adjunct ( ) and later as supply professor of philosophy. In the revolution year 1848, he became dean of the faculty of humanities. In 1850, he officially parted with the church, was additionally excommunicated and was exposed to prosecution from the church and Austrian authorities until his death. Smetana developed from an orthodox believer and member of the order of the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star to an unbeliever and atheist who publicly abandoned the religious belief and demonstratively parted with the Catholic Church. He was on the revolution s side in 1848 and called upon students to take up arms and fight for freedom. His philosophical orientation was influenced primarily by his study stay in Germany (1842) where he attended lectures at universities in Leipzig, Halle and Berlin. This experience resulted in his lectures on the history of philosophy in 1849 where he for the first time introduced German post-kant philosophy, especially Hegel and his logic, to the Prague University in its full extent. In his work, he attempted to synthesise the most precious knowledge brought by the development of philosophy. His concept of the history of philosophy presented in his 'Importance of the Current Age' (1848) was further elaborated in the 'Turnaround and Denouement of History of Philosophy (1850). Philosophy is drawing to its denouement, to the fulfilment of its task: To liberalisation of human consciousness; to human s liberalisation. Philosophy that was based on religion and law will cease to exist in love and artistic creations. The cognition of the history of philosophy is also the only way leading to the cathedral of truth. Smetana hoped that the new society would come with liberalisation of the human consciousness. He believed that the Slavonic nation will play a special role in this process which will combine political freedoms of the French and the German education and ennoble them through artistic activities (About the Mission of our Czech Homeland from the General Development Perspective, 1848). He made an attempt to place the history of the human spirit in the broadest developmental context in his encyclopaedia of philosophy Spirit s Origin and Termination that was published after his death in The original immediate unity (the finiteness concreteness which together with infinity constitute the being-reality) amid the 118

129 permanent fight of opposites gradually changes into cosmic substances, the world, the nature, the man. The human consciousness reflects the finiteness as a concreteness understood in its unity. Human beings are part of the nature and its historical product. At the same time, they transcend its boundaries when creating their own human history. Smetana interprets the origin of cosmos and our planet, life on the Earth and plants, animals and men, the development of the human spirit and the transformation of a man into a higher ideal being as a natural process in development. Through the fight of the divine and terrestrial opposites, the society develops from the original nonsegmented units, from lower levels to higher ones where religion and law (the state) are negated as temporary historical stages that must give way to higher developmental forms. According to Smetana, human spirit appears at a certain stage of the development of nature. Giving a parallel to the development of nature, Smetana also interprets the spiritual development to prove that even the human spirit has its genesis, palaeontology, history and that even the human spirit has gone through the stages of preparation, origin and development. In Smetana s concept, divinity is an absolutely secular principle. It is a kind of an abstract humanitarian ideal, an idea of full humanity and unlimited activities of men. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk T. G. Masaryk ( ) was a significant Czech philosopher, politician and statesman, the first president of the Czechoslovak Republic ( ). He was born in Hodonín. He studied philosophy, aesthetics and psychology at University of Vienna. He completed his studies with doctor s degree in philosophy. He met his future wife Charlotte Garrigue in Leipzig where he was preparing for readership. He was awarded the degree of senior lecturer for his writing about suicide. He lectured in Vienna between 1879 and In 1882, he moved to Prague University as professor of philosophy. He brought a global aspect into Czech philosophy: However, he did not see the meaning of philosophy only in theoretical activities, but also in the solution of practical issues. This is why his philosophy targets the issues of history, morality and politics. They primarily include the issue of the meaning of Czech history which Masaryk addressed in relation to the political programme of the Czech nation. He also focused on the crisis of the modern man, ethical issues of democracy, religion and ethics and problems of the social development, etc. Masaryk named his philosophy and political concept as realism. Although he did not identify himself with A. Comte s positivism, he was convinced about the authority of scientific cognition to which he subjected other areas of the man's theoretical and practical activities. For instance, he wanted religion not to be in conflict with scientific requirements. He believed that democracy must be supported by scientific cognition, etc. In his philosophy of history, Masaryk used the concept of František Palacký, but interpreted it so that the religious issue was the leading idea in the Czech history. The Czech history is marked by efforts for purer Christianity, which is manifested both in the Czech and European history through a clash between corrupted Catholicism and reformation Protestantism. In Bohemia, specifically, this is reflected in Jan Hus performance and in the religious ideas of the Bohemian Brethren. This is where Masaryk saw the crucial contribution of the Czech spirit to the history (a combination of humanity and religion). Masaryk saw the European history as a development from middle-age theocracy to new-age democracy, from aristocratism to realisation of humanitarian 119

130 ideals. This is also how he perceived World War I, as a battle between theocracy and democracy. The issue of humanity enjoys a special place in Masaryk s philosophy. He postulated the humanitarian ideal, the pure humanity, as a programme of brotherly love and relationships between humans (both understood in an absolutely specific sense). He integrated even the resolution of social issues in this programme. In his concept, this was no issue of workers, but an issue of morality. It is about restoring the feeling for justice in the entire society. It is in this sense that ethics should be the base for forming a democratic society. A sociological survey of suicide rates that was in the centre of his inaugural dissertation brought Masaryk to the issue of the crisis of the modern man. In his opinion, this crisis is manifested through the ambivalence of the society, spiritual anarchy, exaggerate individualism and subjectivism, a lack of harmony of spiritual and physical powers. Its cause is in the loss of the single world view. This was caused by deformation of Christianity by Catholicism which resulted in theocracy and by scientific cognition which interfered with the traditional values. Masaryk sought a remedy in the creation of a new religion which would unite humanitarian ideals and societal reforms, moral values and democratic organisation of the society. His credo was: to be objective and tolerant, yet firm and consistent. Masaryk required reconciliation of science and religion, humble submission of the unreliable reason to the security of belief. He recommended believing in God, because religion provides spiritual peace. In his basic writings, Masaryk flexibly reacted to all fundamental idea problems of his time. Masaryk s philosophy combined the requirement for empirical exploration and rationalist criticism with the recognition of the role of emotional and volitional attitudes of the man to the world, along with the requirement to explore metaphysical problem, especially the questions of the meaning of the world and man life. With this attitude, Masaryk emphasised the anthropological, ethical and practical (life) mission of philosophy. He was reinforcing influences of the Anglo-Saxon thinking and reducing the impact of German (especially Hegel s) philosophy and Marxism. Combined with the great social and political authority of his personality, Masaryk s historical suggestions had a strong impact on the Czech philosophical thinking, Czech sociology and ideology of the Czech social democrats. He influenced Emanuel Rádl and many other philosophers and sociologists. Masaryk s writings: Sebevražda (Suicide) (1881), Základy konkrétní logiky (Foundations of Concere Logic) (1885), Počet pravděpodobnosti a Humova skepse (Number of Probabilities and Hume s Scepsis) (1883), Rukověť sociologie (Sociology Handbook) (1901), Česká otázka - Naše nynější krize (Czech Issue Our Current Crisis) (1885), Karel Havlíček (1896), Jan Hus (1896), Palackého idea národa českého (Palacký s Idea of Czech Nation) (1898), Moderní člověka náboženství (Modern Man s Religion) ( ), Ideály humanitní (Humanitarian Ideals) (1901), Otázka sociální (The Social Question) (1928), Světová revoluce (World Revolution) (1925), Cesta demokracie (Way of Democracy) (1934), etc. Emanuel Rádl Emanuel Rádl ( ) was professor at Charles University in Prague, a representative of Masaryk s philosophical realism between two world wars and one of the most significant personalities of the Czech philosophical life. He worked as an editor at the New Atheneum ( Nové Atheneum ) and Christian Revolution (Křesťanská revoluce), as well as the chairman of the Philosophical Unity and a member of the Czech Mind ('Česká mysl') editorial team. 120

131 Originally, he was a biologist. Before WWI, he published his work in biology, especially his synthetic History of the Development of Theories in Biology in the 19 th Century (1909). Unlike the sociologically centred Masaryk, Rádl used this natural starting point to develop all basic topics of Masaryk s philosophy. This can be seen in the pre-war collection of his essays (Scientific and Philosophical Considerations, 1914) and specifically after the establishment of Czechoslovakia when he focused on philosophical, religious and social and political issues. He dealt with the settlement with the tradition of German philosophy (Romantic Science, 1918). He also addressed the problems of the subject matter and methods of modern science (Modern Science, 1926). He reached the strictly defined subordination of science to philosophy and of philosophy to theology (Philosophy and Theology, Křesťanská revue, ). He worked to the synthetic view of the history of philosophy (History of Philosophy I-II, ) and to Consolation from Philosophy (completed in 1942 during a serious and lengthy disease and published in 1946) where he put even a stronger emphasis on the existence of the absolute moral order over the world. We must not forget Rádl s studies on religion and politics, relations between the East and the West, the German problem and philosophy of the Czech history. His philosophy centres on the issue of the relation between empirical science and transpersonal truth, the theological issue (meaning of things, development, history) and the practical issue (personal engagement, activity and moral responsibility of the man). He focused his philosophy against positivism and irrationalism and realised it rather as a provocative presentation of problems than a systematic theoretical work. Rádl strongly influenced the protestant circles. Jan Patočka was the only actual successor to Rádl s thoughts. Jan Patočka Jan Patočka ( ) lectured in the history of philosophy at Charles University. He was one of the last disciples of Edmund Husserl. He studied in France between 1928 and 1929 where he heard Husserl s lectures for the first time. He studied at Husserl and Heidegger in Berlin and Freiburg in 1932 and Later on, he was conducive to Husserl's lectures in Prague. He held a lecture on the crisis of European sciences which was the core of his last incomplete work. In 1936, Patočka was awarded a degree of senior lecturer in Prague with his writing Natural World as a Philosophical Problem. In his first book, he addressed the issue of the meaning of philosophy, its relation to science and its mission in the man s life at all. He believed it was meaningful to strive for the creation of a compact, single image of the wold and to search the place for 'human existence' in this world. Patočka analysed the context where we do not have particulars, but the world. His interpretation of the natural world is not an interpretation of things we encounter, but he analyses what makes us understand things, i.e. the world in the original sense of the word. Exploring the natural world means capturing what is 'part of all ways of human life and what is common for them. The natural world must be understood as the base for all options of our existence. Patočka s philosophy of the natural world as the movement of human existence is phenomenology leading from Husserl over Heidegger to our times. After WWII, he wrote papers relating to J.A. Komenský, Bolzano and works about the history of Antique and modern philosophy. Together with J. Kopecký and J. Kyrášek, he published the book J. A. Komenský. Nástin života a díla (J.A. Komenský. Outline of Life and Work) (1957). 121

132 Patočka also wrote Bolzanovo místo v dějinách filozofie (Bolzano s Place in History of Philosophy) (1958), Aristoteles, jeho předchůdci a dědicové (Aristotle, his Predecessors and Heirs) (1964). He translated Hegel s Phenomenology of Spirit (1960). In 1965, he published in the Magazine of Philosophy (Filozofický časopis) No. 5 extensive Introduction into Husserl s Phenomenology. Patočka had to leave the university in He came back as professor in 1968 and was forced to leave once again in During regular private seminars, he informed his listeners about the issue of phenomenological philosophy. In his declining years, he became one of the main initiators and first spokesmen for Charter 77. His Heretic Essays about Philosophy of History were published in A set of these studies is the most significant proceed of his reasoning about philosophy of history that he continued after his second forced departures from the faculty of humanities. HLADÍK, J. Společenské vědy v kostce (Social Sciences in a Nutshell). Pro střední školy. Havlíčkův Brod: Fragment, 1996, pp , ISBN

133 Working Conditions of Teachers and Burnout Syndrome Milan Polák Abstract: In his contribution, the author summarises the knowledge resulting from a questionnaire-based survey focusing on the burnout syndrome in Czech language teachers at primary schools. He identifies some causes resulting in the worse results in the monitored area in With reference to this outcome, he proposes possible measures that have already been implemented in the developed countries. The need for further teacher training is therefore crucial, according to the author. Key words: teaching profession, concept of education, Czech language teacher, working conditions, questionnaire-based survey, burnout syndrome, causes, measures, further teacher training INTRODUCTION ANNEX 2 The teaching profession is not only one of the most significant professions in terms of the long-term development of each society but also one of the most complex and demanding professions. However, the local mass media mention the work of teachers only occasionally, mostly in connection with the starting holiday period, etc. News with a tincture of sensation or scandal is another newsworthy topic. However, the lack of objective information about education results, among other things, in the underestimation of teachers work by the general public. And the lacking knowledge about the school system among politicians (MPs, senators and cabinet members) has even more serious consequences for the local system. This unsatisfying state is also apparent from the fact that no educational concept has been produced so far which would enjoy long-term support across the entire political spectrum and which would also gain financial support. The working conditions of teachers and educators are among the particular issues which the competent bodies have virtually absolutely neglected so far; however, there are many researches and works pointing to the unsatisfying situation in this area and showing alarming results (e.g. Blížkovský, Kučerová, Kurelová a kol., 2000). It is because the deficiencies ascertained have a negative impact on the work performance of teachers and can result in the burnout syndrome or, also, the burnout effect. In 1998, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out among Czech language teachers at primary schools, which, among other things, also focused on the burnout syndrome. An analysis and comparison of the educational programmes, text books and outputs in the Czech language at the end of primary education showed serious deficiencies in the current concept of teaching the Czech language at primary schools which are negatively reflected in the work of teachers and are among the causes of the burnout syndrome (for details, see Polák, 2002). When addressing a particular project within a grant assignment (Grant Assignment GAČR No. 406/02/1113, Evaluation Pedagogical Surveys and their Methods; principal investigator and coordinator: Prof. M. Chráska), we decided to carry out another questionnaire-based survey in the period , also focusing on the burnout syndrome in order to make a comparison of the results with the previous situation. 123

134 2.8.2 SURVEY RESULTS Survey Concept and Applied Analysis Methods 1.1 Questionnaire Production and Distribution The content of the questionnaire was based on the author s previous work (Polák, 2002). However, it has a limited scope and the questions focus on some other factors related to the working conditions of teachers. The common part of the survey includes two questionnaires centred on the burnout syndrome. During particular surveys, the questionnaire was distributed among teachers in three different ways: during workshops and meetings with Czech language teachers (in Moravia); through the students of the third year of the Faculty of Education of Palacký University in Olomouc during their continuous practical training (mostly in Olomouc and its vicinity); through the students of the second year of the upgrading programme for Czech language teachers (also outside Moravia). Methods of the guided interview with teachers and a questionnaire-based survey were applied in line with the survey objectives. 1.2 Characteristics of the Surveyed Set of Teachers A total of 218 Czech language teachers at primary schools joined our burnout syndrome survey carried out in 1998, 2002 and Other characteristics are provided in the tables below. Table 1: Respondents by Length of Service (the brackets after the year give the total number of respondents) Table 2: Additional Information about Respondents 124

135 In our opinion, the characteristics contained in these overviews can provide a starting point for the interpretation of the burnout syndrome results (see below) Results of the Burnout Syndrome Survey 2.1 Evaluation of Questionnaire A The questionnaire was taken from the publication Antistresový program pro učitele (Anti-stress Programme for Teachers) (Hennig and Keller, 1995). It contains twenty-four statements about the stress and burnout syndrome effects in the cognitive, emotional, physical and social areas. Each item is marked according to the frequency of occurrence (0-4 points); with 24 being the maximum at each level, i.e. 96 points for the entire test. The questionnaire will thus provide an individual stress profile at each level Comparison of Results of Surveys Carried Out in 1998, 2002 and 2003 Initially, we made an evaluation within individual levels subject to the survey objectives (for details, see Polák, 2003). In our contribution, we give a comparison with the survey results from 1997 where Milota Zelinková of the Faculty of Education of Charles University used the same questionnaire. The author focused on the total scores achieved within individual levels; she was not concerned with individual items. The sample surveyed covered 102 primary school teachers (21 men and 81 women) at an average age of 41 years. Table 3: Individual Levels by Average Score (range between 0 and 16) A survey by Faculty of Education of Charles University (1997); B- our survey (1998); C our survey (2002); D our survey (2003) The above overview clearly shows that teachers suffer most at the emotional level from the long-term perspective. In this area, Item 18 I suffer from a lack of recognition and appreciation' scored the highest average levels. Interviews with teachers unveiled that they not only mind the inadequate wage conditions in the school system but also the lack of objective evaluation of the teachers work by their supervisors and the media. Item 3 I feel physically washed up ' (d7) had the highest score in the entire survey. This fact is definitely related to the mental strenuousness of the teaching profession. If it is not compensated by other activities, it results in mental tiredness and subsequently in the feeling of physical exhaustion. 2.2 Evaluation of Questionnaire B This questionnaire was taken from the publication Jak se bránit pracovnímu vyčerpání (How to Resist Work Exhaustion) (Potterová, 1997), and it is used to determine the burnout syndrome stage within various professions. It contains 25 items, with each scoring points by the frequency of occurrence (1-5 points; maximum being 125). 125

136 Table 4: Teachers and Burnout Stage (range of ) The results are not very encouraging. While the 1998 survey showed that more than 47% of respondents, i.e. almost half of them, were in the risk area of the burnout syndrome (third to fifth stage), and the 2002 survey had a bit better results, the 2003 survey showed significantly worse results, because almost 55% of respondents were found to be in the risky area. There might be several causes of this situation, one of them being a higher average age of respondents and the length of service. In our opinion, these results mostly reflected the unsatisfactory situation in the school system connected with its financing at the beginning of the school year 2003/2004 which culminated in the onehour strike at primary and secondary schools. Teachers also quoted the ambiguous concept of education, primarily related to the introduction of the Framework Educational Programme for Primary Schools, as another negative factor in the long term. Neither teachers nor school managers receive appropriate information about the planned change, which results in their feelings of uncertainty and often in scepticism Proposed Measures In addition to the measures arising in particular out of the comparison with the situation in the developed countries and resulting in improved working conditions of teachers (e.g. introduction of the sabbatical, motivating career guidelines, assistants at schools, enhanced care for teachers health, etc.), further training of teachers emerges as one of the fundamental problems. Considering the planned changes in the educational system, this training ought to focus not only on prevention of negative social phenomena (drugs, bullying, etc.) and occupational hygiene of teachers but in particular on the acquisition of new methods and forms of work Literature BLÍŽKOVSKÝ, B. KUČEROVÁ, S., KUNCLOVÁ, M., a kol. Středoevropský učitel na prahu učící se společnosti 21. století. Brno: Konvoj, HENNING, C, KELLER, G. Antistresový program pro učitele. Praha: Portál, POLÁK, M. Učitel českého jazyka a současná základní škola. Olomouc: Vydavatelství UP, POLÁK, M. Učitelé českého jazyka a syndrom vyhořeni. In CHRÁSKA, M., TOMANOVÁ, D., H0LOUŠOVÁ, D. Klima současné české školy. Sborník příspěvků z 11. konference 126

137 ČPdS. Brno: Konvoj, 2003, pp POTTEROVÁ, B. A. Jak se bránit pracovnímu vyčerpání. Olomouc: Votobia, ZELINOVÁ, M. Učiteľ a burnout efekt. Pedagogika, 1998, Year 48, No. 2, pp Polák, M. Pracovní podmínky učitelů a syndrom vyhořeni. Pedagogická orientace 2004, No. 1, pp ISSN

138 APPENDIX 3 Reception Form Author: Article: Magazine (Year), No., pp. -, ISBN Analysis of knowledge in selected journal communication Criteria which the author used to arrange the information Examples of the most important specific information (thematic sentences in the text) Summary of the communication text condensation through integration into one sentence: Through condensation into more sentences: Reception Form Author: Article: Magazine (Year), No., pp. -, ISBN Analysis of knowledge in selected journal communication 128

139 Criteria which the author used to arrange the information Examples of the most important specific information (thematic sentences in the text) Summary of the communication text condensation through integration into one sentence: Through condensation into more sentences: Prepared by Tomáš Svatoš for the department s internal needs (2013) 129

140 APPENDIX 4 Quotations and Thoughts: Murphology M U R P H O L O G Y Shortly after the origin of a new and progressive field of study, morphology, in 1977, researchers from all over the world started joining its founder to elevate research in the new and promising discipline to a new level, to the level of teamwork, in line with the global trends. The discipline s nerve centre remains in Los Angeles. The basic proposition of morphology is, If anything can go wrong, it will BASIC RESEARCH Quantisation revision of Murphy s laws: Everything goes wrong all at once. Schnatterly s summing up of the corollaries: If anything cannot go wrong, it will. (If anything just cannot go wrong, it will anyway) Extended Murphy s Law: If a series of events can go wrong, it will do so in the worst possible sequence. Kohn s corollary: Two wrongs are only the beginning. O Toole s commentary on Murphy s Law: Murphy was an optimist. Silverman s paradox: If Murphy s Law can go wrong, it will. Futility factor: No experiment is ever a complete failure it can always serve as a bad example. Meyer s Law: It is a simple tax to make things complex, but a complex task to make them simple. Gioia s theory: The person with the least expertise has the most opinions. Hanggi s law: The more trivial your research, the more people will read it and agree. Sweeney s Law: The length of a progress report is inversely proportional to the amount of progress. Parkinson s Sixth Law: The progress of science varies inversely with the number of journals published. Horner s five-thumb postulate: Experience varies directly with equipment ruined. Genius in employment: No boss will keep an employee who is right all the time. Shapiro s law of reward: The one who does the least work will get the most credit. Johnson s Law: The number of minor illnesses among the employees is inversely proportional to the health of the organisation. Grossman s lemma: 130

141 Any task worth doing was worth doing yesterday. First rule of superior inferiority: Don t let your superiors know that you are better than they are. Whistler s Law: You never know who s right, but you always know who s in charge THEOREMS FOR YOUNG ENGINEERS Murphy s Law of thermodynamics: Things get worse under pressure. Poulsen s prognosis: When anything is used to its full potential, it will break. Mr Cooper s Law: If you do not understand a particular word in a piece of technical writing, ignore it. The piece will make perfect sense without it. Fahnenstock s rule for failure: If at first you don t succeed, destroy all evidence that you tried. Lowery s Law: If it jams force it. If it breaks, it needed replacing anyway MURPHOLOGY FINDINGS ABOUT HUMAN NATURE Fowler s note: The only imperfect thing in nature is the human race. The Lippman lemma: People specialise in the area of their greatest weakness. Steele s plagiarism of somebody s philosophy: Everyone should believe in something I believe I ll have another drink. Livingston s laws of fat: 1. Fat expands to fill any apparel worn. 2. A fat person walks in the middle of the hall MURPHOLOGY ABOUT PARTNER RELATIONS First law of socio-genetics: Celibacy is not hereditary. Hartley s second law: Never go to bed with someone crazier than you are. Average husband s note: Then I could not come home at all. Zandra s law of biomechanics: The severity of the itch is inversely proportional to the reach. Mae West s observation: To err is human, but it feels terrific. Law of climatology: Wind velocity increases directly with the cost of the hairdo. The pineapple principle (generally applicable): The best parts of anything are always impossible to remove from the worst parts. 131

142 Law of the search: The first place to look for anything is the last place you would expect to find it. Law of household geometry: Any horizontal surface is soon piled up. Heisenberg s uncertainty principle: The location of all objects cannot be known simultaneously. Corollary: If a lost thing is found, something else will disappear. Hamilton s rule for cleaning glassware: The spot you are scrubbing is always on the other side MOTORISTS GET FAMILIAR WITH MURPHY S LAWS IN TIME Lemar s First parking postulate: If you park six blocks away, you ll find two spaces right outside the building. Law of Murphological inapplicability: Washing your car to make it rain does not work. Lovka s law of driving: There is no traffic until you need to make a left turn. The bumper to bumper theorem: Traffic congestion increases in proportion to the length of time the street is supervised by a traffic control officer. Law of highway construction: The most heavily travelled streets spend the most time under construction CONSUMER LAWS Herblock s law: If it s good, they ll stop making it. Law of duality: Of two possible events, only the undesired one will occur. Nonreciprocal laws of expectation: Negative expectations yield negative results. Positive expectations yield negative results. Anything that begins well ends badly. Anything that begins badly ends worse. Allen s law: Almost anything is easier to get into than out of. Nagler s comment on the origin of Murphy s law: Murphy s law was not propounded by Murphy, but by another man of the same name. Farnsdick s corollary: After things have gone from bad to worse, the cycle will repeat itself. Evans s and Bjorn s law: No matter what goes wrong, there is always somebody who knew it would. 132

143 2.19 SCIENCE AND RESEARCH VIEWED BY APPLIED MURPHOLOGY Felson s law: To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism; to steal from many is research. Law of the great idea: The only time you come up with a great solution is after somebody else has solved the problem. Fox s axiom: When a problem goes away, the people working to solve it do not. Two definitions of scientific committees: 1. A committee is twelve men doing the work of one. 2. A committee is the only life form with twelve stomachs and no brain. MURPHOLOGY TO HELP MODERN MANAGEMENT Jacobson s law: The less work an organisation produces, the more frequently it reorganises. Owen s theory of organisational deviance: Every organisation has an allotted number of positions to be filled by misfits. Corollary: Once a misfit leaves, another will be recruited. Strano s law: Where all else fails, try the boss s suggestion. Murphy s paradox: Doing it the hard way is always easier. Lackland s laws: 1. Never be first. 2. Never be last. 3. Lever volunteer for anything. Murphy s fourth corollary: It is impossible to make anything foolproof because fools are too ingenious. Perrussel s law: There is no job so simple that it cannot be done wrong. Churchill s commentary on man (law of truth): Man will occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of the time he will pick himself up and continue on. Katz s law: Men and nations will act rationally when all other possibilities have been exhausted. Lieberman s law: Everybody lies; but it doesn t matter since nobody listens. Boling s postulate: If you re feeling good, don t worry. You ll get over it. The Rockefeller principle: Never do anything you wouldn t get caught dead doing. Stewart s law of retroaction: It is easier to get forgiveness than permission. 133

144 Drazen s law of restitution: The time it takes to rectify a situation is inversely proportional to the time it took to do the damage COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY AND PROGRAMMING Greer s third law: A computer program does what you tell it to do, not what you want it to do. First law of computer programming: Any given program, when running, is obsolete MURPHOLOGY ABOUT WOMEN Jana s law of love: A dandelion from a lover means more than an orchid from a friend. Law of observation: Nothing looks as good close up as it does from far away. First law of money dynamics: A surprise monetary windfall will be accompanied by an unexpected expense of the same amount POLITICS AS SEEN BY MURPHOLOGISTS Political principles: 1. No politician talks taxes during an election year. 2. No matter what they re telling you, they re not telling you the whole truth. 3. No matter what they are talking about, they are talking about money. Law of political machinery: When no viable candidate exists someone will nominate a Kennedy. The sausage principle: People who love sausage and respect the law should never watch either one being made UNIVERSAL OR COSMIC LAWS General law: The chaos in the universe always increases. Zappa s law: There are two things on earth that are universal, hydrogen and stupidity. Law of regressive achievement: Last year s was always better. Tracey s time observation: Good times end too quickly. Bad times go on forever. Kierkegaard s observation: Life can only be understood backwards, but it must be lived forwards. Kranske s law: Beware of a day in which you don t have something to bitch about. Holten s homily: 134

145 The only time to be positive is when you are positive you are wrong. (Sources: MURHY S LAW DESK CALENDAR Los Angeles: Price/Stern Sloan, 1987, BLOCH, A. Murphyho zákony. Praha: Svoboda 1993). 135

146 Classroom Observation Report Form School Educational Institution: Form: School Year: Subject: Lesson: Type of Lesson: Day: Month: Year: Note: Objectives: educational: upbringing: Specific Curriculum: Terms: Final Knowledge Skills: Note: LESSON CONCEPT: TIME AND CONTENT Time orientation APPENDIX 5 Characteristics of teaching stages (stage objectives, methods, organisation, assignments, activities, communication, etc.) Teaching aids a) b) c) Other Didactic Materials Appendices: 136

147 d) e) NOTES ON POST-OBSERVATION ANALYSIS Prepared by Tomáš Svatoš for the department s internal needs (2003) * 137

148 APPENDIX 6 Action verbs to define teaching objectives according to the Bloom s taxonomy Objective category by acquisition level Typical verbs and their ties used to define goals Remembering (knowledge) specific information Understanding - comprehension define add write repeat name manage paraphrase illustrate interpret clarify relate reproduce arrange select explain, etc. convert express/translate explain calculate check, etc. Application apply use demonstrate discuss interpret data outline show register solve arrange, etc. Analysis analyse subdivide differentiate specify, etc. Synthesis classify combine modify summarise design conclude, etc. Evaluating judgment defend explain compare argue compare pros and cons justify, etc. 138

149 APPENDIX 7 Block Plan Form Basic Characteristics of Contemplated Lesson School Educational Institution: Form: School Year: Subject: Lesson: Type of Lesson: mixed Day: Month: Year: Note: Educational Objectives: Upbringing Objectives: Specific Curriculum: Terms: Final Knowledge Outcome: Note: PROLOGUE (Introduction) MOTIVATION (Stimulation) MOBILISATION of the Previous Knowledge System EXPOSITION of the New Knowledge FIXATION of the New Curriculum Stages and Brief Content of Contemplated Lesson EXERCISES - Repetition PRACTICAL Application COMPARISONS 139

150 Individual form items can be enlarged depending on the specific content of individual parts of the block plan. Prepared by Tomáš Svatoš for the department s internal needs (2013) 140

151 APPENDIX 9 Observation Sheet ČOS; v. 2.0 School Educational Institution Form: School Year: Subject: Lesson: Curriculum Day: Month: Year: Note: Objectives: educational: upbringing: Observation theme: Information about Supervisor: name and surname: year: teaching qualification: Pedagogic manager of the placement/practicum: 1. Provide a brief characteristic of the lesson s educational objectives: 2. Provide a brief characteristic of the lesson s upbringing objectives: 3. In your opinion, this lesson was: a so-called repetitive lesson where the knowledge of the curriculum is strengthened; a so-called mixed-type lesson where the new curriculum is developed, as well as practical activities are checked and evaluated, systemised; another type (please check one alternative only) 4. Please characterise the teacher s verbal expression: voice: strong, weak, adequate, variable other:. tempo: high, low, adequate, variable. pronunciation:. excellent, good, satisfactory, bad 5. How many important parts did the lesson have? a/ e/ b/ f/ c/ g/ d/ h/ 6. What part of the lesson was the most time-consuming? 141

152 Specify one part of Item 5 * 7. Please characterise the teacher s graphic expression on the blackboard: writing: angle: legibility: large, small, adequate, variable in size; corresponding not corresponding to the standard; excellent, adequate, unsatisfactory. 8. Please characterise the teacher s motion expression: He/she mostly sit; he/she mostly moved around the class; he/she mostly stood; he/she often/adequately/rarely approached pupils; he/she often/adequately/rarely used teaching aids and didactic equipment. 9. What knowledge, findings, skills, attitudes, etc. were the pupils expected to master repeat acquire during the observed lesson? 10. What kind of communication was typical of the teacher-learners' relationship during the lesson (check one) in your opinion? a) The teacher was speaking in all parts of the lesson; his/her activities involved frequent questioning of the pupils; he/she used/approved/disagreed with/modified the answer and continued by himself/herself; b) The teacher was speaking about the curriculum; he/she introduced the problem, invited the learners to find an independent solution; learners were dealing with the issue on their own in groups; the results were communicated to the classroom and the teacher commented on the results of their work; c) The teacher mostly spoke about the curriculum on his/her own; he/she sometimes used teaching aids; learners were observing his/her activities; the instructor called on some of them, made evaluations of (additions to) the learners statements; d) other: What teaching aids did the teacher uses during the lesson? overhead projector; school board; electronic board; film projector; wall picture; map; visual aids; (video-) tape-recorder; data projector with PC; musical instrument; textbook; written preparation; other: What teaching aids did the learners use during the lesson? overhead projector; school board; electronic board; 142

153 film projector; wall picture; map visual aids; (video-) tape-recorder; data projector with PC; musical instrument; textbook; working exercise book; other: In your opinion, did the teacher meet the overall objectives of the lesson? Yes Basically, yes No (state why) During the lesson, the learners were: very active; active; partly active; passive 15. Who was mostly active? individual learners groups of learners classroom as a whole Prepared by Tomáš Svatoš for the department s internal needs (2000) * 143

154 ANNEX 10 Evaluation Questionnaire EDO OD What is this questionnaire about and what is its purpose? Dear student, You have completed your study of general didactics which was the third educational and psychological discipline where the Department of Education and Psychology of Hradec Králové University participated in the conception and actual format of this study. It is understandable that we want to know how we have managed to fulfil our considerations about the study, how you - the recipients - have accepted it and what the lectures and seminars have given to you both professionally and personally. Also, we want to know where our efforts have had no effect in respect of your expectations. For this purpose, we have prepared this questionnaire that we regard as individual feedback on the level of the just completed discipline. At the same time, we want to use your evaluation, ideas and observations when preparing and implementing a new tutorial cycle How to complete this questionnaire? There are two ways of completing this questionnaire as follows: You are provided with individual sentences (statements) and your task will be to express the rate of agreement (or disagreement) between your opinion and the given statement by marking (with a cross) one level in the scale from 1 to 7 where 1 means an absolute disagreement with the statement while 7 means the highest level of agreement with the statement (contents of the sentence). There are only a few items where we want you to give your own comment. Note: The questionnaire is anonymous. You can sign it if you want. Anonymity does not apply to the cases where you are to evaluate teaching of a specific lecturer. Therefore, please give the name of the lecturer. It is useless to say that your personal opinions have no impact on your position as a student. A.1 Overall, the discipline General Didactics (the GD ) met my expectations in respect of the deepening of the study of educational sciences A.2 Still, I believe that the GD was rather theoretical than practical A.3 The level of lectures and seminars in the GD was absolutely comparable A.4 I was mostly attracted by the lectures held by (please specify the lecturer s name).. and I mostly want to appreciate







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