SBORNÍK JAZYKOVÝCH KURZŮ V ANGLICKÉM JAZYCE K PROJEKTU OPVK IMPLEMENTACE CIZOJAZYČNÝCH MODULŮ ZA ÚČELEM PROFESNÍHO ROZVOJE STŘEDOŠKOLSKÝCH

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1 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 0 (celkem 270) SBORNÍK JAZYKOVÝCH KURZŮ V ANGLICKÉM JAZYCE K PROJEKTU OPVK IMPLEMENTACE CIZOJAZYČNÝCH MODULŮ ZA ÚČELEM PROFESNÍHO ROZVOJE STŘEDOŠKOLSKÝCH PEDAGOGŮ V OBLASTI STAVEBNICTVÍ 0

2 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 1 (celkem 270) ANGLICKÉ JAZYKOVÉ KURZY PRO OBORY POZEMNÍ STAVITELSTVÍ A EKONOMIKA VE STAVEBNICTVÍ 1

3 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 2 (celkem 270) BUILDING CONSTRUCTION/POZEMNÍ STAVITELSTVÍ PŘEKLADATELÉ: DISCIPLINES AND SPECIALIZATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERING PUBLIC UTILITIES AND COMMUNICATIONS BUILDING MATERIALS GROUND STRUCTURES ELEMENTARY PARTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION BUILDING SITE CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT OF BUILDING INTERIOR BUILDING EQUIPMENT ARCHITECTURE ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS ECONOMICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING/EKONOMIKA VE STAVEBNICTVÍ PŘEKLADATELÉ BUILDING MANAGEMENT CONSTRUCTION COMPANY PRICE PRICE CALCULATION, DEMAND AND SUPPLY CONTRACTUAL RELATIONS MARKETING IN THE CIVIL ENGINEERING REAL ESTATE VALUATION CONSTRUCTION PROJECT PROJECT DOCUMENTATION LOGISTICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING HUMAN RESOURCES

4 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 3 (celkem 270) BUILDING CONSTRUCTION/POZEMNÍ STAVITELSTVÍ Překladatelé: Kamila Tröstlová Témata: Disciplines and specialization of civil engineering Building materials Ground structures elementary parts of the construction Energy-efficient buildings Ivana Jílková Témata: Public utilities and communications Jindřiška Šulistová Témata: Building site Interior building equipment Věra Filipová Témata: Construction machinery Technical equipment of building Architecture korektury všech textů provedli rodilí mluvčí paní Vivian White a pan Robert Donaldson 3

5 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 4 (celkem 270) 1. DISCIPLINES AND SPECIALIZATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Key Words: Construction, object, building, house Annotation of the text: Civil engineering is an industry field concerning the construction of objects. The aim of civil engineering is creating of living and working environment for people and society while preserving natural and cultural heritage. Civil engineering is a very comprehensive field of human activity, including technical, technological, economic, aesthetic and ecological components. The building can be understood as a construction work of durable or temporary character. The result of the construction the building is an object of a different concept, function and character. Apart from the construction of new objects, civil engineering includes as well the adaptations, re-developments, modernizations, maintenance of old objects and demolitions. The town-planning value of the area lies in the structure, continuity and properties of spaces and buildings. This is the value of a long-term developed urban structure of the individual settlements and their relationship and the value of the landscape created and cultivated by the long-term management. 4

6 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 5 (celkem 270) The aim of designing and the implementation of buildings is the creation of the quality environment for the purpose for which the individual object was designed. The quality should be ensured throughout the whole time of the expected lifespan. The function of civil engineering for society: social (habitation, culture, health service, education, sports) industrial production agricultural production transport power engineering Civil engineering can be divided into 4 basic fields according to its focus: ground structures (housing, civil, industrial, agricultural) transportation and underground structures water structures special structures GROUND STRUCTURES concern the construction of buildings or constructional objects with its function immediately related. The building can be understood as a construction which is habitable and usable for people. The ground structure must meet architectonical requirements, i.e. the concept in terms of urban planning, traffic and aesthetics, but also the solution of architectural barriers in connection with the use of buildings by the disabled people and sensitive interventions in historic and listed buildings. In addition, it must meet the technical requirements, which means the resistance to external influence and internal environment of well-being, including fire safety, requirements for technological and material solutions. With regard to the economic requirements on the ground structures, we distinguish purchase and operation costs with the fact that it is always necessary to ensure economic efficiency and at the same time the quality of the implemented construction. With the problems of ecology, the environmental requirements on the ground structures, i.e. reducing the overall energetic performance of buildings, the use of the renewable energy sources, the reduction of negative impacts of construction activities on the environment are related. The ground structures should be designed to meet the requirements and the urban requirements and its internal requirements, due to its surroundings. That means that it must establish the operationally sophisticated, structurally and aesthetically resolved form of the object. Ground structures can be divided into the following groups and subgroups, in terms of purpose: 5

7 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 6 (celkem 270) Residential Buildings are the buildings designed for the permanent housing, they are divided into apartment buildings and family houses. The objects of the individual recreation purpose, cottages and bungalows can be added into this category. The field which concerns the design of the residential buildings in terms of the dispositional arrangement and operation is called the typology of buildings. The character of the residential building should always correspond to the architectural concept of the locality. Picture 1: Family house Picture 2: Apartment building- animation Civil Constructions are the objects of health and social service, education and sports, service and trade, transport, administration and a temporary accommodation. This category includes e. g. hospitals and health centres, all kinds of schools, restaurants and cinemas, hotels and guest houses, department stores, culture centres, administrative buildings, gyms, libraries, railway station halls, airport halls, stadiums, garages, etc.. Picture 3: School building Picture 4: Hotel-annimation Industrial Constructions include production objects - hall and multi-storey type, storage buildings and buildings for power engineering, i.e. stokeholds, substations and gas stations. The industrial constructions are always designed with regard to the particular character of the individual production and in accordance with the territorial solution, i.e. in connection with the residential units, watercourses, roads, power conduits. 6

8 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 7 (celkem 270) Agricultural Constructions include objects for crop and livestock production, i.e. stables, hayloft and silos, feed and product warehouses, waste management, greenhouses, etc. Agricultural production has, next to the industrial production, crucial influence on meeting the needs of population and development of buildings. It reflects mainly the pursuit of efficient land use and to reduce the workforce. Picture 5: Industrial production Picture 6: Farmstead TRANSPORT AND UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES solve aboveground and underground transport infrastructure and connected objects, then the engineering network (underground and aboveground lines) and surface treatment areas (squares, pedestrian zones, orchards). Construction chart: Land structures roads, highways, car parks, Bridges for pedestrians, road, railway Airport runway Railway superstructure and substructure Underground objects metro, tunnels Picture 7: Multilevel communication Picture 8: Road bridge 7

9 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 8 (celkem 270) Picture 9: Railway WATER STRUCTURES solve structures in terms of water management, use of water resources and environmental protection. List of constructions: Amelioration irrigation and drainage areas Waterways adjustment ponds, embankments, swimming pools Weirs and dams water projects Wastewater treatment plant Water treatment plant and tanks SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS towers, masts, underground and aboveground collectors, billboards, etc. 8

10 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 9 (celkem 270) Picture 10: Water project - dam Picture 11: Mast of wiring Text adapted for language exercises - Disciplines and Specialization of Civil Engineering Annotation: This lesson concerns the field of the Civil Engineering and its disciplines and specializations. It describes the aim of civil engineering, types of the ground structures and will inform the student about the vocabulary of this field which will be practised in exercises. The exercises are focused on the vocabulary related with the ground structures and practise the grammar as well. Key words: Construction, object, building, house Disciplines and Specialization of Civil Engineering Civil engineering is a very comprehensive field of human activity, including technical, technological, economic, aesthetic and ecological components. The building can be understood as a construction work of durable or temporary character. The result of the construction is an object of a different concept, function and character. Apart from the construction of new objects, civil engineering includes as well the adaptations, re-developments, modernizations, maintenance of old objects and demolitions. Town-planning value of the area lies in the structure, continuity and properties of spaces and buildings. The aim of designing and implementation of buildings is the creation of the quality environment for the purpose the individual object was designed for. The quality should be ensured throughout the whole time of the expected lifespan. 9

11 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 10 (celkem 270) The functions of civil engineering for society are social (habitation, culture, health service, education, sports). Then, the products of civil engineering are used for industrial production, agricultural production, transport and power engineering. Civil engineering can be divided into four basic fields according to its focus: ground structures (housing, civil, industrial, agricultural), transport and underground structures, water structures and special structures. Ground Structures concern the construction of buildings or constructional objects with its function immediately related. The building can be understood as a construction which is habitable and usable for people. The ground structure must meet architectonical requirements, i.e. the concept in terms of urban planning, traffic and aesthetics, but also the solution of architectural barriers in connection with the use of buildings by the disabled people and sensitive interventions in historic and listed buildings. In addition, it must meet the technical requirements, which means the resistance to external influence and internal environment of well-being, including fire safety, requirements for technological and material solutions. With regard to the economic requirements on the ground structures, we distinguish purchase and operation costs with the fact that it is always necessary to ensure economic efficiency and at the same time the quality of the implemented construction. With the problems of ecology, the environmental requirements on the ground structures, i.e. reducing the overall energetic performance of buildings, use of the renewable energy resources, the reduction of negative impacts of construction activities on the environment, are related. The ground structure should be designed in order to meet the requirements on the internal environment and the urban requirements due to its surroundings. It means to establish the operationally sophisticated, structurally and aesthetically resolved form of the object. In terms of the purpose, the ground structures can be divided into the following groups and subgroups: Residential buildings are the buildings designed for the permanent housing, they are divided into apartment buildings and family houses. The objects of the individual recreation purpose, cottages and bungalows can be added into this category. The field which concerns design of the residential buildings in terms of the dispositional arrangement and operation is called the typology of buildings. The character of the residential building should always correspond to the architectural concept of the locality. Civil constructions are the objects of health and social service, education and sports, service and trade, transport, administration and a temporary accommodation. This category includes e. g. hospitals and health centres, all kinds of schools, restaurants and cinemas, hotels and guest houses, department stores, culture centres, administrative buildings, gyms, libraries, railway station halls, airport halls, stadiums, garages, etc. Industrial constructions include production objects - hall and multi-storey types, storage buildings and buildings for power engineering, i.e. stokeholds, substations and gas stations. The industrial constructions are always designed with regard to the particular character of the individual production and in accordance with the territorial solution, i.e. in connection with the residential units, watercourses, roads, power conduits. Agricultural constructions include objects for crop and livestock production, i.e. stables, haylofts and silos, feed and product warehouses, waste management, greenhouses, etc. Agricultural production has, 10

12 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 11 (celkem 270) next to the industrial production, crucial influence on meeting the needs of population and development of buildings. It reflects mainly the pursuit of efficient land use and to reduce the workforce. Transport and underground structures solve the aboveground and the underground transport infrastructure and connected objects, then the engineering network (underground and aboveground lines) and surface treatment areas (squares, pedestrian zones, orchards). This category includes land structures roads, highways, car parks, bridges for pedestrians, roads, railway, airports runways, railways superstructures and substructure and underground objects metro, tunnels. Water Structures solve structures in terms of water management, use of water resources and environmental protection. The constructions of this category are the amelioration irrigation and drainage areas, waterways adjustment ponds, embankments, swimming pools, weirs and dams water projects, wastewater treatment plants, water treatment plants and tanks. Finally, there is a category of the special constructions towers, masts, underground and aboveground collectors, billboards, etc. Dictionary: civil constructions dam to drain embankment ground structures hayloft industrial constructions irrigation mast renewable energy residential building runway stable transport structure watercourse water structures weir veřejné stavby přehrada vysoušet vodní hráz, nábřeží pozemní stavby seník průmyslové stavby zavlažování, zavodňování stožár, stěžeň obnovitelná energie obytná budova přistávací dráha stáj dopravní stavba vodní tok, vodní řečiště vodní stavby jez Answer these questions according to the text: 1) What is a building? How can we understand it? 2) What is the result of a construction? 3) What must a ground structure meet? 4) What are the types (groups) of ground structures? 11

13 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 12 (celkem 270) 5) How should a ground structure be designed? Exercises: 1) Put these subordinate terms into the right column according to its superior category. Look at the example. Residential buildings cottage cottage Irrigation area product warehouse tower stokehold road pedestrian area hospital storage building apartment building stable dam weir tunnel primary school silo embankment restaurant engineering networks drainage areas hayloft family house highway university gas station bridge greenhouse runway bungalow library railway billboard airport mast Civil constructions Agriculture constructions Industrial constructions Transport and underground structures Water structures Special structures 2) Match these terms with their Czech meaning: department store orchards to solve runway hráz zásadní rozvoj obchodní dům 12

14 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 13 (celkem 270) embankment construction development crucial watercourse sad vodní řečiště řešit/vyřešit přistávací dráha stavba 3) Fill in the following chart. Look at the example below. to solve (verb) solution (noun) to construct construction to develop education to qualify to design relation to influence implementation to arrange to build 13

15 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 14 (celkem 270) 4) Put the positive sentences into a negative form and opposite. Look at the example. Example: These houses were built last year. These houses weren t built last year. The company doesn t need much money for their plans. The company needs much money for their plans. a) Agriculture constructions don t include objects for crop and livestock production. b) This bridge wasn t originally built for the pedestrians. c) They should innovate their methods. d) Swimming pools don t belong to water structures. e) The company built twenty new apartment houses in f) Construction works at the airport were finished in g) The company has overcome several problems. h) These houses aren t very beautiful after the reconstruction. i) The school building is under the reconstruction now. Solutions: 1) cottage Irrigation area product warehouse tower stokehold road pedestrian area hospital storage building apartment building stable dam weir tunnel primary school silo embankment restaurant engineering networks drainage areas hayloft family house highway university gas station bridge greenhouse runway bungalow library railway billboard airport mast 14

16 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 15 (celkem 270) Residential buildings cottage family house bungalow apartment building Civil constructions primary school university hospital restaurant library Agriculture constructions stable hayloft silo product warehouse greenhouse Industrial constructions storage building stokehold gas station Transport and underground structures engineering networks pedestrian area road airport bridge railway Water structures irrigation areas drainage areas embankment weir dam Special structures tower billboard mast tunnel highway runway 2) Department store obchodní dům Orchards - sady To solve vyřešit, řešit Runway přistávací dráha Embankment - hráz Construction - stavba Development - rozvoj Crucial - zásadní Watercourse vodní řečiště 15

17 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 16 (celkem 270) 3) to solve (verb) solution (noun) to construct construction to develop development to educate education to qualify qualification to design design to relate relation to influence influence to implement implementation to arrange arrangement to build building 4) 16

18 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 17 (celkem 270) a) Agriculture constructions don t include objects for crop and livestock production. Agriculture constructions include objects for crop and livestock production. b) This bridge wasn t originally built for the pedestrians. This bridge was originally built for the pedestrians. c) They should innovate their methods. They shouldn t innovate their methods. d) Swimming pools don t belong to water structures. Swimming pools belong to water structures. e) The company built twenty new apartment houses in The company didn t build twenty new apartment houses in f) Construction works at the airport were finished in Construction works at the airport weren t finished in g) The company has overcome several problems. The company hasn t overcome several problems. h) These houses aren t very beautiful after the reconstruction. These houses are very beautiful after the reconstruction. i) The school building is under the reconstruction now. The school building is not under the reconstruction now. 17

19 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 18 (celkem 270) 2. PUBLIC UTILITIES AND COMMUNICATIONS Key words: Roads, highway, utilities, sewage system, water pipeline, gas pipeline Abstract: Public utilities are a set of pipe networks that drains cities and towns and supplies them with water and gas. Communication / road is generally a kind of "transport", ie. roads, railways, waterways, airways. Bridges and tunnels also rank among road costructions. In the context of public utilities terrestrial communications / roads are the principal issue. ROADS The roads are divided into the following categories in the Czech Republic,: Highways - for fast long-distance and international road transport by motor vehicles. Highways have directed carriageways without level crossings and connection point for entry and exit. Roads are designed for road and other vehicles and pedestrians (crossing places). Roads are open publicly. Intersections and (limited-access) highways are special categories of roads. Local Roads are used mainly for local transport within a municipality, they are publicly available and they can be used as a pedestrian road. Private Roads are used to connect individual properties to the needs of the owners of these properties or to link these properties to other roads. Private roads are divided to not publicly accessible and publicly accessible. Bicycle Paths, Parking Lots, Sidewalks and Pedestrian Zones 18

20 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 19 (celkem 270) Picture 12: D1 the oldest section of highway (Praha- Chodov) Picture 13: An itersection- a bycicle part and road THE PUBLIC SEWERAGE SYSTEM The Public sewerage system is made up of sewerage networks, i.e. a system of piping and other equipment used to discharge wastewater from individual properties and public spaces in sewage treatment plants, or into water recipients. Picture 14: Čistírna odpadních vod sedimentační nádrže Picture 15: Čistírna odpadních vod - filtrační nádrže A Integrated Sewerage System - one canal diverts sewage and rainwater. The network is proposed for the flow of rainwater, which greatly exceed the amount of discharged sewage. A Departamental Sewerage System - two sewer systems. Sewerage passes the sewage water to water treatment plant, rainwater sewerage drains rainwater into a retention tank and then into a recipient. (sedimentation of suspended substances is processed in the retention tank). the sewerage system is designed as gravitational, i.e. waste water is driven by the force of gravity from adequate slope (min. 5%) or radial (with petrol station). 19

21 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 20 (celkem 270) Picture 16: Pumping of wastewater Sewer networks are organized according to local field configuration with maximum use of gravity in wastewater treatment plants. According to the character of the network, we can distinguish four systems: clampy, zonal, branchy, centripetal (radial). The building material of sewers is vitrified clay with rubber rings, concrete casted right on the site or individual pieces (can be lined with plastic), plastic (PVC). Cross-section of sewers may have a circular profile (smaller profiles of sewers and sewer connections), an egg-shaped profile with a narrower bottom for regulating the flow rate, a triangle profile with extended lower part protecting from destruction (as a result of load) of the sewer. The objects on sewerage systems ensure safe disposal of waste water. These are called the entrance (inspection) shafts, street drains for collecting rainwater, chutes for reduction the flow rate at high inclination of the sewer, flushing shafts protecting from clogging sewers, retention tanks for reduction of recipient tank pollution. Picture 17: Concrete tubes Picture 18: Plastic pipes Waste water must be ensured with safe passage through the sewer pipes. Sewers must not drain water that could cause the clogging or violate the pipeline. These are especially strongly acidic or alkaline water, infectious water, sewage containing poisons, flammable liquids and water warmer than 40 C. Hazardous wastewater is necessary edit or pretreated before discharge to public sewers. 20

22 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 21 (celkem 270) Picture 19: sewer pipeline Picture 20: sewer pipeline PUBLIC WATER PIPELINE The public water pipeline delivers water from a water source (a spring) to consumers. Water sources are either surface or underground, i.e. water tank. Water is led to the water treatment plant from the source and collected in ground or underground water tanks. Reservoirs are used for accumulation of treated water. A gradient water supply - water flows through the inlet pipe from the source and the distribution pipe from the reservoir without pumping, whilst ensuring sufficient water pressure. A discharge water supply - with a pumping station - pumps convey water to the water reservoir located at a certain level. The water supply network can be divided as the follows: the branchy and the circle water supply network (according to grounplan layout in a consumer place). In the branchy network, water is pumped to the taking point in one direction. The network is suitable for areas with a low population density. In the circle network, water is transported in two directions, so the safety of water source is ensured. The material of water distribution networks is plastic, cast iron and steel. There are installed fire hydrants, water pressure reducing valves, valves for water shut on the water pipes. Water must be under the pressure of 50 kpa - 1 Mpa in the pipes. Picture 21: Vater reservoir Římov Picture 22: Water pumping Římov 21

23 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 22 (celkem 270) Picture 23: Unitypical water tank Picture 24: Water supply tower THE PUBLIC GAS PIPELINE The public pipeline supplies fuel gas to the consumer. Today it uses natural gas extracted from underground sources and transported by transit networks to the Czech Republic and within the Czech Republic, where it is stored in underground or above ground storage tanks. Within individual sites of the Czech Republic the gas is collected in gasholders and, under pressure, it is distributed to pipelines. In places without gasification it is possible to use propane- butane, supplied as a liquid in pressurized tanks. Gas distribution systems are classified according to the pressure: very high pressure (above 4 MPa) is used for the backbone network within the country, high-pressure (300 kpa - 4 MPa) for remote distribution among cities, middle STL (5-300 kpa) for the public gas pipelime and connections, lowpressure (up to 5 kpa) for domestic gas and connections. The pipeline network may be designed as a branchy or circle. In the branchy network gas supply objects is solved from one side, in the circle network from 2 sides. The material of pipelines are steel and plastic. Individual sections of the pipeline are closed by valves and ground units. The gas pressure in the pipeline is regulated in reducing stations and water precipitated from water vapor in the gas is collected in a drainage container. Picture 25: Gas pipe Picture 26 Gas pipe Gazela in CZE 22

24 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 23 (celkem 270) Picture 27 Gas holder Praha Libeň Picture 28 Gasholder Sources: Wikipedie: Stavebnictví 5. 6., , 3. 7., Galerie Microsoft Office 7. 6., , Dictionary clay to clog chute to discharge to divert to drain drainage container gaspipeline gasholder ground plan hazardous piping pipeline public utilities public sewerage system pumping station recipient retention tank reservoir sedimentation sewage treatment plants to supply valves wastewater jíl, hlína ucpat se, zanést se žlab vypouštět odklonit, přesměrovat odvést, odtéct, odvodnit odvodňovací nádoba plynovod plynojem půdorys přízemí nebezpečný, rizikový potrubí potrubní vedení veřejné inženýrské sítě veřejná kanalizace čerpací stanice příjemce retenční nádrž nádrž sedimentace čistíčka odpadních vod dodávat ventil, klapka odpadní voda 23

25 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 24 (celkem 270) highway road bycicle path parking lot (Am.E) / car park (Br.E) sidewalk (Am.E) / pavement (Br.E) pedestrian zone intersection / crossroad / junction slope shaft retention tank poison hlavní silnice cesta, silnice cyklostezka parkoviště chodník pěší zóna křižovatka svah šachta retenční nádrž jed Questions. Find the answers in the text. 1) Explain the difference between a road and a highway. 2) What does the public sewerage system serve for? 3) What is considered to be hazardous wastewater? 4) How is gas collected in gasholders distributed to the pipeline? 5) Where is the sedimentation of suspended substances processed? Exercises 1) Find the appropriate definition to the following expressions. 1) retention tank 2) shaft 3) chute 4) reservoir 5) sewer a) A natural or artificial pond or lake used for the storage and regulation of water. b) A duct or conduit for the passage of air, as for ventilation or heating. 24

26 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 25 (celkem 270) c) A storage site where the water in storage is permanently obstructed from flowing downstream d) A drain or pipe, esp. one that is underground, used to carry away surface water or sewage e) An inclined trough, passage, or channel through or down which things may pass. 2) Fill in the British/American expression. British English carpark pavement building services American English apartment block mason 3) Rewrite these sentences beginning with they + a noun formed from the underlined verb and a passive verb. Choose an appropriate verb tense and make any other necessary changes. 1 They will consider the issue at next week's meeting. 2 They eventually permitted the site to be used for the festival. 3 They have transferred the money to my bank account. 4 They will not announce the findings until next week. 5 They demolished the building in only two days. 6 They will produce the new car in a purpose-built factory. 4) Choose the most likely sentence ending. 1. The company makes... a) small electric motors, b) a lot of work for charity. 2. The children in the class worked really hard. They made... a) everything they could to help. b) presents for all their brothers and sisters. 3. With recent advances in technology, we are now able to do... a) powerful computers as small as a cigarette packet. b) things we could not have dreamed of 10 years ago. 4. The local council is doing... a) nothing to help solve traffic congestion, b) changes to traffic flow in the city centre. 25

27 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 26 (celkem 270) Solutions Questions 1. Highways serve for fast long-distance and international road transport by motor vehicles. Roads are designed for road and other vehicles and pedestrians 2. For discharging wastewater from individual properties and public spaces in sewage treatment plants, or into waters recipients. 3. Strongly acidic or alkaline water, infectious water, sewage containing poisons, flammable liquids etc. 4. Under pressure. 5. In the retention tanks. 1) 1c,2b,3e,4a, 5 2) British English carpark pavement block of flats bricklayer building services American English parking lot sidewalk apartment block mason utilities 3) 1. The issue will be considered Permission was eventually given /received The transfer of the money has been made / taken / gone through No announcement of the findings will be made until next week. 5. The demolition of the building was completed/finished The production of the new car will take place in a purpose-built factory. 4) 26

28 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 27 (celkem 270) la 2b 3b 4a 3. BUILDING MATERIALS Key Words: Building material, ground structure, construction, feature Annotation of the text: A ground structure as a whole unit comprises of the individual constructions made of various building materials. Features of the used building material influence the function of the building in the given conditions. The building material used for centuries was stone and wood, later bricks. Only within the 19 th century, the cast iron and steel were used. The 20 th century brought concrete and reinforced concrete into the civil engineering. The end of the 20 th century is significant for the use of light concrete, plastic, glass and insulation materials. Building materials are used for creating of a building construction or are used as semi-finished products for a production of other building materials. The part of the construction design is the selection of the material of the individual construction in a way to be able to meet the required parameters. The specific features of the building materials are - tensile and compressive strength, capacity, water resistance, thermal capacity, acoustic properties, resistance to frost, etc. A 27

29 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 28 (celkem 270) comprehensive knowledge of the properties and behaviour of building materials under different conditions is necessary to design efficient construction. Building materials can be divided into natural inorganic ( stone, clay), organic (wood) and artificial made of the inorganic or organic substances (cement, glass, plastic...).material base is divided into silicate mostly the materials on the silicon basis (cement, glass, ceramics, hydrated lime, gypsum) and chemical-metallurgic plastics, steel, light irons, thermal and sound insulations. ROCKS The rocks without any adjustments of after the mechanic adjustment (grinding, selecting, finishing) are used for the building purposes. The rocks can also be the part of other building materials (e.g. gravel into the concrete) or they are used for the production of other building materials (e.g. lime for the production of hydrated lime and cement). According to the character and condition of their creation, rocks can be divided into igneous deep (granite, gabbro), vein (porphyry, quartz), extrusive (basalt, phonolite); sedimentary mechanic (gravel, send, clay), organogenous (limestone, dolomite, peat); changed by a pressure, temperature (slate, lime). Picture 29: Belt conveyor transporting gravel and aggregate is quarries Aggregate for Building Purposes Aggregate is a granulose material of an inorganic origin. Natural aggregate is obtained by extraction, or treatment of rocks and is sorted into fractions according to grain size - fine aggregate (grain to 4 mm), coarse aggregate (4-125 mm), gravel (a mixture extracted aggregate) crushed gravel (crushed rock mixture). Artificial aggregate is obtained by various wastes or by the treatment of rocks for example expanded clay (fired clay and clay mixed with coal), expanded perlite (by expansion of water during heat treatment arises perlite porous material). 28

30 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 29 (celkem 270) Picture 30: Expanded Clay Building Rock The solid stone is mined in quarries, aggregate and sand in gravel pits. Mined stone is used natural or is processed. Quarry stone is used unmodified or modified (tiling, paving, masonry). Big stones are used on walls and arches. Some stones with a square or rectangular face flat are used for masonry, tiles, blocks and keystones have the exact size and shape and facial areas stonemasonry processed (grinding, polishing, etc.). Engineered stone products are formed combining different sized parts stone mostly synthetic resin and is manufactured and tiles, stair treads, etc. Picture 31: Stone Masonry Picture 32: Stone Paving Materials for ceramic products are inorganic clays and are processed mostly cold and then they are strengthened by burning. Additives are added to a ceramic mixture to improve the properties of the product (grog, lightener, flux) and custom products can be sealed (colours, glaze, engobe). The products are characterized by high strength, weather resistance, hardness and durability. Ceramic Products in Civil Engineering Brick products are construction materials with coloured shards, mostly porous and uncoated. They are used for the vertical structures bricks and blocks and for horizontal constructions ceiling desks and tiles, as a roofing clay tiles. Ceramic tiles and paving are produced for the indoor and outdoor use (frost resistant types) with a various adjustment of the surface (gloss, matt, etc.). The range of the ceramic products is very wide, there are many tiles and accessories. Picture 33: Brick masonry Picture 34: Ceramic tiles 29

31 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 30 (celkem 270) WOOD In terms of a construction, wood is a heterogeneous substance. This is the reason for different features that depend on the direction of the wood fibres. We distinguish soft wood (spruce, linden, fir), semihard (pine, larch) and hard (ash, oak, beech). Wood in Civil Engineering Roundwood - wood stem of a diameter of 1 meter from the thicker end min.140mm, the thinner end min. 80 mm, including bark. Poles - maximum diameter of 130 mm. Plate timber boards thickness mm, planks thickness 38 to 100 mm. Semi-rectangular timber - pillows thickness mm, beams thickness mm, cut wood with the length to 1 m. Rectangular timber prisms thickness mm, little prisms thickness mm. Small timber laths, slats. Friezes and parquetry the friezes are planed plates with a spring used for floors, or the parquet tables can be made of them. Veneers are tables of thickness of 0,6-3,6mm made of division of the grown wood. Floorboards desks connected by a spring and a groove used for cladding, soffits, etc. Laminated wood - created by gluing several layers of wood in the area. Veneers, desks, laths and wood connected by this way is used for the production has better qualities. Glued structural wood is used for the production of laminated beams (sections I, T, U), other products, such as plywood decking. Agglomerated wood it is a construction material made of the waste of healthy wood, such as chips, shavings, sawdust. The raw material is crushed, binder and additives are added, the mixture is then dried and pressed. Agglomerated wood structural panels are used (fibreboard, particleboard, woodcement, etc) in the civil engineering as insulation, cladding, tiles, floors and partitions. Picture 35: Wooden Floor Frame Picture 36: Panoramatic Wooden Staircase METALS Metals are chemical elements of allays whose internal structure is crystalline. In practise, we divide metals into iron (black) and non-ferrous (colour). By weight, metals can be divided into light - weight in 5000 kg.m3 (aluminium, magnesium) and heavy. Steel is mostly used in the civil engineering practice. Metallurgical products are manufactured by rolling, drawing, welding, etc. The production of pig iron processed by the reduction of iron ore and steel by further processing takes place in blast furnaces. It is necessary to protect steel against corrosion so called alloy of steel is a creation of an 30

32 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 31 (celkem 270) alloy by adding other metals; plating of steel by stainless metals is carried out by submersion, heat spraying or galvanized with the electric current. Steel in Civil Engineering Steel is used because of its features (strength, flexibility, ductility, malleability) mainly as a material for supporting constructions and as well for additional constructions. Metallurgical products bar and band steel; shaped (profilated) steel cross-section I, U, T, thin-walled profiles; sheets, mesh wires of diameter 0,1-20mm; wires for rope production; fasteners screws, rivets, bolts,, nails, claws. Concrete Steel reinforcement into reinforced concretes in a form of steel pole, welded mesh reinforced nets, for pre-stressed concretes patented wires of alloy steel are used. Non-ferrous metals in civil engineering, aluminium, zinc, copper, chromium, nickel and alloys of light metals bronze, bras, are applied. Picture 37: Steel Cylindrical Beam Picture 38: Prefabricated Steel Structure GLASS Glass is used in civil engineering mainly for glazing and also has other important applications. It is a non-porous material, transparent, resistant to water and acids, fireproof, thermally conductive, corrosion resistant, with high compressive strength, but fragile. Building Glass Flat Glass drawn (smooth, clear, straight); cast (patterned, with no patterns; wired or without inserts); tempered glass with coloured enamel for facades of buildings; rolled glass, opaque coloured in the mass used for tiles; float mirror glass; laminated safety glass with the embedded foil. Flat glass is used for the production of the insulation glasses. Glass fittings hollow wall blocks in different colours used on tiles and mosaic tiling. Glass fibre is used for thermal insulation. Foam glass light insulation material. 31

33 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 32 (celkem 270) Picture 39: Glass Facade Picture 40: Glass Railing PLASTICS Artificial plastics are used in civil engineering. The materials used for the production of plastics are petroleum, coal and natural gas. They are processed by heat and pressure. According to their behaviour, we can divide plastics into thermoplastics they soften by heat, harden after cooling; and thermosets they harden by heat and get insoluble and do not soften by further heat. In terms of mechanic and physical features, plastics divide into elastomers (with a reversible deformation) and plastomers. The use of plastics in civil engineering is mainly dependant on the possibilities of the chemical industry and on evaluating of their features, including aging. The individual use of plastics depends on the character of the plastics. Generally, we use plastics as insulation desks, foils, textiles, flooring, tiles, dustings and fillers, facade parts, tubes of utilities, roofing, adhesives, sealants. Plastics are also added as ingredients into mortars and concretes to improve their properties. Plastics PVC (polyvinyl chloride), PE (polyethylene), PP (polypropylene), PPS (styrofoam), XPS(extruded polystyrene),pes (polyester), PU (polyurehtane), EP (epoxides), silicon. MORTARS Mortar is a mixture of fillers, binders, water and additives. The filler of mortar is sand and the binder is lime (air, hydraulic), cement (portland, mixed) or gypsum. Water must be clean and chemically harmless. Ingredients influence the workability of mortars - ingredients affect the workability of mortar - plasticizers, or the process of setting and hardening. According to the use, we divide mortars for bricklaying, plastering, for topping screed for laying tiles, for grouting. According to the character, we divide mortars it lime mortars - LM, cement mortars - CM, lime-cement mortars - LCM, plaster mortars - PM and plaster-lime mortars - PLM. Currently, mortar is mostly produced in mortar plants, only in individual constructions mortar is mixed in mixers. In the central mortar plants, there is a mechanized operation, ensuring accurate dosing and mixing of ingredients. Factory-made mortars in the form of wet mixtures are transported by concrete agitator to the building site, where are dispensed into containers. Factory-made mortar mixtures are available in a form of a dry mortar mixture in a form of a paper bags and are mixed with water in accordance with the orders of the producer. CONCRETES 32

34 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 33 (celkem 270) Concrete is a mixture of aggregate, cement, water and additives. The filler in concrete comprises a mixture of small and coarse aggregates (sand, gravel) and a binder is cement (type and amount depend on the nature of the concrete). Water for concrete production are divided into the mixing and treatment. Additives in concrete affect workability, properties and solidification process and hardening of concrete. Concrete is used for monolithic structures casting of concrete directly into the formwork at the construction site, but also for the production of prefabricated elements. Like mortars, concrete is usually produced in the central concrete factories and is transported via truck mixers or truck mixers. Only in individual constructions, mixers are used. Concretes are classified according to the nature into simple concretes (without reinforcement), reinforced concrete (steel reinforced), pre-stressed (pre-stressed reinforcement), light (concrete spotty-coarse aggregate fraction, lightweight concrete. Lightweight concrete has porous fillers such as perlite or expanded clay, lightweight aerated concrete - the creation of pores in the mass by using additives) and special concrete (vacuum concrete, architectural, heavy, fireproof and heat resistant). Concrete products for construction are masonry units blocks and ceiling elements - boards, panels, beams and fittings, as well as floor tiles, wall tiles, chimney fittings, stair treads, etc. Picture 41: Reinforced Concrete structure Picture 42: Concrete Paving INSULATING MATERIALS Waterproofing and ground moisture insulation - protect the building against atmospheric moisture, rainwater, surface and ground water and ground moisture. Bitumens and foils based on plastics are used for waterproofing insulations. The group of bitumens are bitumens in a form of suspensions, emulsions, paints, sealants, coatings and asphalt insulating strips. Waterproofing membranes are most commonly made of PVC and polyethylene. The category also includes protection against radon. Thermal insulation materials ensure thermal comfort in buildings, protects buildings against heat loss, prevents the precipitation of water vapour on the surface or inside structures, but also prevents excessive heating of building space. Thermal insulation materials can be divided into fiber - mineral, glass and basalt wool; shaped - products of diatomaceous earth and cork products of cellular plastics; loose - expanded perlite or vermiculite, cork. Sound insulation - is represented by the sound insulating material. It is crucial if we want to soften the sound which spreads in the building structures, or if it is necessary, to solve the audibility and intelligibility in the space. Soft fibrous material and porous materials (the same as for the thermal insulation), as well as metal siding and plastic foils, are used. Insulations against shock also belong into the sound insulation. Source: Wikipedie Stavebnictví, Galerie Microsoft Office, fotografie autorky 33

35 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 34 (celkem 270) Dictionary: acoustic agglomerated wood alloy aluminium artificial basalt beam board brick cast iron cement chemical-metallurgic clay concrete crystalline dolomite durability extraction extrusive gas glaze glue to glue granite gravel gypsum hydrated lime inorganic insulation iron lath limestone magnesium masonry metal mixture non-ferrous obtain to obtain paving peat pig iron pole akustický, zvukový aglomerované dřevo slitina aluminium, hliník umělá basalt tram, nosník deska, tabule cihla litina cement chemicko-metalurgický jíl beton krystalický, křišťálově jasný dolomit trvalost, stálost původ, těžba, dobývání výlevný, vyvřelý, extrusivní plyn glazura, pleva lepidlo, slepit, lepit žula, granit štěrk, štěrkopísek sádra, sádrovec hašené vápno anorganický izolace, zateplení železo lišta, lať vápenec hořčík, magnesium zdivo kov směs neželezný získat, obdržet dláždění, dlažba rašelina surové železo tyč, kůl, kláda 34

36 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 35 (celkem 270) pressure prism quarry quartz reinforced concrete silicate silicon steel stone strength tile tiling timber water resistance tlak, tíha, zátěž hranol lom křemen železobeton, vyztužený beton silikát, křemičitan křemík ocel kámen, pecka síla, pevnost, tuhost dlaždice, obkladačka, kachel dlaždice, kachličky, obklady řezivo odolnost proti vodě Questions 1) Which materials were used in the 20 th century? 2) How can we divide building materials? 3) Which rock based material is added into concrete? 4) Name the igneous rocks mentioned in the text. 5) According to the text, what are the sedimentary rocks? 6) What soft woods are mentioned in the text? 7) Chemically, what structure do metals have? 8) What are the most common binder materials? 9) What does concrete comprise of? Exercises 1) Use the negative and change the sentences. 1) People used steel for centuries. 2) The main modern materials include iron, bricks and clay. 3) Plastics are based on the silicon basis. 4) This used to be the most important material in the 19 th century. 35

37 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 36 (celkem 270) 5) The company built the house only of wood. 6) Limestone belongs to the extrusive rocks. 7) Peat is mined in our neighbourhood. 8) They have already finished the tiling in their bathroom. 9) Metals can be divided into light and heavy. 10) He has already mixed the concrete mixture with water. 2) Put these sentences into the passive voice. a) They build about twenty houses a year. b) The builder used only wood to build this house. c) People process pig iron in blast furnaces. d) We mine rocks in quarries. e) We should use clear water for concrete mixtures. f) The company is building their most significant house at the moment. 3) Put the following words into the gaps in the text. materials artificial silicates materials thermal organic steel inorganic substances We divide building materials into natural 1) (stone, clay), 2) (wood) and 3) made of the inorganic or organic 4) (cement, glass, plastics). Material base is divided into 5) mostly the 6) on the silicon basis (cement, glass, 36

38 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 37 (celkem 270) ceramics, hydrated lime, gypsum) and chemical-metallurgic plastics, 7), light irons, 8) and sound insulations. 4) Circle the correct answer: 1) The 20 th century brought the use of: a) bricks b) stone c) light concrete d) ceramics 2) The main modern building materials do not include: a) wood b) glass c) straw d) mortars 3) The silicate is not: a) clay b) cement c) glass d) hydrated lime 4) organogenous rock is not: a) peat b) dolomite c) granite d) limestone 5) Which ingredient does not belong into a concrete mixture? 37

39 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 38 (celkem 270) a) water b) wood c) cement d) aggregate 6) surové železo is in English: a) cow iron b) pig iron c) horse iron d) raw iron Solutions Questions 1) Which materials were used in the 20 th century? The 20 th century brought light concrete, plastics and insulation materials. 2) How can we divide building materials? Building materials can be divided into inorganic, organic and artificial. 3) Which rock based material is added into concrete? Gravel is put into concrete. 4) Name the igneous rocks mentioned in the text. The text mentions granite and gabbro. 5) According to the text, what are the sedimentary rocks? Sedimentary rocks are gravel, send, clay, limestone, dolomite and peat. 6) What soft woods are mentioned in the text? There is spruce, linden and fir. 7) Chemically, what structure do metals have? Metals have a crystalline structure. 8) What are the most common binder materials? The most common binder materials are mortars and concretes. 9) What does concrete comprise of? Concrete comprises of a mixture of aggregate, cement or gypsum. Exercises 38

40 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 39 (celkem 270) 1) 1) People used steel for centuries. People didn t use steel for centuries. 2) The main modern materials include iron, bricks and clay. The main modern materials do not include iron, bricks and clay. 3) Plastics are based on the silicon basis. Plastics are not based on the silicon basis. 4) This used to be the most important material in the 19 th century. This didn t use to be the most important material in the 19 th century. 5) The company built the house only of wood. The company didn t build the house only of wood. 6) Limestone belongs to the extrusive rocks. Limestone does not belong to the extrusive rocks. 7) Peat is mined in our neighbourhood. Peat is not mined in our neighbourhood. 8) They have already finished the tiling in their bathroom. They have not finished the tiling in their bathroom yet. 9) Metals can be divided into light and heavy. Metals cannot (can t) be divided into light and heavy. 10) He has already mixed the concrete mixture with water. He hasn t mixed the concrete mixture with water yet. 2) 3) a) They build about twenty houses a year. About twenty houses a year are built (by them). b) The builder used only wood to build this house. Only wood was used (by the builder) to build this house. c) People process pig iron in blast furnaces. Pig iron is processed in blast furnaces. d) We mine rocks in quarries. Rocks are mined in quarries. e) We should use clear water for concrete mixtures. Clear water should be used for concrete mixtures. f) The company is building their most significant house at the moment. The company s most significant house is being built at the moment. 39

41 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 40 (celkem 270) We divide building materials into natural 1) inorganic (stone, clay), 2) organic (wood) and 3) artificial made of the inorganic or organic 4) substances (cement, glass, plastics). Material base is divided into 5) silicates mostly the 6) materials on the silicon basis (cement, glass, ceramics, hydrated lime, gypsum) and chemical-metallurgic plastics, 7) steel, light irons, 8) thermal and sound insulations. 4) 1) The 20 th century brought the use of: a) bricks b) stone c) light concrete d) ceramics 2) The main modern building materials do not include: a) wood b) glass c) straw d) mortars 3) The silicate is not: a) clay b) cement c) glass d) hydrated lime 4) Organogenous rock is not: a) peat b) dolomite c) granite 40

42 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 41 (celkem 270) d) limestone 5) Which ingredient does not belong into a concrete mixture? a) water b) wood c) cement d) aggregate 6) surové železo is in English: a) cow iron b) pig iron c) horse iron d) raw iron 4. GROUND STRUCTURES ELEMENTARY PARTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION Key words: Structure, structure part, construction, element, component Annotation of the text: The ground structure is a system which consists of the individual parts subsystems, i.e. components of the structure which correspond with their function and purpose within the object. Structural components are the constructions and elements forming the whole construction. 41

43 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 42 (celkem 270) Ground structures can be divided into supporting and non-supporting parts. Supporting parts have so called static function, which means they transmit their load effects. These parts have to be designed in a way to ensure the sufficient reliability and required level of safety. Non-supporting parts do not have the static function, but they meet the acoustic, thermo-technical, waterproofing, dividing and reinforcing function. These parts can be self-supporting, which is not related to the supporting function of the object as a whole, but they mostly carry the part of their load, e.g. from the operation, from its own weight. a) SUPPORTING PARTS OF THE STRUCTURE: i. foundation ii. vertical supporting constructions iii. lintels iv. ceiling constructions v. stairways vi. supporting roof structures b) NON-SUPPORTING PARTS OF THE STRUCTURE: i. chimneys ii. partitions iii. fillers of the openings iv. hanging structures v. floors vi. roof decks 42

44 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 43 (celkem 270) FOUNDATION A foundation structure transmits loads resulting from the building into the ground. The foundational rift is the name of the place where the foundation lies on the foundational ground. The foundational structures of the building are designed according to the structural system, the load and the quality of the subsoil. The depth of the footing, i.e. the depth of the foundational rift depends on climatic factors (frost resistant in the CR is from 0.8 to 1.2 meters), on geological and hydrogeological effects (viable geological layer, groundwater level) on the statics of the object. The building technology of the foundation is a monolithic, prefabricated or combined. The material of the foundational structures is mostly plain concrete or reinforced concrete. The foundations can be divided into shallow and deep types. Shallow Foundations the load of the construction is transmitted by the space which is usually horizontal and is easily reached for works (approximate depth about 2.5 3m). This group includes foundation stretches, footings, frames, plates. Deep Foundations the load is transferred to the ground through columns or pillars if VGL (viable geological layer) is in the depths difficult to achieve, or under the groundwater level. This group includes pilots and pilot grates, manhole pillars, foundation wells, casing, caissons. VERTICAL SUPPORTING STRUCTURES transmit all loads of the constructions, vertical and horizontal into the ground structure. These structures have the essential influence on the stability and strength of the construction. It creates the supporting constructional system of the building together with the ceiling constructions. Except from the primary static function, i.e. supporting and reinforcing, it fulfils thermal, acoustic, fire-stop, dividing and architectural functions. VSS vertical supporting structures, i.e. walls, pillar walls (wall construction elements), columns, pillars (rod building components). VSS according to the technology and material: - wooden walls and pillars timber constructions (log) and column constructions (cervical, half-timbered, skeletal) - stone masonry - natural stone, line masonry, cyclopean masonry, block masonry, or. mixed masonry - brick masonry - bricks and burnt brick blocks, or so called unfired adobe, sand-lime bricks - profilated masonry profilated concrete and porous concrete bricks, or bricks of the so called lost shuttering - reinforced horizontal constructions monolithic, precast and precast-monolithic - steel VSS - supporting pillars forming the skeleton of the building (or part of a single frame) - layered circuit design - contact and non-contact cladding LINTELS the lintel is a beam (straight, curved, or refracted) forming the upper part of the hole in the supporting wall. The historical objects have the so called rolled vault instead of lintel, i.e. in the shape of the arc or straight. The lintel in the supporting wall fulfils mainly the static function it carries the load from the near parts of the ceiling and masonry onto the supporting vertical structures or strengthens the horizontal supporting structure. The lintels of the peripheral walls have to meet the thermo technical requirements. The structure with the thermal insulation prevents heat loss, the 43

45 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 44 (celkem 270) creation of the thermal bridges and creation of the rifts because of the different thermal expansion of the material in the perimeter wall. The material and technology of lintels: - wooden lintels historical buildings, currently wooden houses - stone lintels straight or vault lintels (currently used at the reconstructions) - brick masonry lintels straight or arched lintels (reconstructions) - lintels of steel beams - lintels of the ceramic beams - lintels of the precast concrete concrete plain, light or porous - ferroconcrete lintels monolithic or prefabricated lintels CEILING CONSTRUCTIONS ceilings are horizontal supporting structures which divide the object along the height of the floor, transfers the load on the vertical supporting structures and together with them determine the overall character of the structural system of the building. In terms of constructional solution, the ceiling supporting constructions may be formed by the arch or the lintel. Ceilings mainly fulfil the static function (load capacity, resistance to deflection, stiffness in the horizontal plane). Next, it meets the acoustic function (the requirement for the sound insulation), function thermotechnical (details without thermal bridges, thermal resistance, coefficient of the space heat),the firestop function (fire resistance and classes of reaction on fire) and architectonical function (soffit of the ceiling). Reinforcing wall wreaths are parts of the ceiling constructions. Dividing of the ceilings according to the technology and material: - vaults traditional bricks vaults made of bricks and stones, modern concrete and ferroconcrete vaults - wooden ceilings grassy, planked, made of wooden beams - ferroconcrete ceilings monolithic (plate, beam and rib), prefabricated (plate and panel), the precast-monolithic, so called composite (made of ceramic beams and bars, plate), glass ferroconcrete - steel and steel-concrete, so called coupled ceilings - from the rolled beams (steel profiles I and ceramic plates, ferroconcrete), from the steel beams (solid or lattice), from the profiled metal sheets (plate ceilings, or the combination with the steel profiles I). THE STAIRCASE The staircase is tiered structural construction enabling communication link between the different height levels. The parts of the stairwell - staircase shoulder, level, landing and intermediate landing, mirror, railings, or elevator.according to its location, there is an inner and outer staircase placed in front of the building, terraneous. We can divide the type of the staircase according to its function the main staircase and secondary staircase ancillary, buffer (one floor) and emergency (fire). The construction of the staircase can be wooden, stone, brick, concrete and reinforced concrete, steel or combined. Mainly because of the architectonical reasons, there are glass staircases. The same purpose as staircases also have ramps which surpass smoothly the difference of the height levels by the sloping surface. 44

46 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 45 (celkem 270) Staircases according to the construction: - staircases with fully supported levels with sheeting, with concrete, with bricks, plate - staircases with double-supported levels screw, pillar, staircase, suspended - staircases with a one-side supported levels hanging, cantilever - staircases with axially supported levels - special staircases sliding, folding, ladder, moving - escalators SUPPORTING ROOF STRUCTURES the roof construction is the closing part of the structure that protects the building from the weather affects, influences the appearance and lifespan of the building. The composition of the roof: - supporting roof construction transmits the load from the roof deck of the roof, snow, wind, water, etc. into the other supporting parts of the roof construction. - roof deck the part of the roof created by the supporting layer of the roof deck (corroboration) and roofing - additional constructions and features ceiling, insulation (thermal, sound, waterproofing) Pitched roofs in accordance with the size of the slope, we can distinguish sloping roofs (5-45 ) and steep roofs (45-90 ). According to the shape of the roof, there are curved- plane roofs (roof gabled, shed, hip, half-hip, tent, attic), curved with a changeable lean. The supporting structure of pitched roofs can be created by roof beams timber beams, trusses (wooden, steel, reinforced concrete), frames and arcs (wooden, steel, ferroconcrete), shells (wooden, ferroconcrete), gables (ferroconcrete). Flat roofs are designed as single shell, double shell (upper mantle, lower mantle cavity) or can have more shells. In terms of the operation, we can distinguish flat roofs as walkable, unwalkable or operational (walkable movable, vegetation). The roof consists of the supporting structure and other layers which must ensure the functionality of the roof. These layers are gravity layer, load distribution, vapour, protective, stability, expansion, drainage, separation, fasteners, expansion, insulation. It is necessary to solve the drainage and ventilation of the roof deck. CHIMNEYS a chimney is a device that is used for deflecting of the waste gases from the fuel appliances into the open space. The construction of the chimney influences the consumption of energy, pollution of the air, fire safety and lifespan of stoves. The chimney must be efficient, reliable and safe. The basic function of the chimney is the draft. The draft depends on the pressure conditions, shape, dimensions and height of the chimney and on the wind speed. It is necessary to consider the character of the fuel appliance to which the chimney will be connected. We should consider, if it is a classical appliance with the high temperature of the fuel gas, or a modern appliance with a high efficiency and the creation of the condensate. We also can have a so called one-layer chimney, but more common are chimneys with more layers (with chimney thermal liner and insulation). PARTITIONS A partition is a non-supporting dividing wall which fractionates the inner space of the building into the individual rooms. Therefore, the basic function of the partitions is to divide the 45

47 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 46 (celkem 270) space and then it must meet the acoustic requirements, i.e. attenuation of the acoustically protected rooms. The sound-insulation features of the partitions depend on the weight of the partition, its structural arrangement, material and its relation to the other constructions (perimeter insulation of the partition). The partitions can be solid, displaceable, box (furniture walls), moveable (folding, sliding), or special bulkheads and wing bars. Partition structures: - simple partitions (the wall consisting of one or more layers, where or layers are linked together) - double partitions (two walls which have the air gap between them, or are filled with the sound insulation) - combined partitions (simple wall with the acoustic omentum, or with the air hollow) - Static of the partitions: - Supported partitions (of the ceiling structures), - hanging rails (on the ceiling constructions), - hanging rails (arching into supporting walls), - self supporting partition (has its own foundation) The material and technology of the partition building process: - Masonry partitions ceramic firebricks, concrete blocks, glass partitions (so called Luxfer) - Monolithic partitions (solid) systems of the formwork made of blocks or desks - Prefabricated partitions drywall (metal or wooden grate), concrete or ceramic panels, glass fittings (Copolit), multi-layer boards (sandwiches made of the wood-based material) THE FILLING OF THE GAPS filling of the gaps in the supporting walls are created by windows, doors and gates. The construction of the window filling is created by the frame, wing and a glass panel. The construction of the door filling consists of a wing and a doorframe, or a frame. The material used for doors and windows wood, plastic, metal (aluminium, steel), or the combination. In case of the structural glass, the insulating double-glass or triple-glass is used. The gates can be divided in accordance with the way of its opening rotating, tilting, sliding, rolling and sectional. They may be smooth or assembled from individual cartridges of plates. HANGING CONSTRUCTIONS intervene into the outer, or inner space in front of the main supporting construction. The hanging constructions have the specific static-structural and construction-engineering solutions, because they are exposed to the environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, snow, wind, rain).the hanging constructions meet the aesthetical function, it is a strong architectonic feature. These constructions also have to meet the static requirements the transmission of the load from the operation, from their own weight and climatic, thermal insulation requirements avoid thermal bridges at the contact with the peripheral structures, the fire requirements. In terms of the structural solution, the hanging constructions can be designed as consoles, supported or underslung. Hanging constructions in accordance with their character: - Balconies- structures hanging in front of the building envelope reinforced concrete, steel, wood, stone - Loggias constructions open only from one side with a ceiling or roofing 46

48 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 47 (celkem 270) - Back porches a continuous balcony serving as an access to the flats from the road - Cornices structures protecting the facade of the building from the weather brick, stone, wood, reinforced concrete - Oriels clad and roofed balcony increasing the living space of the object - Marquises structures protecting the entries into the building against the weather influences reinforced concrete, steel FLOORS the floor is a completion structure creating an upper layer of the horizontal and vertical surface, it can have one or more layers. All layers of the floor influence its features, especially the wear layer. The content, thickness and material depend on the purpose of the room, or the space and on the intensity of the operation in the room. The subfloor consists of the soffit, the lowest level then the base concrete screed on the solid ground. The floor must meet the requirements on the mechanical resistance, safety, water resistance and moisture, thermal insulating and acoustic requirements, requirements for fire safety, ease of maintenance, hygiene, durability and aesthetic function as well. We can divide the floor types according to their structure- floating floors (top layer is separated from the substrate and the walls by HE washer), solid floors (without HE washers) and floor with an air gap. The composition of the floor: - upper layer (cover) including a bonding layer, leavers, transition rails and ledges - bearing layer (base, ie. levelling or catchment) concrete screed, prefabricated plates, mound - insulating layer (sealing, or separation) hydro, thermal and acoustic insulation The floor covering: - wood floors board, plank and parquet laminated, plate - tiles ceramic, stone, concrete, terrazzo (so called artificial stone) - screeds concrete, terrazzo (so called cast terrazzo), xylolite, self-leveling screeds - floor coatings carpets, vinyl, linoleum, cork, rubber ROOF DECK the roof deck is a part of the roof created by the supporting layer of the roof deck, roof covering (roofing works) and other features (thatching works, insulation). Roofing works roofing can be folded (steel, concrete tiles or ceramic clay, asphalt roofing shingles, slate, fiber cement, plastics) or coating (asphalt strips, HI foil). The folded covering is formed from flat panels, flat or shaped, joined together. The folded covering is formed from flat panels, flat or shaped, joined together. It is not waterproof, but it must conduct the water away safely, which is secured by the necessary slope of the roof in accordance with the particular roofing. The coating covering is formed from the combined sheet materials, or as seamless. It must be watertight. Plumbing works include the assembly of sheet metal products for the roof and facade of the buildings to ensure the drainage and to prevent water penetration into the structure. Specifically, it is the assembly of roof gutters and drains, flashings and piping construction and laying of metal roofing. Sheet steel (galvanized, org. coated), aluminium, copper or metal alloys are used for plumbing. Source: Wikipedie: Civil Engineerng 47

49 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 48 (celkem 270) English-Czech Dictionary ability about access accordance (in accordance with) according achieve acoustic acoustically additional adobe aesthetic affect against appearance appliance approximate arc arch arched attentional avoid back balcony bar base based (on) basic beam between buffer building bulkhead burnt carry casing ceiling ceiling construction chimney circuit schopnost, způsobilost o přístup v souladu s podle dosáhnout akustický, zvukový akusticky (zvukově, hudebně) dodatečný, doplňkový, další vepřovice estetický ovlivnit, postihnout, působit proti vzhled zařízení, přístroj, aparát přibližně, přibližný, rámcový oblouk oblouk, klenba, most klenutý, ve tvaru oblouku pozornostní vyhnout se, vyvarovat se, uniknout zpět, zpáteční, zadní balkón tyč, mříž, tabulka základ, dno, spodek založený (na) základní trám, nosník mezi (dvěma) zarážka, nárazník stavba, budova, vytvoření, budování přepážka spálený, vypálený nést, nosit obal, pouzdro strop stropní konstrukce komín obvod, okruh 48

50 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 49 (celkem 270) cladding climatic column component concrete construction correspond currently curved deck deep depth design determine displaceable divide door double draught drywall effect escalator expansion ferroconcrete floor folding footing foundation frame function gap gate geological ground groundwater hanging hanging structure heat loss height historical humidity obklady, obložení plátování, pancéřování klimatický sloup prvek, komponent beton stavba, výstavba, konstrukce odpovídat, shodovat se, korespondovat nyní, v současné době zkroucený plošina, paluba hluboký hloubka návrh určit přesunutelný, přemístitelný rozdělit (se), dělit (se) dveře dvojitý tah (vzduchu), průvan suchá zeď, zeď bez spojovacího materiálu účinek, následek, dopad eskalátor, pohyblivé schody Roztažení, rozšíření, expanze železobeton podlaha skládací, sklápěcí základ, patka, ukotvení základ (budovy), založení, vznik rám, rámec funkce mezera, díra, otvor brána, branka, vrátka geologický zem, podlaha, podklad podzemní voda visící, závěsný, závěs, tapeta svislé (visící) konstrukce tepelná ztráta výška, výše historický vlhkost 49

51 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 50 (celkem 270) hydro-geological include inner insulation ladder layer lifespan lintel loggia manhole material non-supporting object partition perimeter peripheral pillar plain concrete plate plumbing pollution purpose reinforced concrete reinforcement related reliability requirement resistance result rolled vault safety shallow foundation sliding smooth solid stairway static function statics steel Stiffness hydrogeologický zahrnovat, obsahovat, započítat vnitřní izolace, izolování žebřík vrstva životnost, délka života dřevěný (okenní) překlad lodžie otvor, průřez materiál nenosný objekt příčka, přepážka obvod, hranice vnější, obvodový, okrajový sloup, sloupek, pilíř obyčejný, prostý beton plát, tabule, lišta, list potrubí, vedení, instalatérství znečištění, znečišťující látka účel zpevněný beton zpevnění, výztuž, posílení související, příbuzný, spřízněný spolehlivost, hodnověrnost požadavek odolnost, odpor, neochota výsledek zaoblená klenba bezpečnost mělký základ klouzající hladký pevný schodiště statická funkce statika ocel ztuhlost, strnulost 50

52 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 51 (celkem 270) stone stove subsoil subsystem sufficient supporting surface temperature thermal bridge thermo-technical timber to apply to combine to consist (of) to deflect to ensure to expose to float to form to fractionate to fulfil to hang to intervene to lie to load to prevent to reinforce to require to screw to transmit vapour vault vertical supporting construction viable viable geological layer wall wall wreath waterproofing weight window filling kámen kamna, kotel půdní podloží podsystém dostačující, postačující opěrný, nosný, podporující povrch, hladina teplota tepelný most termo-technický řezivo, trámy, fošny žádat, ucházet se spojit, smísit, kombinovat skládat se (z, ze) odklonit, odvést stranou zajistit odhalit, být vystaven vznášet se, plout formovat, forma rozdělit, frakcionovat splnit, vykonat, naplnit věsit, zavěsit zasáhnout, intervenovat, vložit se do něčeho ležet, polehávat, spočívat naložit, nakládat, náklad, várka, zátěž zabránit, zamezit, vyhnout se zpevnit, vyztužit, posílit vyžadovat šroub, šroubek, zašroubovat přenášet, předávat pára, opar klenba, klenutí, krypta svislá nosná konstrukce uskutečnitelný, schůdný, životaschopný životaschopná geologická vrstva zeď věnec (část zdění) impregnování, vodotěsnost váha výplně oken 51

53 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 52 (celkem 270) wing wooden křídlo dřevěný Text adapted for language purposes - Ground Structures Elementary Parts of the Construction Annotation: The topic of this lesson is a ground structure and its elementary parts. The lesson is mainly focused on the supporting and non-supporting parts of ground structures. The exercises are focused on the vocabulary concerning the topic. The students will practise the use of the passive voice and the use of the negative. Key words: ground structures, supporting parts, non-supporting parts Elementary Parts of Ground Structures Ground structures can be divided into supporting and non-supporting parts. Supporting parts have the so called static function, which means they transmit their load effects. These parts have to be designed in a way to ensure the sufficient reliability and required level of safety. Non-supporting parts do not have the static function, but they must meet the acoustic, thermo-technical, waterproofing, dividing and reinforcing function. These parts can be self-supporting, which is not related to the supporting function of the object as a whole, but they mostly carry the part of their load. Supporting parts consist of foundation, vertical supporting constructions, lintels, ceiling constructions, stairway and supporting roof structures. Non supporting parts of the structure are chimneys, partitions, fillers of the openings, hanging structures, floors and roof decks. Supporting Parts A foundation structure transmits loads resulting from the building into the ground. Foundational rift is the name of the place where the foundation lies on the foundational ground. The foundational structures of the building are designed according to the structural system, the load and the quality of the subsoil. The depth of the footing, i.e. the depth of the foundational rift depends on climatic factors (frost resistant in the CR is from 0.8 to 1.2 meters), on geological and hydrogeological effects (viable geological layer, groundwater level) on the statics of the object. The building technology of the foundation is monolithic, prefabricated or combined. The material of the foundational structures is mostly plain concrete or reinforced concrete. The foundations can be divided into shallow and deep types. 52

54 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 53 (celkem 270) Ceiling Constructions are horizontal supporting structures which divide the object along the height of the floor, transfers the load on the vertical supporting structures and together with them determine the overall character of the structural system of the building. In terms of constructional solution, the ceiling supporting constructions may be formed by the arch or the lintel. Ceilings fulfil mainly the static function (load capacity, resistance to deflection, stiffness in the horizontal plane). The staircase is tiered structural construction enabling communication link between the different height levels. The parts of the stairwell are staircase shoulder, level, landing and intermediate landing, mirror, railings, or elevator. According to its location, there is an inner and outer staircase placed in front of the building. We can divide the type of the staircase according to its function the main staircase and secondary staircase ancillary, buffer (one floor) and emergency (fire). The construction of the staircase can be wooden, stone, brick, concrete and reinforced concrete, steel or combined. Mainly because of the architectonical reasons, there are glass staircases. The same purpose as staircases also have ramps which surpass smoothly the difference of the height levels by the sloping surface. The roof construction is the closing part of the structure that protects the building from the weather affects, influences the appearance and lifespan of the building. Non-supporting Parts A chimney is a device that is used for deflecting of the waste gases from the fuel appliances into the open space. The construction of the chimney influences the consumption of energy, pollution of the air, fire safety and lifespan of stoves. The chimney must be efficient, reliable and safe. The basic function of the chimney is the draft. The draft depends on the pressure conditions, shape, dimensions and height of the chimney and on the wind speed. It is necessary to consider the character of the fuel appliance to which the chimney will be connected. We should consider, if it is a classical appliance with the high temperature of the fuel gas, or a modern appliance with a high efficiency and the creation of the condensate. We also can have a so called one-layer chimney, but more common are chimneys with more layers (with chimney thermal liner and insulation). The partition is a non-supporting dividing wall which fractionates the inner space of the building into the individual rooms. Therefore, the basic function of the partitions is to divide the space and then it must meet the acoustic requirements, i.e. attenuation of the acoustically protected rooms. The sound-insulation features of the partitions depend on the weight of the partition, its structural arrangement, material and its relation to the other constructions (perimeter insulation of the partition). The partitions can be solid, displaceable, box (furniture walls), moveable (folding, sliding), or special bulkheads and wing bars. The floor is a completion structure creating an upper layer of the horizontal and vertical surface, it can have one or more layers. All layers of the floor influence its features, especially the wear layer. The content, thickness and material depend on the purpose of the room, or the space and on the intensity of the operation in the room. Dictionary: 53

55 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 54 (celkem 270) ceiling chimney concrete device to deflect foundation to fractionate to hang load to load lintel non-supporting operation railing to reinforce reinforced concrete self-supporting staircase stairway stairwell subsoil supporting surface tier to transmit vertical supporting construction strop komín beton zařízení odklonit, odvést stranou, odchýlit základy (stavby), opodstatnění (argumentu) rozdělit viset zátěž, náklad naložit dveřní/okenní překlad nenosný provoz, chod, činnost zábradlí, hrazení zpevnit, vyztužit železobeton samonosný schodiště schodiště schodišťová šachta půdní podloží opěrný povrch úroveň, stupeň přenášet Svislá nosná konstrukce Questions 1) What is the function of supporting parts of the ground structure? 2) What must the non-supporting parts meet? 3) What do the supporting parts consist of? 4) What does the depth of the foundation rift depend on? 5) What is the enclosing part of the building? 6) What does the draft of the chimney depend on? 7) What is the basic function of partitions? 8) What depends on the weight of the partition, its structure, material and its relation to the other constructions? 9) The architect designed twenty houses last year. Exercises 5) Rewrite these sentences into the passive voice. 54

56 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 55 (celkem 270) a) The engineer designed the house according to the customer s wish. b) This feature relates to the function of the house. c) It doesn t need to be fixed now. d) A foundation structure transmits the load into the ground. e) The roof construction protects the house from weather influences. f) They didn t make the floor of wood. g) The architect designed twenty new houses last year. 6) Match the words with their Czech equivalents: ceiling to deflect load railing non-supporting device chimney lintel reinforced concrete foundation layer requirement železobeton nenosný zařízení komín překlad (okenní, dveřní) zábradlí, hrazení zátěž požadavek vrstva odklonit základy strop 7) There is one word in each line which does not match the rest. Odd one out. foundation, vertical supporting construction, chimney, ceiling construction, lintel fillers of openings, hanging structures, floors, roof decks, foundation, chimney temperature, length, depth, width, height wood, stone, concrete, steel, beam, reinforced concrete load capacity, sound insulation, resistance to deflections, stiffness in the horizontal plane 8) Divide these terms into the right column according to its function 55

57 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 56 (celkem 270) Partition vertical supporting construction hanging structure foundation lintel chimney ceiling construction roof decks filler of the opening stairway supporting roof structure Supporting parts of the ground structure Non-supporting parts of the ground structure 9) Put these sentences into the negative. Look at the example: This chimney is very high. = This chimney is not very high. a) The foundation structure of the object was very deep. b) The material used for the construction was mainly concrete. c) This staircase in this house is made of wood. d) The structure has been implemented twice. e) The speed depends on the conditions of the process. Solutions 56

58 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 57 (celkem 270) Questions 1) Supporting parts of the ground structure have the so called static function. 2) Non-supporting parts must meet the acoustic, thermo-technical, waterproofing and reinforcing function. 3) The supporting parts consist of foundation, vertical supporting constructions, lintels, ceiling constructions, staircases and supporting roof structures. 4) The depth of the foundation rift depends on climatic factors, geological and hydro-geological effects and statics of the object. 5) The enclosing part of the building is the roof construction. 6) The draft of the chimney depends on the pressure conditions, shape, dimensions and height of the chimney and the wind speed. 7) The basic function of partitions is to divide the space. 8) The sound-insulation feature of the partition. Exercises 1) a) The house was designed (by the engineer) according to the customer s wish. b) This feature is related to the function of the house. c) It is not needed to be fixed now. d) The load is transmitted into the ground by the foundation structure. e) The house is protected by the roof construction from weather influences. f) The floor wasn t made of wood. g) Twenty new houses were designed by the architect last year. 2) ceiling strop to deflect odvést load žátěž railing zábradlí, hrazení non-supporting nenosný device zařízení chimney komín lintel překlad (okenní, dveřní) reinforced concrete železobeton foundation základy layer vrstva requirement požadavek 57

59 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 58 (celkem 270) 3) foundation, vertical supporting construction, chimney, ceiling construction, lintel = (chimney is not a supporting part of ground structures) fillers of openings, hanging structures, floors, roof decks, foundation, chimney = (foundation is not a non-supporting part of ground structures) temperature, length, depth, width, height = (temperature is not measured in cm, m) wood, stone, concrete, steel, beam, reinforced concrete = (beam is not a material, it is in Czech tram ) load capacity, sound insulation, resistance to deflections, stiffness in the horizontal plane 4) Supporting parts of the ground structure Foundation Vertical supporting construction Lintel Ceiling construction Stairway Supporting roof structure Non-supporting parts of the ground structure Chimney Partition Filler of the opening Hanging structure Roof decks 5) a) The foundation structure of the object was not very deep. b) The material used for the construction was not mainly concrete. c) This staircase in this house is not made of wood. d) The structure has not been implemented twice. e) The speed does not depend on the conditions of the process. 58

60 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 59 (celkem 270) 5. BUILDING SITE Key words: Geological drilling, landfill, shelter, intermediate stock pile of soil, site roads, panel roadway, crane,electric winch, conveyor, mixing centre, blacksmith, carpenter, workplace where reinforcement is formed. Annotation: In this lesson students will be acquainted with the key vocabulary within the building site context. A construction site is the place where construction or maintenance works are carried out. It is not just an area where new buildings are constructed, but it also includes the area required for storage and operation of buildings. A construction site for small buildings (such as a garage or a house) looks different than a site of the facility, such as a shopping centre. 59

61 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 60 (celkem 270) Picture 43 Building site There are two opposing requirements for the design of the site facilities: 1 For storage of materials needed, the location of production facilities and of major equipment and machinery; sanitary facilities need to take up much space for a secure site communication 2 On the other hand, every construction company, for economic reasons, tries to occupy as little space as possible Therefore, the Building Act requires a project for every construction site. The project consists of a technical report and drawings. It determines the extent of the site and a description of all parts of the site. Before construction starts, it is necessary to perform a thorough site-survey. This includes geological drilling, to find what kinds of soil are on the construction site and at what depth the ground water is situated. It will also identify what the radon level of the plot is. Material storage area is important, too. storage can be divided by type of material: Open dumps - most are just landscaped area for loose or lump material, or paved areas Sheds - either just covered or open storage area (roof with one to three walls) intended for material that must remain dry. Closed stores With a dry floor. Can be heated or unheated depending on the type of the material stored. Secure material is stored here. Special stores - for explosives and flammables. When working on buildings that are being renovated some space can also be used for storage. On this storage ground includes so-called intermediate stockpile soil. It is a place where is temporarily stored fertile soil (humus) removed from the site. The soil - after completion of the construction - is reused for the final landscaping around the building. For large buildings in built-up 60

62 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 61 (celkem 270) areas where there is insufficient space for storage, the intermediate stockpile soil is usually placed outside the construction site. Soil storage sites are designed only for the most minimum supply; transport distance of the soil storage from the place with stored material should be minimized. In the case of components which will be fitted with lifting equipment (cranes), storage must be within reach of the lifting equipment. At the same time, must be within reach of an access road, but must not obstruct the building site traffic. Another important factor when designing site facilities is the road network. Their routes and the quality are determined by the technology of construction. These include normal roads, tarmac, gravel or untreated surfaces. It is always necessary to consider how difficult vehicles will drive on these routes. The subsoil of such a route, its width and radius must be adjusted according to the heaviest vehicle. Each site has a clearly marked entrance; larger buildings have a separate entrance and exit. The site connection on public roads must be provided with road signs so that the construction is as unobtrusive as possible to its environment and does not pollute the local road network. Mud on the road due to vehicles that depart from the building during rainy weather should be cleared. Picture 44: Panel site roads Transportation on a building site is not only horizontal but also the vertical is important. The appropriate mechanism is chosen depending on the size and weight of the transported material: Cranes transport bulky and heavy items. Often they are on tracks or wheels in order to access the whole building site. Normally, storage is required to be in reach of the cranes or the materials would have to be collected directly from the trucks. 61

63 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 62 (celkem 270) Picture 45: Tower crane Mobile cranes are cranes with a hydraulic boom on a chassis. They are more manoeuvrable unlike static cranes. Picture 46: Mobile crane Lifts - platform or mast. For safety reasons, the lifts are either personal (staff only) or materials. Electric winch - is very mobile lifting device designed for smaller items. Conveyor belts - overcome lesser heights, transport smaller elements (bricks, tiles, waste, etc.) Chutes and covered troughs - used to transport waste material from higher levels. Concrete pumps - can deliver concrete liquid mixture into inaccessible places, some have a boom length up to 58 m The size of the site has a great influence on a mixing centre location and site plants. The size and level of the mixing centre depends on the size and extent of the construction. The concrete is often brought in, if the site is within easy reach of central mixing plants. Repair workshops, forge, carpenter, workshop where the concrete reinforcement frames are made, electrical workshops and so on are included into the production. Production plants used to be a part of the site in the past, today 62

64 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 63 (celkem 270) the production plants in operating areas of a construction company are used or some elements are purchased. Picture 47: Míxing centre Each site must have sanitary facilities for construction workers, office buildings and a gatehouse. For this purpose, portable storage containers that can be moved from building site to building site are usually used. Equipment in these units varies for different applications. A unit that serves as an office and lockers must be connected to the power supply. A unit with showers and toilets is connected to electricity, water and sanitation. From this follows the necessity for necessary utility services in advance of the start of construction. If the site covers large surface, mobile toilets are placed near workplaces. A canteen and a dining room are required for buildings with a large number of workers. Picture 48: A portable storage container Connection to utilities needs to be resolved before a construction begins. Construction site storage containers, some warehouses, vertical transport, mixing centre, factories, lighting and most of the machines and devices cannot be without electricity supply. The water connection is also necessary for the construction. Units with showers and toilets and also a cafeteria and dining room must be 63

65 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 64 (celkem 270) connected at the sewage system. The entire area of the site must either be drained into a retention tank or into the main sewerage system. Each site must be fenced and the entrance and exit must have lockable doors. Picture 49: Příklad mobilního oplocení staveniště Photographs source: Wikipedia, an author s archive Dictionary landfill electric winch conveyor blacksmith carpenter reinforcement surroundings to carry out to require facility major building act technical report drawing extent site-survey open dumps shed fertile soil bulky mobile cranes skládka elektrický vrátek dopravní pás kovář instalatér zpevnění okolí provést požadovat zařízení hlavní stavební zákon technická zpráva výkres rozsah staveništní průzkum otevřené skládky přístřešek úrodná zemina objemný autojeřáby 64

66 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 65 (celkem 270) chute covered troughs Resolve skluz krytý žlab Vyřešit Questions 1.What is a construction site? 2. What does the Building Act require for every construction site? 3. Give the storage types. 4. What do the cranes transport? 5. What is an electric winch? Exercises 1) Work in pairs. Write the beginnings for the sentence endings below. E.g. you ll regret it. If you don t listen to my advice, you ll regret it..you ll hurt yourself..you ll catch a cold..we ll be late..i ll let you know..it ll taste better..there ll be trouble. 2) In pairs, give each other advice for these problems (see below), beginning If I were you, I d. I want to give up smoking. I can t get to sleep at night. I keep dropping things. My flatmate s untidy. I m fed up doing temporary job. 65

67 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 66 (celkem 270) My dogs keep biting people. Our house is cold and damp. English spelling is so hard. My hair won t stay flat. 3) Explain the English saying (please see below) using if. Easy come, easy go. No pain, no gain. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. 4) Choose the correct version. Q1 - If I see her this afternoon, I her to call you. tell will tell either could be used no option Q2 - If he could, do you think he help you? will would either could be used no option Q3 - If he has taken it, what we do? can could 66

68 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 67 (celkem 270) either could be used no option Q4 - If she had been there, what? would you do would you have done either could be used no option Q5 - If it's OK by you, I early today. leave will leave am leaving no option Q6 - If he, what shall I do? comes come either could be used no option Q7 - If you pay by direct debit, you a discount. get will get Either could be used here. no option Q8 - If I you, I'd tell him what happened. was were Either could be used here. no option 67

69 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 68 (celkem 270) Q9 - If he, what should I do? phones phoned Either could be used here. no option Q10 - If you, what would you have done? were was had been no option Q11 - If he can, do you think he help us? will would either could be used no option Q12 - If she doesn't come, you be annoyed? will would either could be used no option Q13 - What if I pressed this button? will happen would happen either could be used no option Q14 - If they did win, how? would you feel 68

70 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 69 (celkem 270) would you have felt either could be used no option 5) Mind map Fill in your idea you have in our mind when talking about Building Site. Three examples have been done for you to help you start off. Then choose one and talk about it with your partner for about two minutes. Building site Drawings Landfills Site-survey Solutions Questions 1. A construction site is the place where construction or maintenance works are carried out. 2. A project. 3. Open dumps, sheds, closed stores, special stores. 4. Bulky and heavy items. 5. Electric winch is very mobile lifting device designed for smaller items. Exercise 69

71 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 70 (celkem 270) 1) 2) If you don t follow the Highway Code, you ll hurt yourself. If you don t wear the gloves and a woolly hat, you ll catch a cold. If we don t hurry, we ll be late. If he gives me the required information, I ll let you know. If you add a piece of ginger, it ll taste better. If you don t submit the task, there ll be trouble. I want to give up smoking. If I were you, I would try the e-cigarette. I can t get to sleep at night. If I were you, I would go jogging in the evening, it would help you relax. I keep dropping things. If I were you, I would have a rest. You might be overworked. My flatmate s untidy.if I were you, I would move out or I would ask the flatmate to move out. I m fed up doing temporary job. If I were you, I would be looking for a permanent job. My dogs keep biting people. If I were you, I would seek the help from a vet. Our house is cold and damp. If I were you, I would sell the house. English spelling is so hard. If I were you, I would stop making excuses. My hair won t stay flat. If I were you, I would be happy. My hair is flat. :-D 3) Easy come, easy go. If you get something without any effort, you can lose it easily. No pain, no gain. If you don t work, there is no reward. Too many cooks spoil the broth. If too many people participate in one activity, it can damage the result. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. If you don t see your significant other, you might miss him / her and you might appreciate being together. 70

72 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 71 (celkem 270) 4) Q1 - If I see her this afternoon, I her to call you. tell will tell either could be used no option Q2 - If he could, do you think he help you? will would either could be used no option Q3 - If he has taken it, what we do? can could either could be used no option Q4 - If she had been there, what? would you do would you have done either could be used no option Q5 - If it's OK by you, I early today. leave will leave am leaving no option Q6 - If he, what shall I do? comes come either could be used no option Q7 - If you pay by direct debit, you a discount. 71

73 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 72 (celkem 270) get will get Either could be used here. no option Q8 - If I you, I'd tell him what happened. was were Either could be used here. no option Q9 - If he, what should I do? phones phoned Either could be used here. no option Q10 - If you, what would you have done? were was had been no option Q11 - If he can, do you think he help us? will would either could be used no option Q12 - If she doesn't come, you be annoyed? will would either could be used no option Q13 - What if I pressed this button? will happen 72

74 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 73 (celkem 270) would happen either could be used no option Q14 - If they did win, how? would you feel would you have felt either could be used no option Mind map: Possible answers: Soil Storage Road network Technical report Vehicles Cranes Sanitary facilities Office buildings 73

75 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 74 (celkem 270) Bibliography HARMER, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Cambridge : Longman, ISBN MURPHY, R. English Grammar in Use. CUP, Third edition. p ISBN KAY, S., JONES, V. Inside out Intermediate. Macmillan, ISBN SAYMOUR, J., POPOVA, M. 700 Classroom activities. Macmillan, ISBN SCRIVENER, J. Learning Teaching. Macmillan, p. ISBN SCRIVENER, J. Teaching English Grammar. Macmillan, Third edition.234, 236, 237, 239. ISBN UE. Printable Handout: If. [online] [citováno ].Available on WWW: 74

76 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 75 (celkem 270) 6. CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY Key words: Construction, construction machinery, construction work, machinery, manufacturing, transportation, manipulation Annotation: Construction machinery is spread across all sectors of construction activities within the construction and also in all fields of civil engineering. The selection of the construction machinery depends on specific construction activity. 75

77 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 76 (celkem 270) Construction machinery, or rather mechanical equipment for construction work, affect construction activities especially in terms of productivity and labour economics. But it also influences it in terms of the quality of the construction work execution. The right selection and use of machinery is a prerequisite for a good result in the realization of a particular construction. Construction can be divided according to the nature of construction activities into several groups. A special category is formed by mechanical devices used to modify the building materials, such as equipment for crushing stones, and for manufacturing semi- finished products for construction, such as equipment for production of steel reinforcement into concrete, and for the production of lime and cement. Groups of construction machines - machinery for ground works, foundation engineering machinery, machinery for production, transport and processing of mortar and concrete machinery, machines for handling and transportation of construction materials, machinery for lifting loads. In the following text there will be described basic building machines used in construction practice, especially in building construction. Machinery for ground works Excavators Shovel excavators are the most widely used machines in the construction activity. They can break and load rocks, dig trenches, etc. They are divided into single-purpose ones, for always the same type of work, and a multi-purpose (universal) ones, to which various types of work equipment can be mounted. The working tool of those machines are shovels and grapples in different versions according to the type of work and soil. Shovel excavators are constructed in different designs of the chassis - wheel, automobile or crawler chassis. Wheel excavators of the tractor type have a special construction excavator loader with a shovel on the front and rear part. The so-called miniexcavators weigh 1-5 tons 76

78 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 77 (celkem 270) Bucket wheel excavators are designed for surface mining. So called buckets move on an endless chain and alternatively they are fixed to the paddle wheel. The buckets grind the soil and release it into the gutter. Trencher excavators - trenchers are used for digging narrow trenches for laying cables, drainage etc. According to their structure they are divided into bucket trenchers with buckets on the chain, paddlewheel trenchers with buckets on the paddlewheel, chain trenchers with blades on the endless chain and milling trenchers with so called teeth of hard metals. Tractors To the tractor machines with conveyor belt, alternatively, with wheel chassis, can be added different types of work equipment. Dozers have a blade work equipment and they are used for surface mining of the earth. According to the activity of the blade we distinguish bulldozers the blade moves vertically, angle dozers the blade moves with transverse rotation, tilt dozers it is possible to rotate the blade on the edge. Rippers break materials, which are difficult to break, such as frozen earth, concrete roads, etc. with cutting edges (blades). Picture 50 Dozers Picture 51 Dozers Graders A grader is a wheeled machine with space movable blade. It is used for raking topsoil, spreading the earth, covering trenches, profiling of ditches and for slope works. It works with an accuracy of 3-5 mm. Scrapers A scraper is formed by a tractor set composed of a truck and a skip. It is used for surface breaking of soil in layers, pushing soil into the skip, moving and spreading the soil with partial compaction. 77

79 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 78 (celkem 270) Compaction machines Soil compaction is performed by exerting static or dynamic load on the soil with the objective to prevent its further settlement and thereby to ensure the durability of the construction work. There are used static cylinders, where the compaction effect is produced by the weight of the cylinder, and vibrating cylinders that use shocks exerting on the soil. Other machinery for soil compaction is vibratory plates and vibratory rammers. In both cases they are smaller machines used to work in areas which are hard to reach or for a small-scale work. Picture 52: Cylinder Picture 54: Plates Picture 53: Rammer Machines for building foundations When making foundations of engineering constructions, or every time more frequently of residential and commercial buildings, there are used special methods that require specific machinery. Digging holes for drilled piles is done using crash kits - earth is mined with a grapple moving in a steel casing and suspended on the excavator s rope, or using rotary rigs the earth is mined by a spiral auger drill and it is spirally carried out of the drill well. The underground walls that capture the natural pressures and loads from the building form the new construction elements in deep foundation. Underground walls are excavated with the use of grapple or milling kits. For the pile driving of piles and sheet pilings into the ground there are used the shock rams, which are attached to the blades and insert piles into the ground using their own weight at the shock, or vibratory rams, which insert or alternatively pull out the piles into or out of the ground using vibration. 78

80 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 79 (celkem 270) Picture 55: Drill Machinery for the production and transport of mortars and concretes Production of concrete and mortar The production takes place either directly on site in individual concrete mixers, alternatively in construction site concrete plants (mortar plants), or in central out of site factories and the concrete (mortar) is transported to the construction site. There are gravity concrete mixers - ingredients of concrete or mortar are mixed in a rotating drum with the use of blades and gravity. Forced pan concrete mixers - a mixture of ingredients of concrete or mortar is mixed using blades in the drum which are adjusted in various positions. They can be in the plate version (vertical axis drum) or the gutter version (horizontal axis drum). Picture 56: Concrete mixer Concrete and mortar transport The primary transport, i.e. transportation from the concrete mixing plant to the construction site (in the stack sampling), is referred to as TRANSPORTCONCRETE. For short distances there are used trucks with steel bath tub or bath tub containers. Automixers or truck mixers are suitable for greater distances because of avoiding segregation of the concrete mixture or the beginning of the solidification process. Automixers are filled with ready-made concrete, truck mixers are filled from the metering station with dry mixture of aggregate and cement and it is stirred up later on the spot. 79

81 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 80 (celkem 270) Picture 57: Automíchač Secondary transportation is a transportation of concrete at the construction site from the concrete mixers, sampling container or construction site concrete plant. Wheels, gutters and chutes, belt conveyors, cylinder baskets, motor trucks, or transport via pipelines with pumps are used for the manipulation with concrete. Machines for manipulation and transportation of construction materials Trucks Road vehicles are classified according to the arrangement and purpose into flatbed with hard fixed body and dump trucks with folding tipper body. Off road vehicles - dump trucks are robust machines with rigid or articulated chassis. Tow vehicles are connected behind basic trucks on truck chassis, both as trailers or semi-trailers. Picture 58: Trailer truck Shovel loaders Loaders are used for manipulation with powdery and lump materials and for excavation of light soils. Front loaders perform all operations front only and they are placed on a wheeled or crawler chassis. The so-called mini-loaders have an operating weight of 1-6 tons. Swivel boom loader have a boom with a shovel which can rotate up to 90 on both sides. Transport trucks, conveyors and material handling equipment 80

82 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 81 (celkem 270) Transport carts are designed for transporting powdery and lump materials on paved roads within short distances. According to their construction they are divided into the platform carts, body detail carts, pallet trucks and forklift trucks (lift over 1.5 meters). Conveyors are tracked equipment for horizontal or inclined transportation of building materials. Handling devices provide loading and unloading of materials from vehicles or their handling at the construction site, or else in plants. This group includes hydraulic arms mounted on trucks or other vehicles or telescopic handlers. Machinery for lifting loads Cranes Cranes provide handling and moving loads vertically and horizontally within the defined area. Tower cranes can be designed on wheeled, automobile or crawler chassis. There are manufactured various types of cranes according to the nature of work, capacity and space for manipulation. Mobile cranes allow removing loads within short distances. They are available on automotive chassis, wheeled chassis for road or off-road operation and on crawler chassis Picture 59: Crane Picture 60: Crane Construction elevators, platforms and walkways Construction elevator with a cab attached to the building structure is used for the transportation of passengers and cargo. Building platforms are guided by poles and anchored to the construction of buildings or free standing (up to 30 m). Building walkways are suspended by ropes on the beams anchored to the building construction and they are designed in particular for the work on facades. Mobile lifting platforms are telescopic, arm or scissor constructions that can replace a stable scaffolding. 81

83 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 82 (celkem 270) Picture 61: Forklift truck Picture 62: Lifting platform Picture 63: Telescopic construction Dictionary bath tub container (n) blade (n) bucket trencher (n) bucket wheel excavator (n) compaction machine (n) concrete (n) concrete mixer (n) construction machinery (n) conveyor belt (n) crane (n) crash kit (n) cylinder (n) cylinder basket (n) dozer (n) forced pan concrete mixer (n) grader (n) grapple (n) gravity concrete mixer (n) grind (v) gutter (n) vanový přepravník radlice korečkový rýhovač korečkové rypadlo zhutňovací stroje beton míchačka stavební stroje pás jeřáb nárazová souprava válec válcový koš dozer míchačka s nuceným mícháním grejdr drapák míchačk spádová (gravitační) škrábat žlab 82

84 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 83 (celkem 270) handling device (n) chassis (n) chute (n) mortar (n) motor truck (n) ripper (n) rotary rig (n) scaffolding (n) scraper (n) shock ram (n) shovel excavator (n) shovel loader (n) skip (n) swivel boom loader (n) trench (n) trencher excavator (n) trencher (n) truck (n) vibratory plate (n) vibratory rammer (n) manipulační zařízení podvozek skluz malta motorov vozík rozrývač rotační souprava lešení skrejpr nárazové beranidlo lopatové rypadlo lopatový nakladač korba otočný nakladač příkop příkopové rypadlo rýhovač tahač vibrační deska vibrační pěch Questions 1) What is a shovel exacavator? 2) What is the difference between a bulldozer and angle dozer? 3) What machinery can be used for handling and transportation of construction materials? 4) What machinery can be used for lifting loads? 5) What machinery can be used for transportation of material on construction sites? Exercises 1) Complete with the correct form of be able to. a) (+) If I lived in the city center, I to go out every weekend. b) (?) you to come to my birthday party next Saturday? c) (-) I to learn Chinese since a moved to China. d) (+) She used to play tennis very well when she was only 10. e) (?) you ever to run 100 meters in a minute? 2) Complete with can / can t, or could / couldn t.

85 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 84 (celkem 270) a) When I was a child, I play hockey very well. b) you open the window, please? It s so hot in here. c) When I left the university, I find a job for a long time. d) I don t want to go to the disco, I dance. e) Excuse me, you help me with my luggage, it s very heavy. 3) Od done out. 1) bucket blade chassis mixer 2) gutter rock trench mine 3) dig grind excavator break 4) rammer concrete mortar earth 5) truck conveyor handling device scraper 4) Match the types of construction machinery with the kind of work they are used for. 1. SHOVEL EXCAVATORS 2. DOZERS 3. RIPPERS 4. GRADERS 5. CRANES A. are used for raking topsoil, spreading the earth, covering trenches, profiling of ditches and for slope works B. provide handling and moving loads vertically and horizontally within the defined area C. break materials, which are difficult to break, such as frozen earth, concrete roads D. they can break and load rocks or dig tranches E. are used for surface mining of the earth 5) Mind map Dig Mixers

86 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 85 (celkem 270) Scaffolding Construction site cranes Bucket Solutions Shovel excavator Machines and tools Dozers Ground works Trenches 1) Complete with the correct form of be able to. a) (+) If I lived in the city center, I would be able to go out every weekend. b) (?) Are you able to come to my birthday party next Saturday? c) (-) I haven t been able to learn Chinese since a moved to China. d) (+) She used to be able to play tennis very well when she was only 10. e) (?) Have you ever been able to run 100 meters in a minute? 2) Complete with can / can t, or could / couldn t. a) When I was a child, I could play hockey very well. b) Could / Can you open the window, please? It s so hot in here. c) When I left the university, I couldn t find a job for a long time. d) I don t want to go to the disco, I can t dance. e) Excuse me, can / could you help me with my luggage, it s very heavy. 3) Match the types of construction machinery with the kind of work they are used for. 1. D 2. E 3. C 4. A 5. B 4) Od done out. 1) bucket blade chassis mixer 85

87 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 86 (celkem 270) 2) gutter rock trench mine 3) dig grind excavator break 4) rammer concrete mortar earth 5) truck conveyor handling device scraper 86

88 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 87 (celkem 270) 7. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT OF BUILDING Key words: Technical equipment of buildings, heating, gas distribution, water pipelines, sewerage, ventilation, lighting, air conditioning, central vacuum, lightning conductor, electricity distribution. Abstract: Building services include the distribution of all necessary media inside and outside the buildings. Most of the buildings wouldn t be able to fullfill its purpose without technical equipment. Technical equipment of buildings is a very broad discipline that provides the standard of technical environment in buildings. It deals with the distribution and management of all necessary types of energy. These include: - heating, ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration, gas, water and sewer distribution, central vacuums - electrical wiring of force electricity, measuring and regulation, security equipment, telephone wiring, distribution of television signals, computer networks, building security, lightning conductors, lighting and lifts Heating - for each object it is necessary to choose a suitable heating system and energy source. Heating systems - for local heating are used heat sources placed in different rooms (e.g. tiled stoves, fireplaces, gas heaters, electric convectors, etc.). This way of heating is suitable only for small flats or vacation properties. 87

89 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 88 (celkem 270) Picture 64: Tiles stove Central heating is a more common system, the necessary heat is produced by one source common for the whole system and then the heat is distributed to all rooms by pipelines. Depending on the type of heat carrier, central heating is divided into: - classic hot water heating where the heat transfer between the boiler and radiators is ensured by circulating water at a temperature of about 90 C. The advantage of water as a medium is its high heat capacity and so a small cross-section of pipes. - low-temperature heating. These include floor or wall heating. As a result of the fact that they take up large heating surface in a room, they can use low temperature of the heating water and it is advantageous when using a heat pump, a condensing boiler or a wood boiler with storage tank or solar system. - steam heating, in which the heating medium is water vapor. Vapor brought by the vapor pipeline condenses in radiators and then the condensate returns by condensate piping back to the boiler. The disadvantage is the high surface temperature of the radiators and a difficult central regulation of the heating power. Nowadays it is used a little. -warm air heating recently begins to expand in homes that have recovery ventilation, especially in low-energy and passive houses. In these objects there is a little need of heat, and therefore the small heat capacity of the air doesn t matter. According to the movement of hot water we divide the systems into: - Systems with natural circulation of heating water ( circulation occurs due to the different specific weights of heating water) - Systems with forced circulation of hot water (forced circulation is ensured by a pump) - According to the radiator connection we divide the systems to one pipe systems and two pipe systems. 88

90 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 89 (celkem 270) Picture 65: Central heating boiler for wood and water heater Heat sources: Electricity - conversion to heat is the easiest one. Heaters may be small, the performance is easily controllable, the system does not produce combustion gases. However, the manufacturing is very difficult and that s why it is the most expensive energy source. Heat pump it is actually a cooling machine that cools the surrounding environment (groundwater, soil or outdoor air) and the resulting heat is transferred to the heating system. The basic benefit is the low cost of the heat but the disadvantage is a relatively high purchase cost (several hundred thousands Czech crowns). Natural gas it relatively easy to distribute (eventhough the gas network is not as widespread as the electric one) and regulate the power of the heaters. The construction of the heaters is more demanding than in the case of electric heaters. It is necessary to remove the combustion products and ensure safety when the flame goes out. Liquid fuels - liquefied petroleum gas or light fuel oil, the price of energy is higher and it is neessary to have a fuel tank. Coal - was once the most widely used fuel. Nevertheless the used heaters had a relatively little effect and the imperfect combustion of coal has resulted in tremendous local air pollution District-supplied heat - mainly in cities. The disadvantage is often a higher price of the heat. Biomass it is a renewable energy source. Fresh biomass has a large water content and significantly reduces the calorific value. It is necessary to dry up the biomass before burning it. Biomass includes firewood, pellets, chips or briquettes pressed from wood waste, bark and energy plants. Solar energy it is another renewable energy source that is easily used for hot water heating and to a certain extent for heating itself. The primary advantage is the wide availability but a very substantial disadvantage are seasonal and daily fluctuations. 89

91 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 90 (celkem 270) Picture 66: Pellets Ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration - air conditioning is a system that ensures the exchange of indoor air. It can be pressurized, vacuum or uniform pressurized air conditioning system. The air conditioning cleans (filters)the air, regulates its temperature and provides the required humidity. Air conditioning is either central (common system for the entire building) or unit (there are separate devices for individual rooms). Picture 67: Sole air conditioning unit Gas distribution - is used for objects where the natural gas is used. Natural gas is used for heating, cooking and hot water heating. Internal distribution of gas are connected to the public network and the gas meter, regulator and caps are always parts of the gas distribution systems. Water distribution they are connected to the public water supply or domestic water station with its own well and pump. Internal water piping is a system of pipelines with a water meter. Production of hot water depends on the source of the heat. The heating may be local, central or remote. Sewage distripution it is a system that removes all waste water - sewage and rainwater, out of the building. This system includes also cesspools, septic tanks and domestic wastewater treatment plants. 90

92 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 91 (celkem 270) Central vacuum cleaner it is a fixed pipe distribution system built inside the walls of the building completed by wall plugs in each room. It includes a suction aggregate, a filter and a cartridge for the dirt. These are located in the technical room. Impurities are channeled into the stack by pipelines. Picture 68: Wall plug of the central vacuum Picture 69: Aggregate of central vacuum Electric power distribution - wiring is used to transfer electrical energy ( power distribution ) or to transfer data and weak signals. For the intended purpose it must comply with the equipment and sizing. Wiring is made up of interconnected wires, control and protection devices. The electro meters and distributor form parts of the system. Lightning conductors - they are established on buildings, where the lightning discharge could endanger the life or health of people, cause malfunction, cause economic or cultural damage. Lightning rod consists of a catchment system, drains and grounding. Lighting - this is the artificial lighting of workplaces or homes. Lighting by artificial light sources must respect the qualitative and quantitative parameters of light and create conditions for visual comfort. The source of artificial lighting may be light bulbs, discharge tubes, fluorescent lamps or LED bulbs. Light bulbs they are a heat source, which is the least economical. Only 3-5 % of the electrical energy is converted into light. Another disadvantage is a short service life. Fluorescent lamps - fluorescent source. 25 % of the energy changes into light. They have a longer service life than light bulbs. Discharge tubes - used for outdoor lighting. LED bulbs - have high efficiency, long service life. They are ideal lighting for intelligent buildings because they allow changing very easily the light intensity using regulation systems. 91

93 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 92 (celkem 270) Picture 70: Zářivky Picture 71: LED diods Elevators - are discussed in Module No.8 (Interior Building) Dictionary air conditioning (n) calorific value (n) cap (n) central vacuum (n) cesspool (n) condensing boiler (n) electric convector (n) electricity distribution (n) fireplace (n) gas distribution (n) gas heater (n) gas meter (n) klimatizace výhřevnost uzávěrka centrální vysavač žumpa kondenzační kotel elektrický konvektor elektrorozvody krb rozvod plynu karma plynoměr 92

94 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 93 (celkem 270) heat pump (n) heating (n) lift (n) lighting (n) lightning conductor (n) pellet (n) recovery ventilation (n) refrigeration (n) septic tank (n) sewerage (n) storage tank (n) tiled stove (n) vacation property (n) ventilation (n) wall plug (n) wastewater treatment plant (n) water pipeline (n) water meter (n) wood boiler (n) tepelné čerpadlo vytápění výtah osvětlení hromosvod peleta rekuperační větrání chlazení septic kanalizace akumulační nádrž kachlová kamna rekreační object vzduchotechnika zásuvka čistírna odpadní vody svodovody vodoměr kotel na dřevo Questions 1) How does central heating work? 2) What are the types of central heating? 3) What is electric power distribution used for? 4) What are the most common kinds of artificial lighting in buildings? 5) What can natural gas be used for as a part of technical equipment of buildings? Exercises 1) Put the vocabulary into the correspondent definition. wood boiler refrigeration wall plug ventilation cesspool a).. is an electric socket, usually located in a wall. b).. is a mechanical system or equipment used to circulate air. c).. is a domestic device burning wood to provide hot water, esp for central heating. d).. is the process of cooling or freezing. e).. is a covered hole or for receiving drainage or sewage from a house. 2) Od done out. 93

95 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 94 (celkem 270) a) fireplace central heating boiler refrigerator b) heating lighting cap sewerage c) gas heater tiled stove ventilation radiator d) cesspool septic tank lightning conductor pellet e) lift petroleum coal biomass 3) Choose the correct form. a) We mustn t / don t have to smoke here. It s forbidden. b) You don t have to / shouldn t go to the conference, the boss will go there. c) I go by car to the party, so I mustn t / didn t have to drink any alcohol. d) Do you have to / should be at work on time? e) Had you to / Did you have to have the presentation about last month s sales figures? 4) Complete the sentences using modal verbs of obligation. a) The course is for free you pay. b) I was hopeless, so I ask my colleague for help. c) There are always long queues at the post office, you wait. d) It s very dangerous, you go there alone. e) Pete send the report as soon as possible, because the boss is waiting for it. 94

96 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 95 (celkem 270) 5) Mind map Sewage distribution Water distribution Technical equipment Ventilation Heat sources Gas distribution Lighting Heating Gas meter Light bulbs Wood boiler Solutions 1) Put the vocabulary into the correspondent definition. wood boiler refrigeration wall plug ventilation cesspool a) Wall plug is an electric socket, usually located in a wall. b) Ventilation is a mechanical system or equipment used to circulate air. c) Wood boiler is a domestic device burning wood to provide hot water, esp for central heating. d) Refrigeration is the process of cooling or freezing. e) Cesspool is a covered hole or for receiving drainage or sewage from a house. 2) Od done out. a) fireplace central heating boiler refrigerator b) heating lighting cap sewerage c) gas heater tiled stove ventilation radiator d) cesspool septic tank lightning conductor pellet e) lift petroleum coal biomass 3) Choose the correct form. 95

97 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 96 (celkem 270) f) We mustn t / don t have to smoke here. It s forbidden. g) You don t have to / shouldn t go to the conference, the boss will go there. h) I go by car to the party, so I mustn t / didn t have to drink any alcohol. i) Do you have to / should be at work on time? j) Had you to / Did you have to have the presentation about last month s sales figures? 4) Complete the sentences using modal verbs of obligation. f) The course is for free you don t have to pay. g) I was hopeless, so I had to ask my colleague for help. h) There are always long queues at the post office, you will have to wait. i) It s very dangerous, you shouldn t go there alone. j) Pete should send the report as soon as possible, because the boss is waiting for it. 96

98 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 97 (celkem 270) 8. INTERIOR BUILDING EQUIPMENT Key words: Joinery, metal products, plastic products, upholstery, lifts, stair escalators, stairs, railings, windows, doors. Annotation: The internal building equipment includes all products that are firmly associated with the construction or firmly connected to any of the building utilities. Interior building equipment is a very broad term. It is not possible to just list all the products that belong to the interior equipment of buildings. The definition is likely to include all products that are closely connected with the building (requiring incorporation into the building or installation). This broad category includes joinery, metal products, plastic products, upholstery, lifts and some special products (e.g. curtains or scenery in theatres, special equipment in operating theatres and the like). The furniture not built into the structure - although the furniture frequently on construction drawings - is excluded. Drawing of furniture occurs mostly in the drawings and studies and a designer shows that he/she designed the object properly. The joinery group includes doors and windows, kitchen cabinets, railings, interior window sills, ceilings, partition walls, built-in cabinets, rails, light wooden stairs and more. Kitchen cabinets are here because their upper cabinets are hung on the walls and bottom cabinets are connected to water and sanitation in the case of kitchen hood on ducts. Railing is fixed to the stairs or a peripheral wall, where railing is placed in front of a French window. Ceilings and tiling are also strongly connected with the construction. They consist of a supporting frame and a cover that is either from machined boards or of various slab materials. Built-in cabinets are divided into built-in, additional, free and partitioned. Built-in cabinets are designed into the recess in the wall and therefore they may not have sides or backs. The front, shelves or drawers are needed. Built out cabinets are designed in a corner and have only one side, the front and interior equipment. Free cabinets are built adjacent to the wall in the area and have sides, front and interior equipment. Partition cabinets divide the space into two parts, and they serve as a partition. Wooden stairs are the most challenging joinery. There are different 97

99 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 98 (celkem 270) shapes depending on their location. They can be single-arm, two-arm or multi-arm; they can be straight, rotary (circular), curved or irregular shape. The whole staircase may be wooden i.e. supporting stringers, stair treads, risers and handrails. A load bearing part of staircase can be of a different material (concrete or steel) and joiner's products are only the steps, risers and railings. Picture 72: Simple wooden double-hung window, opening with a wooden still Picture 73: Kitchen units The metal product group covers; windows, doors, steel frames for wooden doors, light portable partitions, stair railings or handrails only, mats recessed into the floor, vents, retractable attic stairs, ladders, venetian blinds, grilles, covers and various other accessories. Picture 74:Steel rod railings Included in the plastic products are; windows, doors, walls, ceilings, interior window sills, vents, inspection doors for installation shafts, various mouldings to cover expansion and other joints. Windows are a large group of products. They are available in different qualities and different shapes for construction. The quality of windows is determined by their thermal-technical and mechanical properties. According to the material, windows are divided into wooden, plastic, aluminium and (now little used) steel windows. The quality of windows is based on the purpose of the proposed building. Different windows could be used for an unheated hall and other windows for 98

100 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 99 (celkem 270) residential areas. The shape and a window light division greatly affect the overall appearance of the building and therefore it is the subject of architectural design. There are many options of the opening of window lights; openable and folding leaves are the most widely used today. Also glazing is determined by the requirements on thermal and acoustic properties. Glazing may be single, double or triple. Doors make another large group. They are divided according to their location: interior or exterior. There are wooden, plastic and aluminium doors. Doors can be solid, semi-glazed. Also, the quality as well as with windows depends on thermal and mechanical properties. Doors are designed according to the width of the opening, such as single-leaf door, double or multi-leaf ones and the leaves are either symmetrical or asymmetrical. Door leaves are fitted to the doorframe or frames. There are a lot of types of the door opening; they are selected according to the purpose of the room, the disposition and according to the anticipated furniture. A special group are fire and safety doors which must have special properties guaranteed with a certificate. The upholstery products here include only those that are closely connected with the building. For example, door upholstery (if we want to improve the acoustic properties of an ordinary door), curtains in theatres, etc. The interior building equipment may also include lifts, stairs and escalators. Lifts are designed according to the purpose of a building. Passenger lifts are a part of apartment buildings, office buildings and all public buildings (whether or not the height of the building requires the lift). Bed lifts are installed primarily to medical and social facilities. Freight lifts vary in capacity, they are used mainly to transport various heavier loads and they are part of the production facilities, warehouses, shops, etc. Lift tables serve to transport loads (mostly barrels, etc.) from the ground to underground areas. Small freight lifts are used only for transporting small loads, usually food or files. A special type of a lift is the paternoster (swing lift). In one lift shaft there are two rows of cabins of which one row is moving upwards and the other downwards. Individual cabins are located just above the other. So passengers can constantly get in and get out at any level. Stair lifts are mechanisms that enable you to move wheelchairs up the stairs. Escalators are very specific; they are used for vertical transport of a large numbers of people. They are normally in department stores, railway and underground stations, etc. Picture 75: Escalators Picture 76: Paternoster (Swing lift) No premises should lack fire security. This includes appropriately placed fire extinguishers, hydrants, fire alarms and automatic sprinkler systems in some buildings. 99

101 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 100 (celkem 270) This category also includes some appliances. These include ovens and fires, which are firmly attached to the installations. There are also bathroom fixtures, showers, washrooms and toilets. The interior equipment of buildings covers more specific products that result from the purpose of the proposed construction. As an example, school buildings can be mentioned. Their interior equipment includes boards, projection screens, podiums, but not desks, chairs and cabinets. There are laboratory tables and ventilation units, as well as desks if they are connected to gas or contain a sink in laboratory premises. Picture 77: Ventilation Hood connected to the ductwork and laboratory desk with a sink connected to water, sewerage, gas and elektricity. Building services - electrical, central heating, sanitary installations (water and sewer), gas installations and air conditioning are a part of the interior equipment of buildings. However, this is a subject to a different module. Dictionary upholstery broad joinery hood duct to consist of partition either.or stair treads riser handrail portable venetian blind čalounické výrobky široký truhlářské výrobky digestoř potrubí skládat se příčkový buď.nebo stupně (schodů) podstupnice zábradlí přenosné žaluzie 100

102 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 101 (celkem 270) grille accessories, pl. window sill vent shaft overall appearance width single leaf door double leaf door mříž doplňky okenní parapet větrací mřížky šachta celkový vzhled šířka jednokřídlé dveře dvoukřídlé dveře Questions 1. What does a term interior building cover? 2. What does the joinery include? 3. Give the examples of wooden stairs based on their shape. 4. What is included in the plastic products? 5. Give the examples of glazing. Exercises 1) Work in pairs. Imagine you arrive late for an important appointment. Think of some excuses based on other obligations. E.g. I m sorry I m late. The car broke down and I had to take it to the garage. 2) Work in small groups and decide what the following people need. For each one, name the three most important things. Holiday maker Body builder New-born baby Student Teenager Entrepreneur 3) In pairs discuss the place where you work / study. What are the regulations there? 4) Choose the best option. Q1 - You've been working hard all day- you be tired. must mustn't can can't Q2 - The restaurant is always empty- it be much good. 101

103 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 102 (celkem 270) can't couldn't shouldn't no option Q3 - I know I left it on my desk and it's not there now. Someone it. must must have taken either could be used no option Q4 - That be true- she would never say something like that. mightn't can't mustn't no option take Q5 - Do you think you open the door for me? can could either could be used no option Q6 - I haven't made up my mind about my holiday yet, but I go to Laos. must might either could be used no option Q7 - You have told me you were going to take it! I was looking everywhere for it. may might either could be used no option Q8 - you both be happy. May Might Must no option 102

104 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 103 (celkem 270) Q9 - I don't believe you- you be joking. should must either could be used no option Q10 - They're still missing, so they have died. may might either could be used no option 5) Mind map Fill in your idea you have in our mind when talking about Interior Building Equipment. Three examples have been done for you to help you start off. Then choose one and talk about it with your partner for about two minutes. Interior Building Equipment Upholstery Handrails Kitchen units Solutions Questions 1. It includes joinery, metal products, plastic products, upholstery, lifts and some special products (e.g. curtains or scenery in theatres, special equipment in operating theatres and the like). 103

105 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 104 (celkem 270) 2. The joinery group includes doors and windows, kitchen cabinets, railings, interior window sills, ceilings, partition walls, built-in cabinets, rails, light wooden stairs and more. 3. They can be straight, rotary (circular), curved or irregular shape. 4. Windows, doors, walls, ceilings, interior window sills, vents, inspection doors for installation shafts, various mouldings to cover expansion and other joints. 5. Glazing may be single, double or triple. Exercises 1) I am terribly sorry, I had to take my daughter to the hospital. I do apologize, there has been an accident. I do apologize my neighbour flooded my flat. I am awfully sorry, I ve fallen asleep on a train. 2) Holiday maker enough offers, reliable employees, valid insurance Body builder stamina, proper clothes, a place where to do the body building New-born baby love, care, home Student books, motivation, a bag Teenager new clothes, smart phone, facebook Entrepreneur a computer, websites, e-banking 3) A library: we mustn t shout there we mustn t eat there when going through the books we shouldn t use the mobile to avoid interrupting the others we are not allowed to smoke there we are to speak quietly we don t have to dress up 4) Q1 - You've been working hard all day- you be tired. must mustn't can can't Q2 - The restaurant is always empty- it be much good. 104

106 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 105 (celkem 270) can't couldn't shouldn't no option Q3 - I know I left it on my desk and it's not there now. Someone it. must must have taken either could be used no option take Q4 - That be true- she would never say something like that. mightn't can't mustn't no option Q5 - Do you think you open the door for me? can could either could be used no option Q6 - I haven't made up my mind about my holiday yet, but I go to Laos. must might either could be used no option Q7 - You have told me you were going to take it! I was looking everywhere for it. may might either could be used no option 105

107 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 106 (celkem 270) Q8 - you both be happy. May Might Must no option Q9 - I don't believe you- you be joking. should must either could be used no option Q10 - They're still missing, so they have died. may might either could be used no option Mind map: Possible answers: Acoustic properties Doors Lifts Paternoster Windows Location Door frame Partitition 106

108 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 107 (celkem 270) Bibliography HARMER, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Cambridge : Longman, ISBN SAYMOUR, J., POPOVA, M. 700 Classroom activities. Macmillan, , 60. ISBN SCRIVENER, J. Learning Teaching. Macmillan, p. ISBN SCRIVENER, J. Teaching English Grammar. Macmillan, Third edition.228, 230. ISBN UE. Printable Handout: Mixed Modals 2. [online] [citováno ].Available on WWW: adjusted 107

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110 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 109 (celkem 270) 9. ARCHITECTURE Key words: Construction, wood, stone, clay, bricks, arch, temples, castles, chateaux, palaces, columns, pillars, triumphal arch, dome, broken arch, gable, roof Abstract: Architecture is a very complex and extensive topic and its history is almost as old as humanity itself. Each period has brought something new and has left us valuable monuments. This brief review is focused on the perspective from the point of view of construction. Architecture is a very complex and extensive topic. Generally speaking, it is the synonym of the construction industry. We know not only the architecture of buildings, and building units but also residential and gardening architecture. In a narrower sense, the meaning of the word architecture is understood as a work of art. Architecture is changing and developing as well as humanity. It varies together with culture, technological development and policy. The history of architecture began at the time when people first tried to build something. These early constructions were not still works of art. The first building materials were wood, stone and clay. Real architecture arose in the construction of objects with a certain artistic value. To do this, it was necessary to be able to read the ancient texts, to be able to count, to transmit experience from generation to generation and to be able to organize groups of workers. The first significant architectural structures appeared in the 3rd millennium BC in the Sumerian and Egyptian cultures. Both architectures arose independently. They used natural building materials and began to divide buildings into church constructions and secular constructions. Sumerian architecture - used mainly bricks (even adobe ones) joined with asphalt. Perhaps because of that there is not much left. People did not know how to plan; they built randomly, as needed. 109

111 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 110 (celkem 270) Egyptian architecture - used mainly stone, this is why a large number of monuments are preserved. Church buildings predominated and the main elements were tombs (the pyramids). Apart from tombs the Egyptians built monumental temples, but they still did not know how to use a vault. Picture 78: Stepped pyramid in Egypt Many building architectural styles followed. The most important ones were: a) Classical Greek architecture - originated in the 8th century BC. The Greeks built magnificent temples on rectangular floor plans. The main building material was stone, especially marble. Columns were the vertical element. Individual stone blocks were built on without fasteners. Their huge weight guaranteed stability. Only after that columns were machined. The roof of temples were low a saddle-shape with artistic decorations in the gables. The covering of the roof was from tiles of burnt clay. In the 5th century the most important Greek temple - Parthenon was built. Later on, the Greeks also built secular buildings - theatres and luxurious mansions. The biggest problem of Greek construction was the transport of huge stones and later financing. Most buildings were built without plans. The calculations were simple and were carried out on the spot. Therefore, Greek constructions were oversized. Picture 79: Acropolis, Athens b) Roman architecture - although it was based on Greek architecture, it brought many new things. The Romans were warriors and that was reflected in their construction. Troops needed good quality roads and bridges - a network of roads and waterways for bridging and the 110

112 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 111 (celkem 270) "Roman arch", were created. Another new element was the aqueduct. All this led to the development of surveying and geodesy basics. Most buildings were built with public funds and that led to the beginnings of budgeting. It was the Romans who laid the foundation of urbanism. Most Roman cities had a central square and a rectangular grid of streets around it. Military culture also emerged and for the first time, standards for construction. Perhaps the most important discovery was the production and use of concrete. The Roman church buildings had not only rectangular, but also circular floor plans. Their range was increasing and therefore it was necessary to invent a new way of roofing. That enabled the discovery of the "Roman arch". At that time, the first Basilica and the Coliseum, which served as arena and theatre, arose. So called "triumphal arches" were a Roman architectural rarity. They were gates built for a ceremonial entry of victorious troops. Picture 80: Coliseum in Rome c) Romanesque architecture - originated in the late 9th century from ancient foundation. The most important buildings were the basilicas; there were pillars, cross vaults and little by little even domes. The ground plan of Romanesque buildings was already dissected. Decoration also played an important role. Windows, which gradually became larger, had undergone the biggest changes. Round windows began to be used. Doors and entrances were usually richly decorated and were placed opposite the altar. This style was not only religious and town houses and aristocratic mansions (castles) were also built in the same style. Barrel vaults were used for secular buildings. In the second half of the 12th century new ideas were gradually penetrating into Romanesque architecture and it eventually led to the emergence of a new style - gothic. 111

113 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 112 (celkem 270) Picture 81: An exemple of Romanesque architecture, rotunda of St Caterina in Přední Kopanina d) Gothic architecture - in the second half of the 12th century Romanesque architecture began to change gradually into Gothic architecture. At that time the Church had a great importance and therefore church buildings too. The broken arch was a new element. The shape of the arc carried all loads vertically. This allowed the extension of windows, which could be up to several meters high. Another change was in the shape and design of the vault. The vault was divided into many areas and the weight was carried by the ribs and pillars. Thanks to those discoveries massive walls could be replaced by pillars and thinner walls. In that period, temples with up to five naves were being built. The typical feature of the Gothic style was a steep roof supplemented with gargoyles of various shapes. Another feature was four-sided towers, which were reinforced in the corners by pillars. In secular architecture Gothic was reflected not only in representative buildings, but also in civic architecture, where several-storey buildings with a gable to the street were built. Picture 82: Exemple of Gothic architecture, Paris Notre Dame e) Renaissance architecture in the early 14th century the strict Gothic order started to appear gradually and around 1420 in Italy a new thought current, which was also reflected in architecture, began to be promoted. Architects were inspired by the ancient architecture, but they added new features such as domes and rectangular windows. There were new types of buildings: chateaux, summer residences, urban palaces and urban and suburban villas. Besides stone, materials such as marble and brick began to be used in much greater quantities. Sgraffito, a new type of decoration of the facade, arose. 112

114 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 113 (celkem 270) Picture 83: An exemple of Renaissance architecture, summer residence of Queen Anna in the Royal garden in Prague Castle f) Baroque - from the 16th to the 18th century a new style arose under the influence of the religious wars. Its aim was to impress man. Churches should have acted as a metaphorical image of heaven on the earth, palaces and castles represented wealth and power. The most commonly used materials were coloured marble, rare wood and gold. The ground plan of buildings was an ellipse or an oval. Baroque emphasized the space and its rich decoration. For the roofing of buildings different types of vaults were used, but also wood trusses. The facades of important buildings were very complex, as if they were rippling. Rounded shapes prevailed. In the previous styles church buildings predominated, but in the Baroque period, the ratio of ecclesiastical buildings to secular buildings balanced. Rococo architecture directly followed the Baroque period which was developed during the 18th century, just in the late Baroque period. This style was typical for its excessive ornamentation. Picture 84: An exemple of Baroque architecture, Prague, Bílá Hora g) Classicism - in this period the church and with it also religious architecture moved backwards and private buildings were strongly dominant. The dominant tendency was imitating ancient and Egyptian (Empire style) buildings. This return to history was partly explained by the fact that society was undergoing enormous changes. What was typical for the architecture of 113

115 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 114 (celkem 270) Classicism, apart from the inspiration in ancient times, was a certain uniformity given by adherence to united and strict principles of building - the emphasis was put on simplicity, expressive austerity and even rigidity. The facades of buildings straightened, the curved surfaces from Baroque were removed, curves were replaced by straight lines and popular decorative element was a medallion. The new requirement for architecture was to build functionally and cheaply. h) Art Nouveau a new artistic direction started at the turn of the 19th and 20th century as a protest against historicism. Art Nouveau architecture was typical for rich ornamental decoration, especially floral decoration: on the facades and also the interiors in which stems, flowers, foliage, as a decorative element were also used human figures and faces and broken curves were applied. In the Art Nouveau period ornamental metal processing was widely used, also, frequently etched glass, decorative glass surfaces composed of multicoloured stained glass, but also ceramics, enamel, mosaics, stucco, etc. With the external appearance of buildings also corresponding minor construction details and extras: balcony railings, window frames, doorknobs, lighting fixtures, etc. It was Art Nouveau which gave the opportunity to develop and employ a wide range of artistic crafts. Simultaneously with Art Nouveau a method called modern style was coming in. It freely expressed from both, historical elements and the excess of decorative details, which were often characteristic for Art Nouveau. Buildings were simple, smooth faced, unadorned, with emphasis on the construction of buildings, harmony of proportions and effect of materials and surfaces. i) Architecture of the 20th century did not have a uniform style. What was typical for the 20th century was work with new materials (steel, glass), which thanks to their properties, allowed us to find new solutions. The use of right angles, which allowed more efficient use of space, was also typical. Source: Wikipedia: About the history of architecture Dictionary aj angle (n) arch (n) austerity (n) balcony railing (n) barrel vault (n) brick (n) broken arch (n) castle (n) chateau (n) clay (n) column (n) čj úhel klenba, oblouk strohost zábradlí valená klenba cihla lomený oblouk hrad zámek jíl sloup 114

116 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 115 (celkem 270) concrete (n) cross vault (n) dome (n) ecclesiastical (adj) enamel (n) foliage (n) frame (n) gable (n) gargoyle (n) marble (n) medallion (n) mosaic (n) nave (n) pillar (n) rigidity (n) ripple (v) roof (n) secular (adj) stucco (n) temple (n) tomb (n) truss (n) valuable (adj) beton křížová klenba dóm církevní smalt listy rám štít cgrlič mramor medailon mozaika loď (chrámová) pilíř přísnost, tuhost (na materiálu) vlnit se střecha světský štuk chrám hrobka otýpka hodnotný Questions 1) What are the most significant features of Egyptian architecture? 2) Which new elements were created in the Roman architecture? 3) In which period was first used the broken arch? 4) Which are the new types of buldings used in the Renaissance architecture? 5) What are the typical features of the facade used in Art Nouveau? Exercises 1) Put the verbs into the passive form using the correct tense. a) Seat cars in Spain.(make) b) A new skyscraper at the moment. (build) c) The book by Stephen King in 1993.(write) d) My car last week.(steal) 115

117 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 116 (celkem 270) e) you ever. (mug) 2) Rewrite the sentences with the passive. a) They sell souvenirs here. b) They dub most of the foreign films. c) Someone stole my bike yesterday. d) They will organise the conference tomorrow. e) Somebody must repair this copy machine. 3) Match the words and the definitions 1. CHATEAU 2. GABLE 3. GARGOYLE 4. NAVE 5. PILLAR a. the triangular upper part of a wall between the sloping ends of a pitched roof b. the central part of a church c. a waterspout carved in the form of a grotesque face or creature and projecting from a roof gutter d. an upright structure of stone, brick, metal, etc., that supports a superstructure or is used for ornamentation e. a French castle 4) 116

118 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 117 (celkem 270) 5) Choose the correct answer a, b, c. 1. Which word is not a kind of building material? A. clay B. concrete C. frame 2. Which one is wrong? A. barrel vault B. broken vault C. cross vault 3. Which is the opposite of SECULAR? A. ecclesiastical B. valuable C. human 4. What is a tomb? A. A grave or other place of burial. B. A place where live the royal family. C. The upper part of a building. 5. A design or decoration made up of small pieces of coloured glass or stone is called A. truss B. mosaic C. stucco 6) Mind map: gable facade Floor plan architecture clay vault chateaux stucco 117

119 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 118 (celkem 270) Solutions 1) a) are made, b) is being built, c) was written, d) was stolen, e) Have you ever been mugged? 2) a) Souvenirs are sold here. b) Most of the foreign films are dubbed. c) My bike was stolen yesterday. d) The conference will be organised tomorrow. e) This copy machine must be repaired. 7) E, 2. A, 3. C, 4. B, 5. D 8) C, 2. B, 3. A, 4. A, 5 B 118

120 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 119 (celkem 270) 10. ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS Key words: Low-energy house, passive house, zero energy house, active house, solar panels, photovoltaic cells, heat loss, heat transfer coefficient. Annotation of the text: The energy-efficient buildings are divided into several categories in accordance with the quantity of the energetic need of the object. The quantity of the energy, which is needed for the house operation, is dependent on the amount of the thermal insulation, on the perfection of the constructional detail solution, on the way of natural energy usage (sun shine, heat pumps etc.) and on the way of the back use of the inner warmth of the object. Energy-efficient buildings are buildings, which have less energy consumption for heating and other operation of the object than typical buildings. They can be divided into: - low-energy constructions - passive constructions - zero constructions - active constructions It is necessary to carry out the calculation of the energy consumption of the object for the classifying of the construction into one of these categories. The calculation evaluates the need of energy for heating, the need of energy to heat water, the need of energy for lights, the need of energy for ventilation and other air adjustment, the need of energy for cooling and the need of energy for the operation (all appliances). Out of these factors, we can most influence the need of energy for heating. 119

121 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 120 (celkem 270) A low-energy structure is a structure which has the consumption of energy between kwh/ m2 per year. A passive structure is a structure which has the consumption of energy for heating lower than 15 kwh/m 2 per year. The total amount of the primary energy connected with the operation of the structure (heating, heating of water, air adjustment and the electric energy for devices) must not exceed 120 kwh/m 2 per year at the same time. A zero structure structures which have the energy consumption for heating lower than 5 kwh/m 2 per year belong to this category. Active structures these structures usually use the heat pumps, solar energy for heating of water and photovoltaic cells make such amount of energy that the object t produces more energy than it uses during the year. The construction is connected to the public electricity network. In the period, when the sun does not shine, it takes the electricity. When the sun shines, it produces the energy which supplies the energy into the network. V době, kdy slunce nesvítí, proud odebírá. Když však slunce svítí, tak vyrobí tolik energie, že přebytek dodává do sítě. Picture 85: One of the first passive houses bulit in 1990 in Germain Darmstadt. The first attempts to build the low-energy houses were carried out in 1939 in the USA. Then, more or less successful attempts continued. The first passive houses were built in Germany after The European Union brings one of the biggest changes in the history of civil engineering, which should significantly lower the influence of people on the environment. According to the already approved directive on energy performance of buildings, it will be possible to build only the passive houses after

122 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 121 (celkem 270) Picture 86: S-HAUSE is the ecological passive house made of wood and straw bulit in 2005 in the Lower Austria The first of the important factors for the design of the low-energy and passive houses is their location at the plot, the shape of the house and mainly the orientation to the cardinal points. The shape of the house should be as easy as possible, with the minimum of the cooled space. The indented object has too large external surface and therefore is its heat loss too big. If we want to save the energy, we must use everything which is provided by the nature. Firstly, it is the sun energy. Most windows should be put designed into the southern part, the minimum of windows into the northern part. This is also the reason for the interior composition solution, the rooms for living should be placed into the southern part of the house, the repository in the northern part. The sun energy is taken by the sun collectors and photovoltaic cells. Sun collectors ensure the heating of the hot water. The photovoltaic radiation also has a wide range of ecological and operational advantages in comparison with other sources. However, there are some disadvantages in our climatic conditions: Advantages: The use of a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. The creation of no emissions or other harmful substances during the operation. The operation is totally silent, there are no moving parts. The easy installation of the solar system. The operation virtually does not need any service, the easy electronic regulation. Disadvantages: Relatively low average annual solar radiation. Short average annual sunshine hours. Large variation in light intensity during the year. Low efficiency of the conversion and the resulting demands on the surface of the cells. High investment costs for the installation. Relatively small lifetime (20 years) in the relation to the price. 121

123 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 122 (celkem 270) When the weather is advantageous, the photovoltaic device makes the electric energy and transmits it to the public network. According to the amount of the taken energy, the object can be classified into the group of low-energetic houses (takes bigger amount of energy), passive houses (takes less amount of energy), zero houses (the amount of the used and made energy is almost the same) and active houses (supply more energy than it takes). Picture 87: Mountain Cottage Schiesthaus in Hochschwabu from height 2156 asl- the passive construction The other determining factor of the energetic saving is the demand on heat for heating. It is given firstly by the heat losses of the object and secondly by the designed way of the heating system. The heat losses can be influenced by the right design and implementation of the construction. All external constructions must be well insulated. The external clodding must be provided by the adequately thick insulation. The thick layer of the insulation ( mm) is also a part of a ground floor in the terrain and in a ceiling composition upon the floors and under a roof. The mostly used insulation materials are glass wool, mineral wool, polystyrene, foam glass, straw, cellulose, sheep wool, hemp, flax. A very important part of a construction is a gap filing. It is usually the place where most heat is lost at the typical constructions. The most important parameter for evaluating of the quality of windows and doors for energy-efficient buildings if the heat transfer coefficient U. It is the value for the entire window, i.e. the glazing and the frame. Standards requirements for this parameter are constantly tightened but the recommended value for the passive house window is now U W = 0,8 W/(m².K). The triple glazing is used for the glazing of the windows. Frames fitting of the winds are designed by the 6-chambered system with an insulated liner. Most windows of the passive houses are firmly glazed, because it improves their thermal features. These objects have a special ventilation air system with heat recovery. Opening windows are designed only in a limited number for the case of the air ventilation system failure. 122

124 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 123 (celkem 270) Picture 88: A plastic window with a triple gazing and the insulating triple- glass and 6-chambered frame, U=0,76 W/m 2 K Picture 89: A wooden window with the insulating triple- glass, U=0,9 W/m 2 K It is necessary to pay the attention also to the details of the construction. These are mainly the places of the typical thermal bridges, such as wreaths, beams, connections of the balconies, wall plates, foundation walls etc. It is not enough to solve the details only in the building documentation, they must be carried out perfectly at the construction. After this, the passive or low-energy object works in the right way. The most amount of the energy consumption used for the heating should be used from its own inner resources in a passive house and a low-energy house. Even though, it is necessary to design the active way of the heating, for the case when the inner resources are not efficient enough. If the amount of the needed warmth is 10 W/m² or lower, a house does not need the special heating system and it is efficient enough to use its inner air for the temperature regulation. Although the way of the heating is not determined for the passive houses, the typical system of the radiators is inappropriate for its difficult regulation and excessive dimension. The floor heating of the ladder 123

125 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 124 (celkem 270) radiators is usually used in bathrooms. It is appropriate to use for example the solar system for the heating of water, it can help also with the floor and wall heating, can heat also the storage tank. The other of the options is the use of the heat pump connected to the ground collector. Such system can cool the space in the summer as well. The other option if the heat pump connected to the ventilation system of the house which uses the heat of the transmitted air. Dictionary active construction advantage appliance attempt collector construction consumption cool (to cool) dependent disadvantage electricity network energetic energy energy-efficient ensure to ensure environment evaluate to evaluate external heat pump heating inexhaustible inner insulation lifetime light location loss operation passive construction photovoltaic provide to provide quantity radiation silent aktivní stavba výhoda zařízení pokus kolektor stavba spotřeba, konzumace chladný, chladit závislý nevýhoda elektrická síť energetický energie energeticky úsporný zajistit životní prostředí hodnotit vnější tepelné ložisko vytápění nevyčerpatelný vnitřní izolace, zateplení životnost světlo, osvětlení lokace, umístění ztráta průběh, operace, chod pasivní konstrukce fotovoltaický poskytovat kvantita, množství záření, radiace ticho 124

126 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 125 (celkem 270) solution sunshine supply to supply surface warmth zero construction řešení sluneční svit dodávat, zásobovat povrch teplo nulová stavba Questions 1) What are energy-efficient buildings? 2) What is the criterion for classifying the energy-efficient buildings into categories? 3) What does the calculation of energy consumption include? 4) What is the energy consumption needed for heating of zero structures? 5) When was the first attempt to build a low-energy house carried out? 6) Where were the first passive houses built? 7) What natural resource of energy is mentioned in the text? 8) What are the disadvantages of the use of solar energy? Exercises 1) Rewrite these sentences into the negative. There are long hours of annual solar radiation in the Czech Republic. There are NOT long hours of annual solar radiation in the Czech Republic. h) This house can be classified as a passive building. i) The builders finished the house construction last summer. j) The heating has to be fixed as soon as possible. k) The insulation was finished in spring. l) The bedroom should be placed into the northern part of the house. m) The photovoltaic device makes the energy. n) There will be time to place a new air-conditioning system next month. 125

127 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 126 (celkem 270) 2) Choose the right verb and put it into each gap in the correct form. Need be divide influence carry out can be evaluate The energy-efficient buildings 1 divided into several categories in accordance with the quantity of the energetic need of the object. The quantity of the energy, which 2 for the house operation, 3 dependent on the amount of the thermal insulation, on the perfection of the constructional detail solution, on the way of natural energy usage (sunshine, heat pumps etc.) and on the way of the back use of the inner warmth of the object. Energy-efficient building 4 a building which have less energy consumption for heating and other operation of the object than typical buildings. We 5 divide these objects into: low-energy constructions, passive constructions, zero constructions, active constructions. It is necessary to 6 the calculation of the energy consumption of the object for the classifying of the construction into one of these categories. The calculation 7 the need of energy for heating, the need of energy to heat water, the need of energy for lights, the need of energy for ventilation and other air adjustment, the need of energy for cooling and the need of energy for the operation (all appliances). Out of these factors, we can 8 the need of energy for heating most. 3) Match the equivalents with their Czech meaning. advantage appliance attempt collector construction consumption nevyčerpatelný sluneční svit povrch vnitřní dodávat, zásobovat izolace, zateplení 126

128 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 127 (celkem 270) cool (to cool) dependent inexhaustible inner insulation solution sunshine supply to supply surface warmth závislý řešení výhoda zařízení chladný, chladit teplo stavba, konstrukce spotřeba, konzumace pokus kolektor 4) Put the following words into the gaps. emissions ensure low collectors disadvantages heating advantages inexhaustible installation sunshine sources operation cells country Sun energy is taken by the sun and photovoltaic. Sun collectors the of the hot water. The photovoltaic radiation also has a wide range of ecological and operational in comparison with other. The main advantage is the use of a virtually source of energy and the creation of no or other harmful substances during the. The operation is totally silent and the of the solar system is easy. However, there are some in our climatic conditions. It is a relatively average annual solar radiation in our and short average annual hours. 127

129 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 128 (celkem 270) 5) Which word is defined by definitions? a) The energy produced by Sun is called - energy. b) The opposite of advantage is. c) The opposite of loud is. d) The device which collects the sun energy is called a. e) Buildings which have the energy consumption for heating lower than 5 kwh/m 2 per year are called. Solutions: Questions: 1) Energy-efficient buildings are buildings having less energy consumption for heating than typical buildings. 2) The criterion is the quantity of the energetic need of the object. 3) The calculation includes the need of energy for heating, the need of energy to heat water, energy for light, for ventilation, cooling and all appliances. 4) The energy consumption is lower than 5 kwh/m 2 per year. 5) The first attempt to build the low-energy house was carried out in ) The first passive house was built in Germany. 7) Sun energy is mentioned in the text. 8) The possible disadvantages are a low annual solar radiation, variation of light intensity during the year and the high investment cost of the installation and small lifetime. Exercises 1) a) This house cannot be classified as a passive building. b) The builders didn t finish the house construction last summer. c) The heating doesn t have to be fixed as soon as possible. d) The insulation wasn t finished in spring. 128

130 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 129 (celkem 270) 2) e) The bedroom should not (shouldn t) be placed into the northern part of the house. f) The photovoltaic device doesn t make the energy. g) There won t (will not) be time to place a new air-conditioning system next month. Need be divide influence carry out can be evaluate The energy-efficient buildings 1_are divided into several categories in accordance with the quantity of the energetic need of the object. The quantity of the energy, which 2 is needed for the house operation, 3 is dependent on the amount of the thermal insulation, on the perfection of the constructional detail solution, on the way of natural energy usage (sunshine, heat pumps etc.) and on the way of the back use of the inner warmth of the object. Energy-efficient building 4 is a building which have less energy consumption for heating and other operation of the object than typical buildings. We 5 can divide these objects into: lowenergy constructions, passive constructions, zero constructions, active constructions. It is necessary to 6 carry out the calculation of the energy consumption of the object for the classifying of the construction into one of these categories. The calculation 7 evaluates the need of energy for heating, the need of energy to heat water, the need of energy for lights, the need of energy for ventilation and other air adjustment, the need of energy for cooling and the need of energy for the operation (all appliances). Out of these factors, we can 8 influence the need of energy for heating most. 3) advantage appliance attempt collector construction pokus výhoda zařízení kolektor stavba, konstrukce 129

131 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 130 (celkem 270) consumption cool (to cool) dependent inexhaustible inner insulation solution sunshine supply (to supply) surface warmth teplo spotřeba, konzumace chladný, chladit závislý nevyčerpatelný vnitřní isolace, zateplení řešení sluneční svit dodávat, zásobovat povrch 4) Sun energy is taken by the sun collectors and photovoltaic cells. Sun collectors ensure the heating of the hot water. The photovoltaic radiation also has a wide range of ecological and operational advantages in comparison with other sources. The main advantage is the use of a virtually inexhaustible source of energy and the creation of no emissions or other harmful substances during the operation. The operation is totally silent and the installation of the solar system is easy. However, there are some disadvantages in our climatic conditions. It is a relatively low average annual solar radiation in our country and short average annual sunshine hours. 5) a) The energy produced by Sun is called - SOLAR energy. b) The opposite of advantage is DISADVANTAGE. c) The opposite of loud is SILENT. d) The device which collects the sun energy is called a SOLAR COLLECTOR. e) Buildings which have the energy consumption for heating lower than 5 kwh/m 2 per year are called ZERO HOUSES. 130

132 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 131 (celkem 270) ECONOMICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING/ EKONOMIKA VE STAVEBNICTVÍ Překladatelé: Jindřiška Šulistová Témata: Building management Construction company Logistic in civil engineering Human resources Věra Filipová Témata: Price price calculation, demand and supply Contractual relations Real Estate Valuation Kamila Tröstlová Témata: Marketing in the civil engineering Project documentation Ivana Jílková Témata: Construction documentation korektury všech textů provedli rodilí mluvčí paní Vivian White a pan Robert Donaldson 131

133 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 132 (celkem 270) 1. BUILDING MANAGEMENT Annotation: The content of the text is to explain the concept of management, clarifying the nature of management, familiarization with organizational structure of the company and the types of organizational structures. The importance of information for decision-making, the role of manager and basic managerial functions are put the emphasis on. The conclusion explains project management and process management. Key words: Management, principles of management, organizational structure of the enterprise, organizational structure, decision-making, personality of a manager, project and process management. 1. Management term, the heart of the term Building Management The term management can have the following meanings: a) Specific activity - Influencing people to do what it is necessary to be done b) Group of managers 132

134 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 133 (celkem 270) - They manage a company according to the owners purposes, founders, etc. c) Scientific discipline - Organized knowledge - on which the management relies - can be described as a science. The heart of the management Management is the art of leadership, of management and impact on a particular system (such as a company, team or organization) to accomplish a specific goal. The basis of the system is a management strategy. The framework for the formulation of corporate strategy determines the content of the corporate philosophy, which includes ideas about values and directives that have to be followed by entrepreneurs and employees to customers and competitors. It is based on the corporate mission, on the recognized company values and the vision of the company. Corporate objectives are linked on the corporate strategy. All the processes and their agents must be organized into structures in order to meet the business objectives. Organization such as a management subsystem Delegation of authorities, responsibilities and scope of to people who will manage the processes and the creation of departments in which they will carry out the activity, the content of the organizational process. 2. The organizational structure of a company The principle of a business organization Organization can be understood as a) Status - internal structure of a system => a company has the organization 133

135 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 134 (celkem 270) b) Activities - the organization or arrangement of the system => a company is organized c) Result a company is an organization Company management is a result of Organization process - such as the organization of the production process; Structural organization - the creation of internal departments, sections, economic centers, department. 3. Organizational structure The procedural and structural organization of the company forms its organizational structure, which is characterized by: - Number of organizational levels - Management range Organization structure - Flat (control range is wide - more subordinates) - Steep (control range is narrower - less subordinates) Organization structure types According to the arrangement of management relations, there can be distinguished linear, functional and line staff system of organization. a) Linear system (= one way linear) - Subordinate receives orders from only one superior; - Each department / section has only one superior place of which it is responsible; - Relationships between superiors and subordinates departments, staff are called linear. They provide so-called top-down command-control. b) Functional system(= more ways linear) - subordinate is assigned to multiple departments / sections, leading to multiple subordination of an employee; 134

136 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 135 (celkem 270) - Superiors are specialists for certain sub-tasks (functional specialization). c) Line-staff system - Widely used in practice Staff Department - Organizational unit that performs an advisory function; - These are specialized departments that do not have decision-making authority; - Certain tasks which are assigned to line employees can be made easier by Staff Department; - Takes advantage of the linear structure + specialization of functional managers; - There is a high level of expertise, it suppresses the absence of functional structures; - Staff Department has an advisory function to ensure the qualified decision of line units. Staffs are: Personal (secretaries, assistants, personal specialists); Professional (= functional) - specialists with deep expertise. The trend is the least of organizational levels and most functional links of horizontal cooperation. On the basis of participation in the process, the following horizontal structures can distinguish: Project organizational structure - Created to manage the project; - Used as a temporary organization - in the construction company for large construction contracts; - Competencies of the project manager are defined for an accepted order from its offer to its delivery and settlement; Matrix organizational structure Mixed organizational structure, there is the horizontal authority with various degrees of influence next to the line hierarchy. Project and matrix organizational structure occurs when introducing new organizational and technological measures in the enterprise - such as a change of information systems. Organizational chart, organization rules 135

137 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 136 (celkem 270) Graphic representation of the organizational structure = organization chart. Written defining organizational structure includes: - In organizational rules - In internal rules and regulations. 4. Information and decision-making Directing the activities of people in order to achieve business goals is managing. The basic premise of the management is information. The flow of information is determined by organizational structure. They are the basis for decision making. Decision making always belongs to the internal level, which has the best information; e.g. obtaining construction contracts is a matter for senior management. Information sources of the company a) External information about - Scientific and technical development - Economic and social development - Business and political - Tax environment - The state of demand for construction work - State of the market of construction materials and raw materials, the state of transport - Situation on the labor market and the financial market - Price situation and its expected evolution. b) Internal information - Contracts - Planning - Budgeting - Statistics - Preliminary calculations 136

138 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 137 (celkem 270) - Result calculations - Accounting - Operational records - Other records. Information system of a corporate enables the integration and linking sources of the corporate information. Information system as a whole provides a systematic collection, processing, storage and making available information. 5. Manager personality Manager is an executive with the responsibilities and authorities for: - Subordinates work - Activities efficiency - Innovations introduction. The manager must be able to decide, i.e., to choose the optimal solution and procedure relating to planning, organization, leadership, control, provides an idea of the future status and the process to achieve it. An integral part of the management is the communication. Modern conceptions of management - Management by objectives (MBO) specific measurable targets are developed which are to carried out by employees; - Management by projects project management applied to the enterprise as a whole, within which partial areas of management (such as quality management, time management, change management, HR management, finance management, contract and safety management) are integrated. Management levels - Top management managing directors, technical managers, directors - Middle management the site managers, managers of economic centers - The lowest management supervisor, the site manager. Management areas 137

139 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 138 (celkem 270) - Marketing management - Commercial and contractual management - Financial management - Production management - Change management - innovation and risk - Environmental management - Personnel management - Quality control. Management functions 1. Planning 2. Organization 3. Staff management 4. Control Planning - includes setting future goals and ways to achieve these goals; - the result of a planning function is a plan that says what and how we want to achieve - part of the plan is to determine the resources and time dispositions of plan implementation; - determining available resources include budgets. The planning functions are based on four basic factors: Goals future conditions of the organization, which the management wants to achieve Events - are specific activities planned so to achieve the targets Resources - are limits Rules - ways of plan implementation. 138

140 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 139 (celkem 270) When setting the targets it is necessary to respect the requirements - Priorities, i.e., targets that are critical to the object - Mensurability - using of a quantified value of targets - Adequacy - goals appropriate to the surrounding development, corresponding with options organization. Achieving business goals depends directly on the implementation of management functions;planning logically precedes the performance of these functions. Breakdown of plans a) By time horizon: 1) Long-term - for more than 2-4 years, e.g. business plan 2) Medium term - for one year, as production plan, financial plan 3) Short-term - operational plans within 1 year, to control the production and work at the site b) By a decision-making level: 1) Strategic - at the top management level 2) Tactical - at middle management level 3) Operative - middle and basic management level Organization Purposeful activity whose ultimate goal is to arrange the elements in the system so as to contribute achieving the objectives of the system;-to achieve business objectives, managers must coordinate a variety of activities, the need for coordination is the result of the division of labor, the subsequent structure, synthesis, and this is the task of managers. The purpose of the organization is to coordinate the efforts of the staff in order to achieve business goals best. The organization of construction output is affected by the specifics of construction industry: - Building a product of a construction firm is bound to land - Materials, machines and people move, relocate from one site to another. Staff management It is based on influencing subordinates so to achieve the set objectives. 139

141 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 140 (celkem 270) The manager decides on - Staff selection - Who, when and what work will be done The manager must know how to - Motivate the staff to achieve the set objectives - Use the appropriate stimuli - Create the good relations at work. Control The control determines whether the objectives have been achieved. The base of control is to compare planned and current status. The control has the following stages. - Setting of standards and indicators - a plan - Operation monitoring - the real state - Comparison of planned and actual status - Solving differences 6. Project and process management a) Project management - is a process management with the application of a systems approach. It is a modern concept of management of complex, discrete planning tasks with a high degree of uncertainty and complexity. The main objective of project management is to get the project - just in time - in full - on budget b) Process management 140

142 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 141 (celkem 270) is based on the procedural arrangements of functional labour division. The basic criterion for performance related activities is their continuity. The process is a series of activities carried out to achieve the repeated target. The basic principles of process management include: - Customer orientation - Focus on core business processes adding the value - The involvement of employees - Management - management by project, delegation of authority. Dictionary purpose enterprise to explain to clarify emphasis conclusion to influence founder to rely on impact particular basis framework corporate according to to accomplish to determine directive to recognize value delegation scope department responsibilities to be linked účel podnik, podnikání vysvětlit osvětlit důraz závěr ovlivnit zakladatel spoléhat se dopad určitý základ soustava, systém podnikový podle dokončit určit, stanovit směrnice, pokyn, předpis rozpoznat hodnota delegování rozsah oddělení povinnosti být spojen 141

143 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 142 (celkem 270) to carry out arrangement result section level range wide narrow subordinate according to superior to provide so-called top-down command-control flat steep linear functional assign line staff system sub-task widely to perform advisory advantage to suppress expertise deep to ensure to create competence to accept order vykonávat přípravy, opatření, pořádání výsledek oddělení úroveň rozsah široký úzký podřízený podle nadřízený zajistit takzvaný řízený z nejvyšší úrovně; řízení rozdělením úkolů na menší části řízený pokynem / příkazem a následnou kontrolou plochý strmý liniový funkcionální zadat, uložit, přidělit liniově štábní systém dílčí úkol hojně vykonávat poradní výhoda potlačit, omezit odbornost hluboký zajistit, zaručit vytvořit schopnost, kvalifikace přijmout objednávka 142

144 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 143 (celkem 270) settlement matrix regulation premise flow to be determined matter development tax raw materials demand expected budgeting preliminary to belong to enable whole storage executive efficiency management by objectives target to apply contractual environmental to include management by projects to achieve to set to determine breakdown of plans purposeful available event resources zaplacení matice předpis předpoklad tok být určen záležitost vývoj daň suroviny, základní materiály poptávka očekávaný sestavování rozpočtu předběžné patřit umožňovat celek skladování vedoucí pracovník efektivnost řízení podle cílů cíl aplikovat, používat smluvní týkajícího životního prostředí zahrnout řízení podle projektů dosáhnout stanovit určovat, udávat (povahu, charakter apod.) členění plánů cílevědomý k dispozici událost zdroje 143

145 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 144 (celkem 270) rule requirement appropriate option ultimate long-term medium term short-term to be bound to effort to contribute subsequent to relocate staff selection stimulus (pl. i) to set objectives to compare to solve whether current task approach stage uncertainty in time in full on budget criterion (pl. a) customer core involvement pravidlo požadavek vhodný volba konečný dlouhodobý střednědobé krátkodobé vázaný, ovlivněný snaha přispět následný přemístit výběr zaměstnanců podnět stanovit cíle porovnat vyřešit zda současný úkol přístup úsek, etapa nejistota včas úplně, zcela dle stanoveného rozpočtu kritérium zákazník stěžejní začlenění Questions 1. What are possible meanings of the expression management? 2. What are the organization structure types? 3. What is the basic premise of the management? 144

146 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 145 (celkem 270) 4. Whom does the middle management include? 5. What is the most important principle from the process management in your opinion and why? Exercises 1)Work in pairs. And correct the sentences below, nine are incorrect. 1) Do you know what time does the train arrive? 2) Tell me what is the problem. 3) Can you tell me where is East Street? 4) Could you let us know when he arrives? 5) Do you know if this is the way to the station? 6) I d like to know where is the library? 7) Could you let us know when are you coming? 8) Do you understand what are they saying? 9) Please tell me who s in charge. 10) I wonder if will it be sunny tomorrow. 11) I m trying to find out how much was my last bill. 12) Can you tell me where the buffet car is? 2) Rewrite the direct questions into indirect using Do you know? Could you tell me?. E.g. Where has Jane gone. Could you tell me where Jane has gone? Is the car park near here? Did you get my letter? What s the time? Where can I find any ATM? What does aufhalten mean in English? 3) Write indirect questions for these situations. 1) You ask the strange in the street the way to the library. 2) You ask your director whether you can have a day off work. 3) You ask a colleague the reason why you are having another meeting so soon. 4) You ask your boss if he approves of the plans you have made. 5) You ask your teacher whether you have passed the test or not. 4) Choose the correct version. 145

147 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 146 (celkem 270) Q1 - I have no idea. wheres where is she no option where she is Q2 - Could you tell me gone? where she's where is she where has she no option Q3 - I asked them where going. were they were either could be used no option Q4 - Can you tell me how much cost? will it will either could be used no option they it Q5 - Do you have any idea how long me to do it? did it take it took took it no option Q6 - Has she told you whether help? will she will either could be used no option Q7 - Can you explain why so expensive? is it's either could be used no option she it Q8 - She asked me where from. 146

148 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 147 (celkem 270) do I come come I I come no option Q9 - I was wondering why take the train; it'll be quicker. don't we don't either could be used no option we Q10 - Can you remember? what did she say what she said either could be used no option 5) Mind map: Fill in your idea you have in our mind when talking about Building Site. Three examples have been done for you to help you start off. Then choose one and talk about it with your partner for about two minutes. Buiding Management Framework Corporate Scope Solutions Questions 1. a) specific activity; b) group managers; c) scientific discipline 147

149 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 148 (celkem 270) 2. Linear system, functional system, line-staff system. 3. It is the information. 4. It includes e.g. site managers, managers of economic centres. 5. Any answer depending on the student s point of view. Exercise 1) 1) Do you know what time the train arrives? 2) Tell me what the problem is. 3) Can you tell me where East Street is? 4) Correct. 5) Correct. 6) I d like to know where the library is? 7) Could you let us know when you are coming? 8) Do you understand what they are saying? 9) Please tell me who in charge is. 10) I wonder if it will be sunny tomorrow. 11) I m trying to find out how much my last bill was. 12) Correct. 2) Could you tell me if the car park is near? I wonder if you got my letter? Do you know what the time is? Could you tell me where I can find any ATM? Do you know what aufhalten means in English? 3) Possible answers 1) You ask the strange in the street the way to the library. I wonder could you tell me the way to the library, please. 2) You ask your director whether you can have a day off work. I wonder Mr Bright if I could possibly take a day off due to study reasons? 3) You ask a colleague the reason why you are having another meeting so soon. Do you know, Joe, why we have another meeting next week? We ve just had one. 148

150 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 149 (celkem 270) 4) You ask your boss if he approves of the plans you have made. Could you tell me Mr Arnoles if you approve the plans I have made recently? 5) You ask your teacher whether you have passed the test or not. Mr Bark, could you tell me whether I have passed the test from the maths? 4) Q1 - I have no idea. where she's where she is where is she no option Q2 - Could you tell me gone? where she's where is she where has she no option Q3 - I asked them where going. were they were either could be used no option Q4 - Can you tell me how much cost? will it will either could be used no option they it Q5 - Do you have any idea how long me to do it? did it take it took took it no option Q6 - Has she told you whether help? will she will she 149

151 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 150 (celkem 270) either could be used no option Q7 - Can you explain why so expensive? is it's either could be used no option it Q8 - She asked me where from. do I come come I I come no option Q9 - I was wondering why take the train; it'll be quicker. don't we don't either could be used no option we Q10 - Can you remember? what did she say what she said either could be used no option Mind map: Possible answers: Discipline Competitor Value Subordinate Carry out Steep Horizontal Accomplish 150

152 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 151 (celkem 270) Bibliography ESL HANDOUTS. Indirect Questions [online]. b.r., [citováno ]. Available on WWW: HARMER, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Cambridge : Longman, ISBN MURPHY, R. English Grammar in Use. CUP, Third edition. 100, 101 p. ISBN SAYMOUR, J., POPOVA, M. 700 Classroom activities. Macmillan, ISBN SCRIVENER, J. Learning Teaching. Macmillan, p. ISBN SCRIVENER, J. Teaching English Grammar. Macmillan, Third edition.234, 236, 237, 239. ISBN UE. Printable Handout: Indirect Questions. [online] [citováno ].Available on WWW: 2. CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 151

153 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 152 (celkem 270) Annotation: The aim of the text is to introduce the subject Business in Building Industry, with legal amendments of construction companies, with the legal forms of the most common body corporate in construction companies. Next, the activities of construction companies are analyzed as well as their characteristics are compared to other field of business. A part of the text is a description of strategic objectives of construction companies and their design strategies. The conclusion deals with the processes and activities in a construction company. Key words: Construction company, legal forms of business, main and supporting activities of construction companies, construction company function, strategy of construction companies 1. Scope of Business of Construction Companies Construction Company The scope of business of construction companies cover the implementation of construction and activities related to them. These include the following activities: - The execution of construction and assembly work for an external client; - Works for their needs - their own construction, site preparation; - Mining of raw materials; - Locksmith work, precast workshops, garages / repair shops; - Transport; - - Property management and housing activity; - Project work; 152

154 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 153 (celkem 270) - Engineering activities; - Development activities. 2. Legal Forms of Business of Construction Companies Implementation of construction and related activities are dealt with in the Trade Act. Some of these activities are tying, i.e. they require a professional competence. These include the following items of business: - Construction design - Construction, modification and removal. Project activity and management of building implementation is a subject to authorization which amended by the authorization bill. Natural and legal persons may run these selected activities only via authorized persons. Trading Trades means a continuous activity carried out under a trade license in order to have a profit by a natural or legal person on their responsibility. Natural persons - entrepreneurs - Directly enter into legal relations; - A businessman has competence; - Liable for the obligations of its assets. Legal persons - Company enters into legal relations; - Capital contribution of the partners depends on the chosen legal form of business. Companies a) Joint stock company - - Is founded on a contract or certificate of incorporation (in the case of one founder); - Is liable for the obligations with its assets, shareholders are not liable for the obligations at all; 153

155 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 154 (celkem 270) - The minimum amount of registered capital is CZK 2 million or in the case of a joint stock company with a share subscription, it is CZK 20 million; - The supreme body is the general meeting; - The statutory body is the Board of Directors; - The supervisory body is the Supervisory Board; - Joint stock company is to make a reserve fund from profit. b) Limited liability company (Ltd.) - Is based on a social contract; - The minimum amount of registered capital is CZK ,-; - Limited liability company is liable for its debts to the amount of basic capital; - The supreme body is the general meeting of shareholders; - The statutory body is one or more directors; - Companies are required to create a reserve fund from profit; - Part of the profits may be distributed to shareholders as dividends. 3. Activities and Goals of Construction Companies Construction Company A construction company is legal, financial and economically independent organization whose formation, operation and termination depend on the needs of the production market. The aim of the company is to carry out the construction of buildings for profit and meet the demand of clients, possibly of other clients. The main activities of construction company The main activity of the building company is a building implementation - construction and assembly work. Division: a) Work of main construction works - earth, masonry, plastering, concrete, assembly of prefabricated and steel structures; b) Work associated with construction - handicraft, assembly and finishing kinds of work; c) The assembly work - installation of windows, steel structures, HVAC, industrial piping, process equipment, lifts, etc. 154

156 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 155 (celkem 270) Support Activities of Construction Companies These activities include designing, building management, property management, space utilization, planning, reconstruction, removal, cleaning, catering, transport, mail, photocopying, etc. Acquisition Activities of Construction Companies Construction company carries out its main activity on the basis of acquisition - acquisition of construction contracts that give details on the workload and make a so-called production program. Function of construction companies a) Basic functions - Sales - Research and development - Supply - Production b) Cross-sectional functions - Human Resources - Financing - Logistics - Business - Informatics - Organization - Management - Administration Specifics in Construction Business The peculiarities of the construction business include: - Minimum number of possibilities of production to reserves; - Variety of construction output with significant differences in demand; - The challenge of building works regarding the wearing and risky human work; - With regard to longevity and size of construction projects, the emphasis is put on the quality of execution of works with respect to environmental conditions; 155

157 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 156 (celkem 270) - Order risk and the risk of bad weather and geological conditions for a location of the building; - Agreements for the construction of the building is only a commitment to a performance product that does not yet exist; - The important role of building entrepreneurs and their impact on the course and outcome of construction activities; - The price of construction works affecting such as the price of a land, cost of capital, tax rates, etc.; - Construction is carried out on a customer land according to his / her projects and in accordance with his / her set deadlines construction; each site requires flexible workers, management, equipment and machinery. 4. Strategy of Construction Companies Main strategic aims - Make a profit; - Ensure the continuous existence of the company; - Maintain and increase market share; - Meet customer demand; - Providing employment to their workers and care about their development. Company Strategy The basic goal of construction companies is meeting the deadlines providing a high quality at reasonable cost and profit. An important strategic decision is the company expansion into foreign markets. The analysis of political, economic, social and technological environment (PEST analysis) serves to assess the feasibility of such an approach. Company Surroundings Construction company should be in line with its surroundings, which includes - Environment; - Market of raw materials, land, existing buildings, information, labour and capital; 156

158 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 157 (celkem 270) - Competition Companies; - Public (citizens, institutions). Company surroundings affect its focus, activities, organizational structure, internal operations and production. Surroundings are represented by investors and builders and construction companies can influence them. The customers enter into construction contract and the company surroundings create a company image. It makes a company identity with the level of communication and conduct of a business. The company identity is an important part of the corporate strategy. 5. Operation of Construction Companies Processes and Activities in Construction Companies The process is the transformation of entering factors (material, labour, equipment, etc.) with different activities which end with output for external or internal customers. Construction activities take place in the manufacturing process - on-site where there is a transformation of building materials through human and machine work into a product a construction. Apart from main activities, the company purchases the needed services, building materials, it rents and buys the necessary machinery and equipment, invoices handover buildings, pays wages and taxes, etc. The company function (supply, marketing, organization, management and administration) is provided by company staff that ensures the construction process. Production Factors The construction production process includes - People with the necessary knowledge, skills, experience and information; - Building materials; - Construction machinery, equipment, means of transport. Each of the production factors implies a certain amount of cash (payment of salaries and wages, purchase of machinery, services and materials). The lack of company funds is covered with a loan from a bank or from advances paid by investor/s. The construction company gradually passes and invoices its performances. Thereby it is entitled to reimbursement in the form of claim. The company receives cash by a payment of amounts due, which contributed to the execution of the contract. The cycle of values is concluded. Dictionary Scope Rámec, rozsah, rámec 157

159 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 158 (celkem 270) Cover Related to Execution Site preparation Assembly work To mine Raw materials Locksmith Precast Workshop Property Management Engineering Development Legal Implementation Deal with Trade Act To require Competence To include Item Removal Subject To amend Authorization Bill Natural person Legal person To run Selected Trading Continuous To carry out In order to Trade Licence Zahrnovat Vztahující se k Provedení, realizace Příprava staveniště Kompletování, montáž Těžit Surové materiály Zámečník Prefabrikovaný Dílna Majetek Správa Strojírenství Vývoj, rozvoj Právní, zákonný Provedení, uskutečnění, realizace Zabývat se, pojednávat, řešit co Živnostenský zákon Vyžadovat Schopnost, obratnost, kvalifikace Zahrnovat Položka Odstranění Předmět Upravit Oprávnění, povolení, zplnomocnění Navrhovaný zákon Fyzická osoba Právní osoba Řídit, spravovat Vybrané Obchodování Pokračující Provést, dokončit Aby Živnostenský list 158

160 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 159 (celkem 270) Entrepreneur Liable for Contribution To depend on Chosen Assets Joint stock company To be founded Obligation Assets Supreme Statutory Board of Directors Supervisory Board Limited liability company Reserve fund To distribute Aim Meet the demands Soil Masonry Plastering Concrete To assembly HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) Handicraft Piping Acquisition Workload Research and development Supply Human Resources Peculiarity Output Significant Obchodník Odpovědný za Příspěvek Záviset na něčem vybraný Aktiva Akciová společnost Být založen/a Závazek, odpovědnost, dluhopis Aktiva Nejvyšší Statutární, zákonný Správní rada Dozorčí rada Společnost s ručením omezeným Rezervní fond Rozdělovat, roznášet Cíl Splnit poptávku Zemina Zdivo Omítnutí Beton Sestavit, smontovat Topení, ventilace, klimatizace Řemeslná výroba Potrubí Získání, koupě Pracovní zatížení / zátěž Výzkum a rozvoj Dodávka Lidské zdroje (Osobní oddělení) Typický znak Výstup Významný 159

161 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 160 (celkem 270) Challenge Regarding Longevity Emphasis Agreement Commitment Performance Impact Outcome Deadline To set To affect In accordance To maintain To increase To provide To assess Focus Level Entering factors On-site Apart from Feasibility Purchase Advance To be entitled Lack Invoice Handover Staff Skills Experience Equipment Means of transport To imply Reimbursement Výzva S ohledem Dlouhověkost Důraz Dohoda, smlouva Závazek Výkon; představení Dopad Výstup Termín Stanovit Ovlivnit, postihnout V souladu Udržovat, zachovávat Zvýšit Zajistit Ohodnotit Pozornost, střed, ohnisko Úroveň Vstupní faktory Na staveništi Kromě Proveditelnost, uskutečnitelnost Koupě Záloha, půjčka Mít právo, být oprávněn Nedostatek Faktura Předání Zaměstnanci Dovednost Zkušenost Vybavení Dopravní prostředky Naznačovat Náhrada, odškodnění 160

162 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 161 (celkem 270) Loan Úvěr Questions 1. What does the trading mean? 2. What is the minimum amount of registered capital for a Limited Liability Company? 3. What are the cross-sectional functions of construction companies? 4. Name three main strategic aims of construction companies. 5. What or whom does the production process of construction companies include? Exercises 1) Work in pair using sentences below. Think of helpful answers using will for spontaneous decisions. E.g. My car won t start. Possible helpful answer: I ll give you a lift. Sorry, I m too busy to chat at the moment. Ouch! I ve cut myself. Don t forget it s Mum s birthday next week. I asked you to tidy the flat. I think the baby is crying. That s the doorbell. Here s 50. Quick! Someone s just collapsed. The photocopier s broken down. I need a hand with this shelf. 2) Think of typical New Year s resolutions. In pairs write 6 usual resolutions people make. E.g. I m going to cut down on drinking coffee. I m going to spend less hours on FB. 3) Choose the correct answer. 1. Can I borrow your car? by 10 o'clock, I promise. I'll be back I'm going to be back 2. Can I help you, sir? Yes, a coffee and a tuna sandwich. I'll have I'm going to have 3. Do you know about Claire? a baby! 161

163 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 162 (celkem 270) She'll have She's going to have 4. I'm really tired. you home if you want. I'll take I'm going to take 5. He's got a new job in Boston, so there. he'll move he's going to move 6. What are you doing tomorrow? I don't know. I think my parents. I'll visit I'm going to visit 7. Ugh, that food was terrible! I think sick! I'll be I'm going to be 8. new strings for my guitar when you are in town? Thanks. Are you going to buy Will you buy 9. Don't go out now. a thunderstorm. I've just heard it on the radio. There'll be There's going to be 10. I don't think that on Mars. people are ever going to live people will ever live 4) Choose the correct version. Q1 - I feel dreadful; I be sick. am going to will Either could be used here 162

164 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 163 (celkem 270) no option Q2 - Tonight, I stay in- I've rented a video. am going to will Either could be used here no option Q3 - If you have any problems, don't worry; I help you. am going to will Either could be used here no option Q4 - I completely forgot about it. Give me a moment; I do it now. am going to will Either could be used here no option Q5 - Look at those clouds- it rain any minute now. is going to will Either could be used here no option Q6 - The weather forecast says it snow tomorrow. is going to will Either could be used here no option Q7 - That's the phone- I answer it. am going to will Either could be used here no option Q8 - Thanks for the offer, but I'm OK; Shane help me. 163

165 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 164 (celkem 270) is going to will Either could be used here no option Q9 - Where are you going? I am going to see a friend. I'll see a friend. Either could be used here no option Q10 - Tea or coffee? I'm going to have tea, please. I'll have tea, please. Either could be used here no option 5) Mind map Fill in your idea you have in our mind when talking about Building Site. Three examples have been done for you to help you start off. Then choose one and talk about it with your partner for about two minutes. Building Company Process Materials Machinery Solutions Questions 1. It is an activity which continues, and it is carried out under a trade license by a natural or legal person on their responsibility. 164

166 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 165 (celkem 270) 2. It is CZK 200,000,-. 3. E.g. HR, IT, logistics. 4. E.g. to make a profit; to meet a customer demand; to secure the continuous existence of the company. 5. People with necessary qualifications, building materials, machinery. Exercise 1) Sorry, I m too busy to chat at the moment. I ll call you later, then. Ouch! I ve cut myself. Don t worry, I ll get the plaster. Don t forget it s Mum s birthday next week. We ll buy her a big present. I asked you to tidy the flat. I ll do it in a minute. I think the baby is crying. I ll sing him a song. That s the doorbell. Andrew will answer it. Here s 50. Great, we ll give a party. Quick! Someone s just collapsed. I ll call the ambulance. The photocopier s broken down. I ll get the technician. I need a hand with this shelf. I ll get a hammer. 2) 1) I m going to lose five kilos. 2) I m going to go more to the cinema. 3) I m going to read German books. 4) I m going to spend more time with my relatives. 5) I m going to paint the room. 6) I m going to tidy my room more often. 3) 1. Can I borrow your car? by 10 o'clock, I promise. I'll be back Jedná se o slib, u slibů používáme WILL. I'm going to be back 2. Can I help you, sir? Yes, a coffee and a tuna sandwich. I'll have Dotyčný si objednává v restauraci, proto používá budoucnost s WILL. I'm going to have 3. Do you know about Claire? a baby! 165

167 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 166 (celkem 270) She'll have She's going to have Říkáme, že čeká dítě, je těhotná, je to tedy vyjádření něčeho, co se stane v budoucnosti, založené na něčem, pro co již jsou nyní důkazy už teď je těhotná. 4. I'm really tired. you home if you want. I'll take Jedná se o nabídku svezení domů, proto budoucnost s WILL. Také to lze brát jako momentální rozhodnotí, které člověk udělal na základě toho, že ten druhý řekl, že je unavený. I'm going to take 5. He's got a new job in Boston, so there. he'll move he's going to move Říkáme, že má novou práci a tak se přestěhuje, je to předpověď založená na tom, že vím o jeho nové práci, nebo to také může být jeho plán, rozhodnutí, které už udělal. 6. What are you doing tomorrow? I don't know. I think my parents. I'll visit člověk si zde není jistý tím, že se to stane, nemá žádný plán, jen říká, co si myslí, nebo co ho momentálně napadlo, proto WILL. I'm going to visit 7. Ugh, that food was terrible! I think sick! I'll be I'm going to be Jedná se o předpověď založenou na již existujících důkazech, snědl něco špatného, je mu špatně a říká, že si myslí, že bude zvracet. 8. new strings for my guitar when you are in town? Thanks. Are you going to buy Will you buy Jedná se o prosbu, proto použijeme WILL. Zároveň lze říci, že po dotyčném žádáme momentální rozhodnutí: koupíš mi ty struny? ANO/NE. 9. Don't go out now. a thunderstorm. I've just heard it on the radio. There'll be There's going to be Jedná se o jistou budoucnost, je to předpověď založená na současných důkazech (hlásili to v rádiu, meteorologové to zjistili) 166

168 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 167 (celkem 270) 10. I don't think that on Mars. people are ever going to live people will ever live Pouze říkáme svůj názor o budoucnosti, není to předpověď založená na žádných důkazech či faktech. Pouze názor, proto WILL. 4) Q1 - I feel dreadful; I be sick. am going to will Either could be used here no option Q2 - Tonight, I stay in- I've rented a video. am going to will Either could be used here no option Q3 - If you have any problems, don't worry; I help you. am going to will Either could be used here no option Q4 - I completely forgot about it. Give me a moment; I do it now. am going to will Either could be used here no option Q5 - Look at those clouds- it rain any minute now. is going to will Either could be used here no option Q6 - The weather forecast says it snow tomorrow. 167

169 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 168 (celkem 270) is going to will Either could be used here no option Q7 - That's the phone- I answer it. am going to will Either could be used here no option Q8 - Thanks for the offer, but I'm OK; Shane help me. is going to will Either could be used here no option Q9 - Where are you going? I am going to see a friend. I'll see a friend. Either could be used here no option Q10 - Tea or coffee? I'm going to have tea, please. I'll have tea, please. Either could be used here no option 5) Mind map Possible answers: Competition Focus Scope Implementation Natural persons Legal persons Trade Act Profit 168

170 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 169 (celkem 270) Bibliography HARMER, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Cambridge : Longman, ISBN HELP FOR ENGLISH. Will x Going to. [online] [citováno ].Available on WWW: MURPHY, R. English Grammar in Use. CUP, Third edition. 28 p. ISBN SAYMOUR, J., POPOVA, M. 700 Classroom activities. Macmillan, , 83. ISBN SCRIVENER, J. Teaching English Grammar. Macmillan, Third edition. 186, 189, 190, 193, 196, 197 p. ISBN UE. Printable Handout: Will and Going to. [online] [citováno ]. Available on WWW: 169

171 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 170 (celkem 270) 3. PRICE PRICE CALCULATION, DEMAND AND SUPPLY Annotation: The aim of the module is to explain price as an economic category and the ways of its development. Then there is explained the nature of calculation, its types and there are analysed individual items of the calculation formula. In relation to the market definition there is characterized the supply and demand and the factors that influence them. 170

172 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 171 (celkem 270) Key words: Price, calculation, calculation formula, market, demand, supply Price price calculation, demand and supply 1. Price It is the expression of the amount which the consumer spends in exchange for the benefit which he receives by purchasing a product or services. When determining the price it is necessary to consider the internal aspects (e.g., objectives and business strategy, marketing objectives, the consistency between the elements of the marketing mix and the costs). The external factors include the nature and the structure of the market and demand, the costs, the price and the offer of the competition, or alternatively the expected behaviour of distributors. For pricing the company chooses one of three main methods: a) Price oriented to costs b) Price oriented to competition c) Price oriented to demand 1.1 Price oriented to costs This is the most common and the simplest method of determining the price. This method is based on the costs and the profit is calculated by the percentage ratio to the costs. For accurate pricing, it is necessary to consider not only the production costs and the producer s profit, but also the tax and trade margins. Costs of production: 171

173 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 172 (celkem 270) 1. fixed (it does not change with any changes in production volume e.g. rent, interest payments); 2. variable - it changes in response to changes in production volume: proportional (costs grow at the same rate as the production volume - e.g. labourers wage, direct material) progressive (costs are rising faster than production volume - e.g. advertising costs) regressive (costs are rising more slowly than the production volume e.g. energy); 3. indifferent costs (have no relationship to the production volume e.g. unexpected damages, shortages). Total production costs consist of the sum of all costs items. 1.2 Calculation Examines and sets the prices in terms of the spent costs. Calculation is the preliminary determination or the subsequent detection of costs or prices on the calculation unit. As a calculation unit we consider the performance, which must be precisely defined by the volume and the content (e.g., 1 kg of bread, 100 bricks, etc.). In terms of time, calculation is divided into: a) preliminary it includes the estimated costs of a calculation unit and it shall be completed before the production begins. The basis data are the technical-economic standards of direct costs consumption and indirect costs budgets. b) resulting it is drawn up after the performance and it contains the true costs spent on the calculation unit. The purpose is to compare the true spent costs with the costs pre-established in the preliminary calculation. The basis data are obtained from the internal accounting. Calculation formula Calculations are compiled in individual items of direct and indirect costs, which make up the so called calculation formula. The structure of its items depends on the type of activity and its organization. The 172

174 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 173 (celkem 270) accounting unit chooses the calculation formula that suits best with particular conditions. The most commonly used calculation items can be summarized in the calculation formula as follows: 1. Direct material 2. Direct wages 3. Other direct costs 4. Factory overheads Proper production costs 5. Supplying overheads 6. Managing overheads Proper performance costs 7. Distribution costs Complete proper performance costs 8. Profit Sales price Direct material means the basic material that goes into the value of the product and that can be directly determined on the calculation unit. E.g. wood for furniture. Direct wages are wages that can be directly determined on the calculation unit (normally the wages of production workers for the worked day). E.g. Carpenter s wage in manufacturing furniture. 173

175 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 174 (celkem 270) Other direct costs are all other costs that can be directly determined on the calculation unit. E.g. payments of insurance from production workers direct wages. Factory overheads are shared (overhead) costs that arise in the production department. E.g. depreciation of manufacturing machinery, their repairs, energy consumption in the production workshop, etc. Managing overheads are shared (overhead) costs that arise in the administration of an enterprise as a whole. E.g. wages of technical-economic and administrative staff (managers, accountants), the cost of performance of communications (telephone, postal services), the costs of computer equipment, etc. Supplying overheads are shared (overhead) costs associated with the supply of the enterprise and storage of the material. E.g. transport of material, wages of a warehouseman in the material stock, etc. Distribution costs are shared costs associated with the sale and storage of goods. E.g. advertising costs, delivery of products to customers, etc Setting the costs on the calculation unit Direct costs are generally determined in the preliminary calculation according to the by technicaleconomic standards (material consumption standards, time consumption standards of production workers). For the overhead costs there is first determined their total volume (i.e., it is based on budgets), and out of that there is calculated the percentage corresponding with the particular calculation unit. At the same time different ways of calculation are used, e.g. calculation made by dividing, calculation made by dividing using the ratio number and surcharge calculation. 174

176 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 175 (celkem 270) a) Calculation made by dividing - the simplest procedure for determining the indirect costs on the calculation unit in enterprises with homogeneous production. The total amount of budgeted costs is divided by the planned quantity of products. b) Calculation made by dividing using the ratio number it is used if the company produces several types of homogeneous products, which differ only in dimensions, size, etc. One of the products, usually the one which is according to the importance or quantity the most significant, is selected to be the basic one. The production of all other products is recounted on that particular one using the ratio numbers. c) Surcharge calculation is used in the production of several heterogeneous products with different costs. Overhead costs on the calculation unit are determined by using a margin, which represents the ratio of those costs to the cost-allocation base. The accounting unit sets this base itself. The attempt is usually to choose a cost-allocation base, which is directly proportional to the scheduled overhead costs. The cost-allocation base can be placed either in monetary terms (e.g., direct wages, direct material, total direct costs) or in natural form (e.g. machine hours, standard working hours of production workers). 1.3 Price oriented to competition It is based on copying the price of similar competing products. The set price may be higher (e.g. with branded goods), lower or at the same rate as the competition. The price difference over the competition is usually held constant. An example of this approach is a case when some companies within a tender of opening envelopes compete for the contract. They determine the price according to their estimation of the offer made by their competitors and they do not take into account so much the real costs and the demand. The disadvantage of this method is that it does not provide the desired level of profit. 1.4 Demand oriented pricing 175

177 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 176 (celkem 270) The basis of this method is the effort to uncover the relationship between the price and the quantity of sold goods. The attention is focused on the customer - on its approach to the valuation of benefits. The company tries to find out at what price the customers are willing to buy the product and what their reactions to price movements are. This information can be obtained by two ways: by asking consumers and observing consumer behaviour. 2. Market The market is a place where supply and demand meets. The market may be a department store, stock exchange, market place, but also the labour market or the money market. There are three subjects on the market - households, firms, state. 2.1 Supply Nowadays, everyone can choose where he buys goods. Products and services which the buyer chooses from constitute a supply. The law of supply says that with the rising price of goods the supply also increases. The higher the price of services or products is, the more sellers want to sell them on the market, and so the amount of the offered goods is increasing. If the price is low, the manufacturers do not want to sell the goods and the supplied quantity decreases. The supply depends on: price expected demand quantity of available sources public interest weather etc. The progress of the dependence of the price and the offered quantity is shown in this graph P S 176

178 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 177 (celkem 270) P 2 P 1 Q1 Q2 The offer is characterized by the supply curve (S), which captures the relationship between the price (P) and the quantity of the offered production (Q), if other factors remain unchanged. The law applies to the increasing supply - at a higher price, with all other things being equal, there is offered higher amount of production. Higher price motivates manufacturers to produce more; they can buy more resources, produce more goods and achieve higher profit. Price elasticity of the supply Price elasticity of supply indicates how sensitively a producer responds to changes in market prices (by changing their offered quantity). It is the proportion between the change in price, that the customer is willing to pay, and the change of the quantity that the manufacturer is willing to produce. Types of supply Individual supply an offer of one company on the market of one piece of goods Partial supply an offer of all companies on the market of one piece of goods, the sum of individual supplies on one market 177

179 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 178 (celkem 270) Aggregate supply market offer of all subjects on all markets, the sum of all market supplies 2.2 Demand A demand is what we call the interest of a buyer in products or services. A buyer comes on the market to purchase goods at the lowest price. The higher the price of goods is, the less people will be willing to buy the goods. If, for example, the price of a certain kind of food rises, there will be less people who will be willing to pay the higher price. Others will not buy it and they will replace it with other food. The demand depends on price personal preferences rent of an individual (household) modern trends, traditions weather etc. The dependence between the price and the demanded quantity is shown in this graph: P P 2 = 20 P 1 =

180 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 179 (celkem 270) Q2 (4 pieces) Q1 (8 pieces) The demand is reflected by the demand curve (D), which captures the relationship between the price (P) of the production and the demanded quantity (Q), if other factors remain unchanged. Here applies the law of falling demand, which says that if the price of goods increases, the demanded quantity of the goods decreases. This Act does not apply to e.g. luxury goods or goods of daily consumption. Factors influencing the demand: a) type of production - necessary, replaceable b) consumers income c) increasing population d) the share of the product within the consumer s expenses e) consumer preferences Price elasticity of the demand Price elasticity expresses "how sensitively" a consumer reacts to changes in market prices. It is the proportion between the price change that the manufacturer wants to get paid for his product and the change of the quantity purchased by the customer. The elasticity of the demand is important for the producers when manipulating with the price. If a minor reduction in the price of one product brings him a significant increase in sales, then the total profit will increase as a result of that price reduction. 2.3 The equilibrium price The seller tries to get the buyer on the market with a more favourable price, quality, speed of delivery and service. Buyer can select the service or product that best suits him. The prices of the products and services are constantly changing, and the size of the offered and demanded quantity is changing too. If 179

181 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 180 (celkem 270) at a certain price the supply equates with the demand, the market equilibrium will come to pass. The equilibrium price is thus the price that arises when the supply and the demand becomes equal (point E). 2.4 Inflation Inflation expresses the increase in the price level. Inflation is measured by comparing the prices of selected goods and services of the baseline period to the reporting period. For example, if prices rise over the last year by 7%, it means that the inflation rate is 7%. If the inflation rate rises, then fewer goods can be bought with the same amount of money, thus the value of money decreases significantly. Inflation affects the most the people with fixed incomes, whose value decreases due to inflation. Inflation also negatively affects deposits as at elevated inflation the value of deposits decreases. On the other hand, debtors are those who thanks to the inflation earn. If you borrow e.g CZK with maturity of one year, at an increased price level e.g. for 10% you will actually return 10% less, because the sum owed does not have the same value as in the previous year. Glossary: Term Price 180 Meaning the value of goods and services expressed with money

182 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 181 (celkem 270) Market the place where supply and demand meets Dictionary budget (n) calculation unit (n) competition (n) consumer (n) cost-allocation base (n) costs (n) demand (n) deposit (n) detection (n) determine (v) equilibrium (n) inflation (n) margin (n) offer (n) overheads (n) preliminary (adj) purchase (v) ratio (n) remain (v) shortage (n) subsequent (adj) supply (n) surcharge calculation (n) rozpočet kalkulační jednice konkurence spotřebitel rozvrhová základna náklady poptávka vklad zjištění určit rovnováha inflace přirážka nabídka režijní náklady předchozí nakoupit podíl zůstat manko následný nabídka přirážková kalkulace Questions 1) What is the definition of price? 2) What aspects are necessary to be considered when determinig the price? 3) What kinds of costs production can you name? 181

183 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 182 (celkem 270) 4) How can we divide price calculation according to the terms of time? 5) What is inflation? Exercises 1) Complete with the present simple or will. a. Don t forget to call your mother before you. (leave) b. Go home when the concert. (finish) c. He until he finds a new job. ( not move) d. If I go to the supermarket, I some wine.(buy) e. As soon as he I ll go home. (calm down) 2) Complete with a word or expression from the list. after as soon as before unless when a) we finish the report, we could go for a drink. b) I must write it down I forget it. c) She will be very sad she hears the bad news. d) We won t get the tickets for the concert we book them. e) I ll call you I get to the hotel. 3) Match the words with the definitions. 1. budget 3. demand 2. competition 4. margin 182

184 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 183 (celkem 270) 5. supply a. the difference between what a business pays for something and what they sel lit for b. a plan of how a person or organisation will spend the money that is available in a particular period of time c. the amount of goods for sale d. rivalry between two or more businesses fighting for the same customer or market e. people s desire to buy or use particular goods and services 4) Make the correct collocations. 1. calculation 2. cost-allocation 3. direct 4. distribution 5. supplying 5) Mind map: otázky k zamyšlení, moderní trendy, klady a zápory atd. a. overheads b. costs c. base d. unit e. wages inflation demand supply Price calculation costs market wages Competition Stock exchange overheads 183

185 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 184 (celkem 270) Solutions 1) Complete with the present simple or will. a) Don t forget to call your mother before you leave. (leave) b) Go home when the concert finishes. (finish) c) He won t move until he finds a new job. ( not move) d) If I go to the supermarket, I will buy some wine.(buy) e) As soon as he calms down I ll go home. (calm down) 2) Complete with a word or expression from the list. after as soon as before unless when a) After we finish the report, we could go for a drink. b) I must write it down before I forget it. c) She will be very sad when she hears the bad news. d) We won t get the tickets for the concert unless we book them. e) I ll call you as soon as I get to the hotel. 3) Match the words with the definitions. 1.b, 2. d, 3. e, 4. a, 5. c 4) Make the correct collocations. 1.d, 2. c, 3. e, 4. b, 5. a Použité zdroje dle zásad citování, text a obrázky zvlášť KLÍNSKÝ, P. et al. Finanční gramotnost: obsah a příklady z praxe škol. Praha: Národní ústav odborného vzdělávání, s. ISBN KRÁL, BOHUMIL. Manažerské účetnictví. Praha: Management Press, s. ISBN

186 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 185 (celkem 270) 4. CONTRACTUAL RELATIONS Abstract of the text: The aim of the Contractual Relations in the Construction Industry article is to discuss and summarize the basic concepts occurring in this issue. The conclusion of the chapter contains a glossary with terms which is focused on the most important expressions of the text, its main orientation, problem which is discussed in it. Article: Businessmen enter into business relations with business partners and suppliers with whom they conclude various types of contracts with, following the valid legislation.it is often difficult to define the right type of contract which will refer to the determined task, n practice. If the parts conclude the contract which contains all of the determined important requierements (for example as in a contact of sale), then it will be about this type of contract (regardless if the parties directly realize i tor not). If the parties don t come to an agreement regarding the other details,, other legal regulations concerning this contact will be applied. If the parties want to digress from the legal regulation in some aspects, they have to express it clearly in the contract, which rights and obligations do they use instead of those established by the law. It is therefore necessary to determine what kind of contract it is in each given case, because then the whole contractual relationship will be subordinated to the regulation concerning this type of contract. In the case of contracts between partners from different legal environments it is a complicated issue. For these reasons, it is necessary to carefully read the content of the contract very careflly, as well as the individual terms and corresponding legislation, which also may be different in various countries. Contractual relations in the construction industry are very complicated issues and their performance requires experienced professionals. 185

187 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 186 (celkem 270) The most common types of contracts are the: Contract of Sale it is a kind of contract by which the seller enters into an obligation to deliver the purchased object to the buyer and the buyer enters into obligation to accept the purchased object and pay the agreed price to the seller. Contract for Work the contractor undertakes to the contract owner to perform a certain piece of work for the agreed price at his/her own risk (i.e. result of certain activity which is materially detectable) Lease Agreement the lesser leases to the lessee certain thing into usage for determinated time in return for payment (for example house, storage space, flat, machines and the like) Employment Contract it regulates the employment relation between the employer and the employee ( note: for example in the Czech Republic the contract for work or the contract for working performance regulates employment relation between the employer and the employee ) Insurance Contract the insurer undertakes to provide agreed insurance payment in case of accidental event and the insured undertakes to pay regular insurance premium to the insurer. Glossary: Term Contract Investor, builder and developer Explanation The contract is the document of contractual parties which specifies the subject of the contract, conditions of the conclusion, duration and conclusion of the contract relation, states the dates of performance, specifies the price or its formation or other requirements. The investor is sometimes referred to the person in the construction industry who is the purchaser of the building. However it is usually exchange of the concept builder. The financial investment of the investor can be also directed at buildings and building companies. In 186

188 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 187 (celkem 270) this instance, the usage of the concept investor doesn t have to be identical to the builder. It is used for this case or similar cases the concept developer. Supplier Orderer Project architect Due date Lesser Lessee Insurer Insured The person who provides services, supplies the goods or performs agreed construction work. The person that is natural person or legal person who during conclusion and performance takes action within his/her commercial or another commercial activity or independent employment performance and who is not consumer within the meaning of what was mentioned above in these commercial conditions. The person who performs designing activity (designs) for the purpose of the project. Determines the date or time until which the payer is obliged to pay his/her financial obligation. Nonobservance of the determined term ( so called delay) can be penalized in some way, for example pay the penalty, contactual fine or penalty for delay. the person who leases an object in return for payment to the lessee in order to use it temporarily (during the agreed time) or have benefit from it. the person whom the lesser leases an object for payment in order to use it temporarily (during the agreed time) or have benefit from it. the person who undertakes to provide insurance payment in agreed amount, if some accidental event happens which was determined in more details in the insurance contract the person who made a contract with the insurer 187

189 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 188 (celkem 270) Seller the person who sells products to the buyer or provides services Buyer The person who buys products from the seller or the seller provides him/her services Dictionary contract for work (n) contract of sale (n) contractual relation (n) digress (v) employment contract (n) insurance agreement (n) lease agreement (n) lesser (n) lessee (n) issue (n) obligation (n) requierement (n) summarize (v) supplier (n) undertake (v) valid (adj) smlouva o dílo kupní smlouva smluvní vztah odchýlit se pracovní smlouva pojistná smlouva nájemní smlouva pronajímatel nájemce problematika povinnost náležitost shrnout dodavatel zavázat se platný Questions 1) How can you difine the contract of sale? 2) How can you difine the contract for work? 3) How can you difine the employment contract? 4) How can you difine the insurance contract? 5) Who is a supplier? Exercises 1) Put the vocabulary into the correspondent definition. 188

190 v Českých Budějovicích Strana 189 (celkem 270) investor supplier to lease insurance obligation a) is the person who provides services, the goods or performs agreed construction work. b) is a person in construction industry who is the purchaser of the building. c) is the synonym of duty. d) is the act, system, or business of providing financial protection for property, life, health, etc. e). means to grant use or occupation of something under the terms of a contract. 2) Match the the vocabulary form with the vocabulary from A E. 1. contractual 2. lease 3. legal 4. storage 5. insurance A. payment B. space C. agreement D. relations E. regulations 3) Complete with the gerund or infinitive. a) It s not easy at university. (study) b) She s worried about her job. (lose) c) Remember me the photos, I d like to print them.(send) d) My boss made me the contract. (sign) e) I m sure he pretended ill. (be) 4) Match the sentence halves. 1. He forgot 2. I ve decided 3. He s afraid of 4. She promised 5. You should go on A. looking for your lost wallet. B. not to take drugs anymore. C. to buy the stamps. D. not to tell anybody about my disease. E. falling in love with his teacher. 189

191 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 190 (celkem 270) 5) Mind map otázky k zamyšlení, moderní trendy, klady a zápory atd. Contract of sale Contractual relations Supplier Employment contract employee Insurance contract insurer Lease agreement Lessee Solutions 1) Put the vocabulary into the correspondent definition. investor supplier to lease insurance obligation a) A supplier is the person who provides services, the goods or performs agreed construction work. b) An investor is a person in construction industry who is the purchaser of the building. c) Obligation is the synonym of duty. d) Insurance is the act, system, or business of providing financial protection for property, life, health, etc. e) To lease means to grant use or occupation of something under the terms of a contract. 2) Match the the vocabulary form with the vocabulary from A E. 1. E 2. C 3. D 190

192 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 191 (celkem 270) 4. B 5. A 3) Complete with the gerund or infinitive. a) It s not easy study at university. (study) b) She s worried about losing her job. (lose) c) Remember to send me the photos, I d like to print them.(send) d) My boss made me sign the contract. (sign) e) I m sure he pretended to be ill. (be) 4) Match the sentence halves. 1. C 2. D 3. E 4. B 5. A Použité zdroje dle zásad citování, text a obrázky zvlášť 5. MARKETING IN THE CIVIL ENGINEERING 191

193 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 192 (celkem 270) Key words: Construction market, marketing mix, product, public relations. Annotation of the text: The Module concerns the structure of the construction market in terms of marketing, characterises marketing tools and specific role of the customer in the construction market. Article: 1. The Structure of the Construction Market The construction market is a microenvironment with a quite complicated inner structure. From the marketing point of view, we can divide it into the following markets: a) The Market of Construction Works Completion There is a creation of the construction work, the place, where the demand meets the supply. The result is a new construction, renovation, modernisation, or maintenance of the construction. b) The Market of Building Materials and Technologies The secondary market: this market directly supports and influences the main market. These are mainly design offices which decide on installation of various products and technologies into constructions. 192

194 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 193 (celkem 270) c) The Civil Service Market The file of engineering, design and consulting offices and suppliers of construction machinery and equipment. The planning agencies offer their services to investors; they cooperate during the implementation in a form of a so called authorial supervision. The suppliers of the construction machinery and equipment enter the market as the contractors of the specific building units (the depth foundations of buildings) or as the lessors of the construction machinery or equipment.. d) The Real Estate Market This market arises after the approval of the building. The building is the subject of the sale or the rent from this moment. Many projects are sold at the beginning of the construction and also during it. 1.1 The Entities Operation in the Construction Market The construction market interacts with several entities: investors; buyers; contractors, building contractors; manufacturers and retailers of building materials and technological systems; manufacturers and sellers of construction equipment; design and consulting agencies offering a geological exploration activities; engineering firms providing for example construction supervision and planning and approval process; sellers of a real estate (real estate agents, households, developers, companies); state authorities building authority and other government bodies. 193

195 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 194 (celkem 270) These subjects can be classified in terms of market trade relations into three mutually influencing groups: a) The customer can be a private investor (households, firms), institutional investors (banks, friendly society - insurance) or a public authority (government agency, municipality, county, contributory and non-profit organisations. b) The competition manifests as a set of menu, affecting the price level. For instance, suppliers of the constructions and the subcontractor. c) The individual company -enters the market with its offer to the customer. Relations among the customer, the company and the competitors are expressed by the marketing triangle. Scheme no. 1:Marketing triangle, Plekač

196 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 195 (celkem 270) Zákazník customer Poptávka demand Ceny prices Nabídka supply Náklady costs Podnik company Konkurence - competition Side AB expresses the relationship between marketability and feasibility of the company products; Side AC expresses the relationship of the supply and demand; Side BC characterises the competitive environment. Methods of Obtaining Contracts at the Construction Market: In cases, where the investor is the State, there is applied the Public Procurement Act. Private investors who demand free capacity at the construction companies. Active communication with the potential investors. Based on the good references from satisfied investors. Searching of the marketing opportunities which turn into a construction company investment plans. The company become the investor and contractor of the construction and then looks for the buyer of a tenant. 2. Marketing Tools The use of marketing in the company enables to predict the effect of future market factors and in connection with them to form a promising strategy and business policy ensuring stability and competitiveness. 195

197 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 196 (celkem 270) The Market Segmentation The Market segmentation represents the division of the market into smaller groups based on characteristics that the firm establishes itself as to create a group that wants to reach out and provide their services. It is ideal to get the leadership position in the selected construction field and subsequently indicate the direction of the development. The Marketing Analyses and Prognoses The Marketing analyses and prognoses survey the future development of the selected segment, the development trends and the behaviour or the potential customers. This is the collection, sorting and processing of marketing character, which can be obtained from internal sources (accounting, statistics, databases of the relevant projects, questionnaire surveys) and the external resources (materials from the statistical offices, ministries, government and parliament, the public press, leaflets, catalogues, annual reports, special studies of various institutions, etc.) Marketing Planning Defines the conceptual and strategic objectives, sets out a long-term and short-term market activity. The result is an offer of the product responding to the situation at the market. 3. Marketing Mix The traditional marketing mix comprises the: product, price, distribution, communication. The uniqueness of the construction industry is the own marketing. The reason is that it does not offer a finished product, but only the means to create it. 196

198 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 197 (celkem 270) The Customer From the Perspective of the Construction Marketing The customer is the investor of the construction for the construction company. The development company understands the customer as the final user of the building. The customer decides to spend significant funds into something that does not have the opportunity to be seen in the physical form. The idea of the work can only be made from the project documentation. 3.1 The Product in Civil Engineering The character of the product in civil engineering is totally unique in comparison with the other fields of the national economy. The construction is immobile, expensive and huge, with a long life-span. It is always connected with the land and built in accordance to the specific needs of the investor. The implementation of the construction is time consuming and usually requires a complex preparation. It demands a significant amount of human resources. When the building enters the market, where it confronts with supply and demand, the building becomes goods. The product is a tangible purpose-oriented material goods focused on covering of the primary needs (housing) or to expand the operation. The exchange value of the product reflects its functional and physical characteristics and is attributed by both the manufacturer and the customer. The market value of the product is determined by supply and demand. The market value is the real value of the product. Versatility is the summary of the functional features. The customer does not buy only the product as such, but as well a set of features and individual expectations which are connected with it. The product in the civil engineering is a set of services inseparable from the product as such. Characteristics belonging to the product: Functionality summary of functions forming the system of the utility features of the product; Effectiveness reflects expediency of the used money and operating costs; Design from the architectonical point of view, all parts of the building should be perfect; Ecology the building should not harm the user s health or burden its surroundings; 197

199 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 198 (celkem 270) Brand expresses the identification with the manufactures and determines the quality of the product. The product in the civil engineering also includes services, e.g.: engineering geological and surveying services provision of various reports and studies provision of special technological processes consulting The Price and the Specifics of its Determination in Civil Engineering The price is a form of the market value expression of the product. It is determined on the basis of the individual documentation given by the project investor. The price is usually determined on the competitive basis. Contracts can be obtained even at electronic auctions. The parties may agree on a guaranteed price e.g. for new buildings, or preliminary price (for the reconstructions). The price is determined by the combination of the cost oriented and competition oriented method during the tenders. 3.2 The Distribution It is necessary to solve the transportation of the material, human resources and equipment for the construction at the time and amount which is required by the construction contractor. 3.3 The Communication Mix The aim of the communication mix is to reach the investor and influence his purchasing behaviour to obtain the contract. The Characterisation of the Target Groups a) the primary target group current and potential investors: 198

200 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 199 (celkem 270) b) the secondary target group general public, informed citizens, current and future staff, media, competitor, governments, interest and pressure groups. Communication with Existing Investors pre-investment communication is done at the level of the personal conduct; at the implementation phase sting of the communication channels by the investor and the contractor of the construction; at the post-investment phase the communication oriented on the legislative and economic processes. The marketing department should gain the final report on the project from the investor. The Communication with the Potential Investors The references that link to the quality, reliability and compliance with the schedule or the construction works are crucial for potential clients. The first communication should be based on the addressed direct marketing. The Communication with a General and Informed Public and the Media The general public should be aware of the vision, mission, company and the owners. The main type of the communication with the public is the PR with the emphasis on the social responsibility. The internet (the website), press releases, lectures, conferences, trade fairs and exhibitions are an ideal source for the communication with media. The Communication with the Employees The company has to motivate the staff by the different level of qualification, thinking and the value chart of the set vision. Well informed and motivated people are effective and perspective for the company Advertising and Promotion 199

201 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 200 (celkem 270) The task of the advertising is to inform about the existence of the product and affect potential investors in their decision making. As promotion tools can be used: the presentation on the company website, professional and related portals and sites; printed materials, from business cards, letterhead, through an annual report to the catalogue of the reference buildings and yearbook; TV and radio spots; outdoor advertising; advertising in cinemas; audiovisual images; references Sales Support Sales support is created by the set of short-term incentive tools designed for the stimulation of the quicker and bigger purchase of a given product or a given service by the consumer. Their aim is the stimulation for the purchase. It is different from the advertisement which offers the reason for the purchase. The sales support provides the accompanying tangible or intangible benefits in the civil engineering field, which motivates the investor to enter the contract. Means of sales promotion in this sector are limited by the main criterion of the tender, by the price. This is the reason why is the discount used as the main tool of the sales support. Furthermore, it can be better payment conditions, provided guaranty on the investor loans and advisory services in the field of the legislation or the environmental policy Personal Sales Personal sales are implemented by the form of the sales meeting, the presentation, the active telemarketing or at the trade fairs and exhibitions. The personal sales have a presentational character in 200

202 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 201 (celkem 270) the civil engineering because of maintaining of the contact and introducing the potential investor with the company possibilities. The advantage is the direct impact and the immediate feedback that allows to modify the offer at the place Direct Marketing Direct marketing uses the direct channels to address the customer and to deliver the goods and services to the customer without using the negotiators. Means of the direct marketing is: prospects, leaflets, catalogues, magazines for the target groups, telemarketing interactive videotexts. The tools of the direct marketing are: direct mail, telemarketing, coupon ads, embedded attachments (response cards, vouchers), advertising with a reply card teleshopping. 201

203 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 202 (celkem 270) Construction companies usually apply targeted direct marketing. They address the selected potential investors in the form of an invitation to an event of offer free capacity. They send the annual reports in consignments, catalogues of the reference buildings and inform about the gained awards Expositional Activities The company must decide, if they participate at the fair as the visitor or the exhibitor. It is necessary to consider the following items before the participation: the participation aim; the way of a new product presentation; financial performance; qualified staff; kinds of the advertising material Internet The resonation of the company via the internet is the cheapest, the most effective and the most comfortable way of providing the information to all target groups. It is necessary to conduct a survey of the impact of relevant servers with the necessary focus and apply SEO in order to achieve efficiency. The actual provision of the information is passive and it is therefore appropriate to add the back collecting of data about site visitors. The website should be interactive in order to be interesting for the searchers Public Relations Public Relations (PR) are oriented on the non-business activity with the target on creating the positive relationship with the company and its locality. It includes publications, events, sponsoring, messages, public performance, activities connected with the social services and medial activity. 202

204 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 203 (celkem 270) PR allow for a clear definition of the company against competitors and open to the public. PR are appropriate for building the standing of the company in the region, for communication in the field of the social and environmental politics and a technical and qualitative standards of the company. It is ideal to have one s own website, a foreign professionally oriented website, or a company magazine for PR. The company can support the publication of the professional literature focused on the civil engineering or contribute to the professional magazines or the regional print The Company Vision and Identity The clearly formulated existential targets, which are wanted by the company to reach, are its vision. The vision should include the long-term policies and long-term goals and plans. The vision should permeate the whole society. The vision has the main motivation importance, it is to give a direction and a target to the effort. The logo is the unique graphical expression of the company identity. The company identity includes the vision and adds the activity of the company. The company identity includes as well the company philosophy, culture and communication The Company Design a Style The company design and style is the outer perception of the company. The company style should appear at all company materials. It includes the logo, font style, colours, symbols, motto and clothes of the staff. The design can be used at the inner environment of the company, architecture and company vehicles. The company should have its own design manual where are the standardised rules of the design features usage The Company Image The company image represents the look of the company as it is seen by the target group, the associations connected with the name of the company. The good communication is the tool of indentifying with the image of the company. 203

205 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 204 (celkem 270) Glossary: Word Explanation Marketing isthe manager process which allows the detection, anticipation and meeting the requirements of the customers by a cost-effective manner. Literature: 1. Plekač, J., Soukup, L.: Marketing vestavebnictví, 1. vyd. Praha, Grada Publishing 2001, 232 s., ISBN Kotler, P., Keller, K.: Marketing management, 12. vyd. PrahaGrada Publishing 2007, 788 s., ISBN Pospíšil, P.: Efektivní public relations a media relations, 1. vyd. Praha, Computer Press 2002, 153 s., ISBN Text adapted for language exercises - Marketing in the Civil Engineering Annotation: The topic of this lesson is marketing in the civil engineering. The lesson concerns the chosen information on marketing in this field and is focused on the product in civil engineering. The exercises deal with vocabulary concerning marketing in the civil engineering. The students will also practise the use of the passive voice and the use of the negative. Key words: Construction market, marketing, product. Marketing in the Civil Engineering - Product in the Civil Engineering The construction market is a microenvironment with a complicated inner structure. From the marketing point of view, we can divide it into the following markets: market of construction 204

206 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 205 (celkem 270) works completion, market of building materials and technologies, market of civil service and real estate market. The construction market interacts with several entities, such as: investors; buyers; contractors, building contractors, manufacturers and retailers of building materials and technological systems, manufacturers and sellers of construction equipment, design and consulting agencies offering a geological exploration activities, engineering firms providing for example construction supervision and planning and approval process, sellers of a real estate (real estate agents, households, developers, companies) and others. These subjects can be classified in terms of market trade relations into three mutually influencing groups: The customer can be a private investor (households, firms), institutional investors (banks, friendly society - insurance) or a public authority (government agency, municipality, county, contributory and non-profit organisations. The competition manifests as a set of menu, affecting the price level. The individual company - enters the market with its offer to the customer. The use of marketing in the company enables to predict the effect of future market factors and in connection with them to form a promising strategy and business policy ensuring stability and competitiveness. Product in Civil Engineering The character of the product in civil engineering is totally unique in comparison with the other fields of the national economy. The construction is immobile, expensive and huge, with a long life-span. It is always connected with the land and built in accordance to the specific needs of the investor. The implementation of the construction is time consuming and usually requires a complex preparation. It demands a significant amount of human resources. 205

207 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 206 (celkem 270) When the building enters the market, where it confronts with supply and demand, the building becomes goods. The product is a tangible purpose-oriented material goods focused on covering of the primary needs (housing) or to expand the operation. The exchange value of the product reflects its functional and physical characteristics and is attributed by both the manufacturer and the customer. The market value of the product is determined by supply and demand. The market value is the real value of the product. Versatility is the summary of the functional features. The customer does not buy only the product as such, but as well a set of features and individual expectations which are connected with it. The product in the civil engineering is a set of services inseparable from the product as such. Characteristics belonging to the product of civil engineering are functionality, effectiveness, design, ecology and brand. Functionality is a summary of functions forming the system of the utility features of the product. Effectiveness reflects expediency of the used money and operating costs. Design from the architectonical point of view, all parts of the building should be perfect. From the point of ecology, the building should not harm the user s health or burden its surroundings. Brand expresses the identification with the manufactures and determines the quality of the product. Dictionary advertising agency brand business buyer case company comparison reklama, propagace, inzerce agentura značka obchod kupující, kupec, nákupčí případ, pád firma, společnost porovnání, srovnání 206

208 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 207 (celkem 270) competitiveness competitor completion concern to concern construction consulting contractor cost customer design developer development effectiveness equipment expectation immobile inseparable installation investor land machinery maintenance manufacturer market market segmentation marketability microenvironment supplier konkurenceschopnost, soutěživost konkurent, soupeř, protivník kompletace, dokončení znepokojovat, týkat se stavba, konstrukce konzultující, konzultační podnikatel, dodavatel, smluvní strana cena, náklad zákazník návrh, design projektant, projektantská firma rozvoj účinnost, efektivnost vybavení očekávání nemobilní neoddělitelný instalace investor pozemek, země, pevnina stroje, mašinérie údržba výrobce trh segmentace trhu prodejnost, zpeněžitelnost mikroprostředí dodavatel Questions 10) How can the construction market be divided? 11) Who can be a customer in terms of civil engineering marketing? 12) What does the competition affect? 13) What does the use of marketing in the company enable? 14) Why is the character of the product in civil engineering unique? 15) What does the implementation of the construction require? 16) According to the text, how would you define the product in the civil engineering? 17) What is the market value of the product determined by? 207

209 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 208 (celkem 270) 18) What are the characteristics belonging to the product of civil engineering? Exercises 10) Rewrite these sentences into the passive voice. o) We divide this section into a technology section and a construction section. p) This firm provides the supervision of constructions. q) They sold the buildings last month. r) People usually classify these objects into three categories. s) The use of marketing tools enables to predict the effect of future market factors. t) The company implemented their plan in January. u) This plan demands a significant amount of financial resources. 11) Match the words with their Czech equivalents: equipment inseparable competitiveness maintenance completion contractor costs expectation supplier manufacturer marketability údržba prodejnost, zpeněžitelnost očekávání podnikatel, (dodavatel) výrobce neoddělitelný vybavení kompletace, dokončení konkurenceschopnost náklady dodavatel 12) Put the following words into the gaps in the text. supplier equipment inseparable costs maintenance contractor developer installation machinery 208

210 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 209 (celkem 270) 1) is similar to liquidity, except that liquidity implies that the value of the security is preserved. 2) The had to assess all material possibilities before the construction began. 3) The product in the civil engineering is a set of services from the product as such. 4) Our biggest caused us several problems. The delivery of material was delayed. 5) The laboratory bought completely new last year. Now the students can use new devices, machines and tools. 6) The program requires a new. 7) During the construction, we used various kinds of and vehicles. 8) The have increased by 8 % in the last period. 9) This device needs a regular. Without it, it cannot work properly. 13) Put these sentences into the negative. Look at the example: The costs have risen a lot. = The costs have not risen a lot. f) We usually use this kind of building material, it is highly reliable. g) The exchange value of the product reflects its functional and physical characteristics. h) The contract was signed yesterday. i) The company has already reached its targets. j) They bought all necessary material to begin the construction. Solutions Questions 209

211 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 210 (celkem 270) 1) How can the construction market be divided? The construction market can be divided into a market of construction works completion, a market of building materials and technologies, a market of civil service and a real estate market. 2) Who can be a customer in terms of the civil engineering marketing? A customer can be a private investor, an institutional investor or a private authority. 3) What does the competition affect? The competition affects the price level. 4) What does the use of marketing in the company enable? The use of marketing in the company enables to predict the effect of future market factors and to form a strategy and business policy ensuring stability and competitiveness. 5) Why is the character of the product in civil engineering unique? The character of the product is unique because the construction is immobile, expensive and huge, with a long life-span. (It requires a long preparation etc.). 6) What does the implementation of the construction require? The implementation of a construction usually requires a complex preparation and demands a significant amount of human resources. 7) According to the text, how would you define the product in the civil engineering? The product in the civil engineering is a set of services inseparable from the product as such. 8) What is the market value of the product determined by? The market value is determined by supply and demand. 9) What are the characteristics belonging to the product of civil engineering? The characteristics are functionality, effectiveness, design, ecology and brand. Exercises 1) a) This section is divided into a technology section and a construction section. 210

212 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 211 (celkem 270) b) The supervision of construction is provided by this firm. c) The buildings were sold last month (by them). d) These objects are usually classified into three categories. e) To predict the effect of future market factors is enabled by the use of marketing tools. f) Their plan was implemented in January. g) A significant amount of financial resources is demanded by this plan. 2) equipment inseparable competitiveness maintenance completion contractor costs expectation manufacturer marketability vybavení neoddělitelný konkurenceschopnost údržba kompletace, dokončení podnikatel, (dotavatel) náklady očekávání výrobce prodejnost, zpeněžitelnost 3) 1) Marketability is similar to liquidity, except that liquidity implies that the value of the security is preserved. 2) The contractor had to assess all material possibilities before the construction began. 3) The product in the civil engineering is a set of services inseparable from the product as such. 4) Our biggest supplier caused us several problems. The delivery of material was delayed. 211

213 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 212 (celkem 270) 5) The laboratory bought completely new equipment last year. Now the students can use new devices, machines and tools. 6) The program requires a new installation. 7) During the construction, we used various kinds of machinery and vehicles. 8) The costs have increased by 8 % in the last period. 9) This device needs a regular maintenance. Without it, it cannot work properly. 4) a) We usually don t use this kind of building material, it is not highly reliable. b) The exchange value of the product doesn t reflect its functional and physical characteristics. c) The contract was not signed yesterday. d) The company has not already reached its targets. e) They didn t buy all necessary material to begin the construction. 212

214 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 213 (celkem 270) 6. REAL ESTATE VALUATION Key words: Price, value, real estate Annotation: Real estate valuation is a branch of the construction industry, when a monetary equivalent is assigned to a particular construction, its part or a group of buildings. Valuation of real estate has many objectives, and considering that orientation in the basic terminology is necessary, particularly regarding the international market. Essay: Real estate valuation is not only currently used when buying or selling real estate but It also serves, among other things, for market analysis, purchasing power of the inhabitants and to a wide range of other activities. In most countries there is a role of experts of real estate value. Experts can put value on the property according to legal regulations, or based on experience from previous sales of similar properties in the locality. In some countries there is an official database of prices of the properties sold. However, such a database does not exist in most countries and so the easiest way is that the real estate agent determines the market price on the basis of his own experience. Basic Terms 213

215 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 214 (celkem 270) Price and Value The term price is usually used for an amount of money which is required, offered or already paid for goods or services. It may or may not be related to the value. The price shows what amount is necessary to give, in order to obtain certain goods or service. Prices are usually expressed in monetary units. Nevertheless, the payment doesn t need to be made in cash. Unlike the price, the value is not the amount of money which is actually paid, required or offered. The value of goods (services) is an economic category that expresses the relationship between people and goods (services) in terms of their interest in the goods. With respect to the people s interest in the goods. (Services) is determined by the degree of the of goods (services ) utility properties for the person in a specific place and time. That implies that the value of goods or services expresses the utility benefit level, which emerges from the goods (services) in favour of its users. For the same goods this utility benefit level may be very different for various persons at the same time and place. Therefore, the value of things cannot be expressed with an accurate sum of money, which is reflected in the market price of things and also that s why the value of things can be totally different from the price of the item on the market. Participants on the Real Estate Market: Basic participants on the real estate market are:. - the seller, who sells the property - the buyer, who buys the property - the landlord, who leases the property to tenants on the basis of a lease agreement (in this contract both parties agree on the regular rent payment, arranged period of time that the tenant can use the property and other conditions) - the tenant, the person, who the landlord leases the property to on the basis of the conditions regulated in the lease agreement Basic Methods of Real Estate Valuation There are three basic valuation methods used - comparative, cost and yield. In practice, all three methods are used independently or combination of the three. The comparative method sets the value of the property by analyzing the sales of comparable properties in recent period of time. The comparative method is based on the premise that an informed buyer would not pay for the property more than for another property with the same utility. The cost method takes into account the costs associated with reproduction or replacement of the valued real estate. From this value potential depreciation or devaluation caused by physical decay and 214

216 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 215 (celkem 270) functional or economical deficiencies are deducted, in the case that they exist and are measurable. The cost method is based on the premise that an informed buyer would not pay for the property more than for another property with the same utility. Information about the valued property is used for the determination of the costs of acquisition of a new material property and for determination of the costs of a comparable substitution. The yield method derives the value of the property from the value of a future income which can be obtained from it. Properties that are able to generate income are usually valued on the basis of this fact. When using the yield method the valuation is made on the basis of capitalization of the potential net rental income from the property corresponding with the investment risks contained in its ownership. Important Factors Affecting the Real Estate Value Locality, situation, and placement this factor, probably, affects the value the most. It depends on the position on the local scale (for example, the position in the municipality), regional scale (eg district or region), as well as supra-regional scale (eg state). The size and spatial arrangement - acreage, latitude, longitude, elevation, overall shape and other parameters affect mainly the value of land. As for the buildings, what matters are primarily the internal dimensions, floor area of particular rooms, their orientation considering the cardinal points and the overall concept of property. Technical conditions and age - the task that an assessor or an expert of the valuation of real estate also has to take into account is the overall technical condition of the valued property and its age, if it regarding a building. The attractiveness of the surroundings and the use of neighbouring land - these factors are often ignored and neglected. However, they play a significant role especially in the market with buildings for housing. Availability of transport and technical infrastructure - taking account this fact is especially important for the planned realization of constructions. Example basic information about a property designated for sale. Type of property: This can be a house, land, a building or part of a building with the possibility of commercial use or any other use with the description of the current status or previous use. Location: The basic division according to this criterion is ambiguous, but mostly it can be a town/rural area, 215

217 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 216 (celkem 270) village centre, the edge of a village etc. The access road, which often might not be well- specified, plays an important role in this case. The exact address of the property, type of surrounding buildings etc. is usually listed in this piece of information. Area The area of the land is usually expressed in units of m2 (square meters) or ha (hectares), although it is possible to come across other area units - for example acre, which may differ from region to region that s why it is recommended to convert it to area units based on the SI system. The areas are further divided into built-up, utility, floor and others - definitions of these terms may differ according to various regulations, so it is recommended to consult the definition with local regulations. Total price In the case of brokering the sale (lease) of the property, there is a note about the price, which defines, whether the price includes or excludes the commission of the real estate agency, fees associated with the transaction or legal services. State of property This item is usually a brief description of the technical conditions of the property. Property This document specifies the profile of the seller (landlord), in other words the type of ownership - private, cooperative, or another type. Technical facilities This item usually indicates whether the property is a source of water (or whether it is a local or remote source of water supply) or sewerage. If it is a buildings, there may be defined the type of heating, gas connection, electricity supply, or the accessibility of the public transport in the area (bus, train, heliport etc.). There is often stated the distance between the property and related public service stations. Building energy demand This relatively new figure proceeds from the evaluation of the building energy demand. Dictionary of basic terms: Real Estate Real estate is above all the land as a part of the Earth's surface, object, construction, or its part or a complex, whose foundations are firmly 216

218 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 217 (celkem 270) attached to the surface (i.e. can not be moved). Price Map Price map is used for valuation of property, especially land in the municipality or city mainly for real estate transfer tax, inheritance tax or gift tax and for all other cases, where the valuation under a special regulation is required. The price map can also be a tool leading to the correction of possible tax injustices caused by the mechanical application of valuation regulations. Market In the economic concept the market is a space, where goods are exchanged for money. Dictionary access road (n) accurate (adj) acquisition (n) acreage (n) affect (v) ambiguous (adj) assessor (n) assign (v) associate (v) commission (n) condition (n) convert (v) decay (n) depend on (v) depreciation (n) derive (v) přístupová cesta přesný pořízení výměra ovlivnit nejednoznačný odhadce přidělit spojovat si provize stav přeměnit, převést poškození záviset na snížení ceny odvodit 217

219 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 218 (celkem 270) devaluation (n) dimension (n) elevation (n) facility (n) fee (n) goods (n) income (n) inhabitant (n) landlord (n) latitude (n) lease (v) legal regulation (n) longitude (n) measurable (adj) monetary (adj) participant (n) premise (n) price (n) purchasing power (n) real estate (n) regarding (adv) remote (adj) rent (v) rural (adj) scale (n) sewerage (n) substitution (n) surroundings (n) take into account tenant (n) utility (n) valuation (n) yield (n) snížení hodnoty rozměr nadmořská výška zařízení poplatek zboží příjem obyvatel pronajímatel zeměpisná šířka pronajímat právní předpisy zeměpisná délka měřitelný peněžní účastník slib cena kupní síla nemovitost vztahující se vzdálený pronajímat venkovský stupnice kanalizace náhrada okolí brát v úvahu nájemník užitek oceňování výnos Questions 218

220 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 219 (celkem 270) 1) How does the real estate agent determine the value of a property? 2) Who is a tenant? 3) What are the principles of the comparative method of real estate valuation? 4) What are the most important factors that influence the real estate value? 5) What are the principles of the yield method of the real estate valuation? Exercises 1) Put the vocabulary into their correspondent definition. price depreciation value income landlord a) is a term used for an amount of money required, offered or paid for goods or services. b). is a monetary or material worth of something. c). is a person who leases the property to a tenant on the basis of a lease agreement. d)... is a decrease or loss in value, as because of age, wear, or market conditions. e)... is a monetary payment received for goods or services, or from other sources, such as rents or investments 2) Choose the right answer a, b, or c. 1) Which on is not a type of property? a) building b) land c) decay 2) A rural area is a kind of location situated in: a) in the historical city center b) in the countryside c) at the coastline 3) A waste pipe that carries away waste or surface water is called: a) sewerage b) heating c) electric power distribution 4) The right of an heir to succeed to property on the death of an ancestor is called: 219

221 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 220 (celkem 270) a) inheritance b) demand c) property 5) The place where goods are exchanged for money is called: a) estate b) market c) mall 3) Put the verb in the correct form, present simple or present continuous. Example: Let s go out. It isn t raining (not rain) now. a) Liz is very good at sports. She. (do) almost everything. b) We usually. (go) on summer holiday to Italy but this year we are very busy. c) Normally I work until 5 p.m. but this week I. (work) till 8 p.m. because my colleagues is ill. d) Hurry up. The taxi.. (wait) for you. e) Jack is in Paris and he. (stay) in the hotel Miramare. 4) Use the words in brackets to make sentences. Example: (you / not / seem / very happy today) You don t seem very happy today. a) A: (what / she / do?) B: I don t know, she must be crazy. b) A: (who / this dog / belong to?)... B: I think it is our neighbour s. c) A: (the soup / taste/ great!) B: Thanks, it s my mother s recipe. d) A: Excuse me. (you / use/ the computer?) B: Yes, but I ll be ready in 5 minutes. e) A: Can you call back at 2 p.m.? (I / have / a meeting). B: Ok, no problem. 220

222 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 221 (celkem 270) 5) Mind map otázky k zamyšlení, moderní trendy, klady a zápory atd. value participants Location Real estate price Type of property Technical conditions size building age Solutions 1) Put the vocabulary into their correspondent definition. acreage price depreciation value income landlord a) Price is a term used for an amount of money required, offered or paid for goods or services. b) Value is a monetary or material worth of something. c) Landlord is a person who leases the property to a tenant on the basis of a lease agreement. d) Depreciation is a decrease or loss in value, as because of age, wear, or market conditions. e) Income is a monetary payment received for goods or services, or from other sources, such as rents or investments. 2) Choose the right answer a, b, or c. 1) Which on is not a type of property? a) building b) land c) decay 2) A rural area is a kind of location situated in: a) in the historical city center b) in the countryside 221

223 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 222 (celkem 270) c) at the coastline 3) A waste pipe that carries away waste or surface water is called: a) sewerage b) heating c) electric power distribution 4) The right of an heir to succeed to property on the death of an ancestor is called: a) inheritance b) demand c) property 5) The place where goods are exchanged for money is called: a) estate b) market c) mall 3) Put the verb in the correct form, present simple or present continuous. Example: Let s go out. It isn t raining (not rain) now. a) Liz is very good at sports. She does (do) almost everything. b) We usually go (go) on summer holiday to Italy but this year we are very busy. c) Normally I work until 5 p.m. but this week I m working (work) till 8 p.m. because my colleagues is ill. d) Hurry up. The taxi s waiting (wait) for you. e) Jack is in Paris and he s staying (stay) in the hotel Miramare. 4) Use the words in brackets to make sentences. Example: (you / not / seem / very happy today) You don t seem very happy today. a) A: (what / she / do?) What is she doing? B: I don t know, she must be crazy. b) A: (who / this dog / belong to?) Who does the dog belong to? B: I think it is our neighbour s. c) A: (the soup / taste/ great!) The soup tastes great! B: Thanks, it s my mother s recipe. d) A: Excuse me. (you / use/ the computer?) Are you using the computer? B: Yes, but I ll be ready in 5 minutes. 222

224 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 223 (celkem 270) e) A: Can you call back at 2 p.m.? (I / have / a meeting) I m having a meeting. B: Ok, no problem. Použité zdroje dle zásad citování, text a obrázky zvlášť 223

225 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 224 (celkem 270) 7. CONSTRUCTION PROJECT Key words: Project, project designer, construction Anotace textu: The text focuses on explaining the basic concepts related to construction projects. Considering the complexity of the topic there has been described general information and principles that are almost universally applied in designing of buildings. Article: Construction projects has already been for hundreds of years an integral part of building designing. The word "project" comes from the Latin expression pro-jicio, pro-iectum that indicates an application or a schedule. The project is also often interpreted as a time-bound effort that aims to create a product or service. In particular, temporal borders distinguish the "project" from the term "process", which indicates a gradual action with a given specialization. The term "construction project" is usually meant as a document presented to the building management or its equivalents in external jurisdictions. The result of a construction project is a building permit. The construction project is one of the bases for building construction - for implementing the project. It includes more construction details, bills of quantities, construction budgets according to particular material items and so on. Implementing the project also serves as a basis for documentation of the actual state, including any changes that are made during construction additionally. Quality processing of a construction project corresponds not only to price, but also to the exact requirements of investors, which are considered in the project. It should be noted that the investigation of the construction project may end up with bad results i.e with the quality of 224

226 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 225 (celkem 270) construction and costs related to its treatment. Construction project can serve for an initial pricing, editing, treatments, consulting investors and suppliers. The construction contains a number of partial, dependent activities. These activities should be coordinated, planned and documented it is primarily provided by the project documentation. It is usually divided into different stages and levels according to the purpose and requirements. Requirements for the content and scale of the project documentation are usually regulated by building legislation of a particular state. Project documentation is mandatory for an organization of a construction. Development of a construction project usually starts with pre-project preparation (sometimes also "design intent") to form a comprehensive overview of the construction as an investment intent. At this stage it is necessary to analyze the basic relations in the area that may affect construction, check compliance with the master plan and so on. In specific plans that might require EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) in some countries (including the USA and all European Union countries), whose objective is to obtain a comprehensive overview of the effects of a construction on the environment and to assess whether it is appropriate to carry out such construction, or acceptability of the construction under specific conditions. There are usually included studies or preparatory construction works and documentation for planning permission in project preparation in the Czech Republic. The actual construction project then respects and extends outputs of the project preparation. Responsibility for the construction project carries the designer (in Czech legislation the designer is a natural person) and generally throughout the period the building is proposed. The designer may be judged and punished for incorrectly processed project according to the relevant legislation. At present, so-called "model projects" are very popular for the construction of houses. Their alternatively elaborated documentation can be provided with other services, including the realization of the house "turnkey". Such complex projects are usually offered by construction companies and individual designers. Home developers often offer model designs, while ensuring that the implementation of such building will be realized on lands they provide. Vocabulary Concept Project Explanation The word comes from the Latin pro jicio, proiectum that indicates the application or schedule. The project is often interpreted as a time-bound effort that aims to create a product or service. Project designer Supplier A person who carries out design activities (projects) for the purpose of the project. A legal or natural person providing services, supplies goods or carrying out construction work. Vocabulary 225

227 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 226 (celkem 270) bill of quantities (BOQ) building legislation building permit Costruction company EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) investor jurisdiction master plan model project Overview pre-project preparation ("design intent") Project designer project dokumentation supplier to design turkney house rozpočet (dokument) legislativa ve stavebnictví stavební povolení stavební společnost hodnocení EIA investor soudní pravomoc územní plán typový projekt přehled projektový záměr, příprava projektu projektant projektová dokumentace dodavatel navrhnout stavba na klíč Questions 1. What does the expression project mean? 2. What does a construction project include? 3. Where are all construction activities planned and documented? 4. Who carries the responsibility for the construction project? Exercises 1) Find the appropriate definition to the following expressions. 1. Project documentation 2.Master plan 3. Design intent 4. Building permit 5. Bill of quantities a) long-term outline of a project, a comprehensive long-term strategy. b) the objectives of the project from a system performance standpoint upon completion of the project. c) the way in which a project will be managed and the governance surrounding it. d) An itemized list of materials, parts, and labor (with their costs) required to construct, maintain, or repair a specific structure e) an authorization to proceed with the construction or reconfiguration of a specific structure at a particular site, in accordance with the approved drawings and specifications. 2) Choose the correct preposition. (By (2x), under, in, from, into, with, for). 1. Where does the brilliant idea come...? 2. The construction of building is divided... different stages. 3. Building regulations are made... and... accordance... the Building Act

228 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 227 (celkem 270) 4. The architects are not judged or punished... their wrongdoings in the way most people expect. 5. Technical recsue service can be provided... one of the core services or... a separate government or private body. 3) Find the correct definition to the phrasal verb. 1. get away with a) manage (financially) 2. get by b) advance, develop 3. get down to c) do something wrong without being punished 4. get on d) come to a succesful end 5. get out of e) avoid responsibility 6. get through f) start to give serious attention to 4) Make sentences with each expression. Ex. He could never get by on his salary alone SOLUTIONS Questions 1. An application or a schedule. 2. Construction details, bills of quantities, construction budgets according to particular material items etc. 3. In the project documentation. 4. The designer. 1) 1c, 2a,3b, 4e, 5d 2) 1. from 2. into 3. under, in, with 4. for 5. by, by 3) get away with - do something wrong without being punished get by - manage (financially) get down to - start to give serious attention to get on - advance, develop 227

229 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 228 (celkem 270) get out of get through 4) Free answers - avoid responsibility - come to a succesful end Sources: - ČESKO. Zákon č. 183/2006 Sb. ve znění pozdějších předpisů In: Sbírka zákonů Česká republika. ISSN Available from: - ČESKO. Zákon č. 40/1964 Sb. ve znění pozdějších předpisů In: Sbírka zákonů, Česká republika, available from - ČESKO. Zákon č. 89/2012 Sb, s účinností od , in: Sbírka zákonů, Česká republika, available from

230 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 229 (celkem 270) 8. PROJECT DOCUMENTATION Key words: Project, document, Civil Engineering Annotation of the text: The text is focused on the explanation of the basic terms in the field of the project documentation. The aim of the text is to explain the terms in general because there are many differences in the explanation of the terms in accordance with the different legislations. The body of the text: The term project documentation is based on words project and documentation. The word project refers to a process comprising of the coordinated activities with the dates of the beginning and the end. Its implementation is conditioned by the reaching of the target (implementation of the construction) which meets the requirements of the agreement, time limits, the selection of materials and financial budged. The process which leads to the drawings and the skills needed for their implementation is altogether called the projection. The word documentation refers to an important document, the evidence or the description of the reality. Every construction or reconstruction is implemented according to a project documentation. A project documentation in the civil engineering is a file of two-dimensional drawings and schemes replenished by the text part, the aim of which is to describe the construction, part of the construction 229

231 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 230 (celkem 270) or the process of the construction. Drawings and the textual part are usually processed digitally and then printed on the paper, or are spread in the digital form. Some of the organizations can have their own non-standardized formats, in order not to be adjusted illegally. Because the information technology can bring some complications, it is not exceptional to use the hand processing, especially of the older projects. For better imagination, the project documentation can be replenished by the three-dimension models, visualisations etc. The project documentation is processed by the project, the task of which is the cooperation with the managers, investors and the other members of the team or consultations with the external professionals, dealing with the authorities of the public administration, public network administrators, etc. The necessary part of the project documentation are the photos, which declare the former condition of the land, object or its parts and includes the pictures with the marked important details. Each picture is usually followed by a description and a small plan, when the position of the photographer and the direction of the photography are marked. The Aim and the Target of the Documentation The aim of the project documentation is a correct and precise description of all characteristics of the project, the location of the parts, machines, buildings, products, objects for fixture etc. The drawings can be carried out for the aim of the presentation and orientation in that case, only the needed details are reflected. The important feature of the project documentation is the scale of the reflection, usually expressed by the rate of reduction (and sometimes of an increase) of the reflected object in relation with its real dimensions. The project documentation can reflect the previous states of the objects. Its main sense is to display and describe the current state and design, or to provide the essential information for the implementation of the aim of the construction or production. The individual parts are differentiated graphically, usually by colours of the lines or by shading. The aim of the project documentation is to document the monitored area in a precise and explicit way. There are important parts of the project documentation are either the content or the form. We also distinguish its scope and details. The form of the documentation if necessary for a quick and simple orientation and determination of authors of the individual parts. An integral part of the drawings are therefore rosters, then the text part of the header text, provided with formalities required by special regulations. The project documentation is usually stored in the special files, binders or boxes and is also kept according to the grades or importance. The archiving of the project documentation is mainly carried out by the builder and at the locally relevant offices. The documentation is usually kept during the whole time of the building existence. The processing of the project documentation is the activity which can be done only by the authorised 230

232 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 231 (celkem 270) persons, whose professional ability is specified in accordance with the special law regulations. Grades (levels) of the project documentation The Intention of the Project The intention of the project, which characterises the aim and the financial demands of the future building, is usually made first. It contains also the supposed timing of the construction, the way of the use of the building and other details Study Studies of a various character, which solve the important individual problems (e.g. the appearance of the structure, financial demands, traffic complications, possibilities of the possible influence on the environment, usually follows after the introduction of the project aim. Although the studies seem to be the easiest type of the documentation, they solve the dispositional and proportional designs important for the other grades of the documentation. This part of the project documentation is usually consulted with the investor and adjusted in accordance with his/her remarks and wishes. The Documentation for Zoning This documentation usually serves as a basis for the publication of the zoning for the placing of the building, or as an equivalent for the foreign legislation. The Documentation for the Planning Permission This documentation usually serves as a basis for the publication of the zoning and for the placing of the building, or as an equivalent for the foreign legislation. Project Documentation for the Construction Implementation This documentation is usually processed by the designer and servers for a coordination of the construction. The designer is usually fully responsible for the documentation. In case of any problems, the project documentation is confronted with the real state. Documentation of the Real Implementation of the Building In case of any changes (different from the project documentation) during the implementation of the construction, the documentation of the real implementation of the building is processed. This documentation is important mainly because of the possibility of the future re-building and complaint. It can also be ordered by the building office, in accordance with the individual state. The legislations usually put the obligation to keep the documentation of 231

233 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 232 (celkem 270) the real implementation of the building. The Documentation of Demolition Works The documentation of the demolition works is necessary mainly for the procedure for a removal of a building. It is usually processed before the processing of the documentation of a building implementation. Its part is also the plan of handling with the waste and the plan of work safety during the demolition works. Vocabulary Plan Word Explanation The intention or an image of some future activity and its result (building, machine, organization, etc.)). Designer A person who carries out the project activity (projects) for the purpose to make a project. Content of project documentation Form of a project documentation Range of the project documentation Details of the project documentation Everything that concerns the parts of the project documentation A style of the given information about the project documentation can be either in the written or electronic form, it depends on the legislation of the individual state system The requirements are usually set by the special rules. The needed details of the project documentation (its range and content) is usually set by the appropriate notices and legislation in the Czech Republic. Source: ČESKO.Zákon č. 183/2006 Sb. vezněnípozdějšíchpředpisů In: SbírkazákonůČeskérepubliky. ISSN 232

234 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 233 (celkem 270) Dostupnýtaké z: ČESKO. Text adapted for language exercises - Project Documentation Annotation: The topic of this lesson is project documentation in the civil engineering. The lesson comprises the chosen information on a project documentation and the process of its making. The exercises are focused on vocabulary concerning project documentation. The students will practise the use of the negative and word forming. Key words: Project, document, civil engineering. Project Documentation Every construction or reconstruction needs a project documentation. A project documentation is a file of two-dimensional drawings and schemes replenished by the text part, the aim of which is to describe the construction, part of the construction or the process of the construction. Drawings and the textual part are usually processed digitally and then printed on the paper, or are spread in the digital form. Some of the organizations can have their own non-standardized formats, in order not to be adjusted illegally. Because the information technology can bring some complications, it is not exceptional to use the hand processing, especially of the older projects. For better imagination, the project documentation can be replenished by the three-dimension models, visualisations etc. The necessary part of the project documentation are the photos, which declare the former condition of the land, object or its parts and includes the pictures with the marked important details. Each picture is usually followed by a description and a small plan, when the position of the photographer and the direction of the photography are marked. The aim of the project documentation is a correct and precise description of all characteristics of the project, the location of the parts, machines, buildings, products, objects for fixture etc. The important feature of the project documentation is the scale of the reflection, usually expressed by the rate of reduction (and sometimes of an increase) of the reflected object in relation with its real dimensions. The project documentation can reflect the previous states of the objects. Its main sense is to display 233

235 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 234 (celkem 270) and describe the current state and design, or to provide the essential information for the implementation of the aim of the construction or production. The individual parts are differentiated graphically, usually by colours of the lines or by shading. Either the content or the form are important parts of the project documentation. The form of the documentation is necessary for a quick and simple orientation and determination of authors of the individual parts. The project documentation is usually stored in the special files, binders or boxes and is also kept according to the grades or importance. The archiving of the project documentation is mainly carried out by the builder and at the locally relevant offices. The documentation is usually kept during the whole time of the building existence. This documentation is usually processed by the designer and servers for a coordination of the construction. The designer is usually fully responsible for the documentation. In case of any problems, the project documentation is confronted with the real state. There are several levels of the project documentation. The first level is the intention of the project. The intention of the project, which characterises the aim and the financial demands of the future building, is usually made first. It contains also the supposed timing of the construction, the way of the use of the building and other details. Studies of the various character usually follows after the introduction of the project aim. They solve important individual problems (e.g. the appearance of the structure, financial demands, traffic complications, possibilities of the possible influence on the environment etc. Although the studies seem to be the easiest type of the documentation, they solve the dispositional and proportional designs important for the other grades of the documentation. This part of the project documentation is usually consulted with the investor and adjusted in accordance with his/her remarks and wishes. Next, there is a documentation for zoning and a documentation for the planning permission. These two parts precede the project documentation for the construction implementation and a documentation of the real implementation of the building In case of any changes (different from the project documentation) during the implementation of the construction, the documentation of the real implementation of the building is processed. This documentation is important mainly because of the possibility of the future re-building and complaint. It can also be ordered by the building office, in accordance with the individual state. The legislations usually put the obligation to keep the documentation of the real implementation of the building. Dictionary ability schopnost 234

236 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 235 (celkem 270) activity aim although appearance archiving author authorised base to base basic binder box comprise to comprise consult to consult content demand demolition dimension dispositional distinguish to distinguish documentation drawing explanation explicit file hand processing implementation include to include integral land law legislation location mark to mark precise processing product aktivita, činnost účel ačkoli, přestože vzhled archivování autor autorizovaný založit, základ základní pořadač krabice, rámeček skládat se poradit se, zeptat se, konzultovat obsah požadavek, nárok demolice rozměr, dimense dispoziční rozlišit dokumentace výkres, kresba, náčrt vysvětlení zřetelný, jasný, explicitní složka, soubor ruční zpracování realizace, implementace zahrnovat nedílný, neodlučitelný země, půda, pozemek právo legislativa lokace, umístění označit přesný, precizní zpracování produkt, výrobek 235

237 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 236 (celkem 270) project documentation projection provided reflection regulation relevant two-dimensional visualisation wish to wish zoning projektová dokumentace projekce pod podmínkou, za předpokladu odraz směrnice, nařízení relevantní, důležitý dvou dimensionální vizualizace, představa, vize přání, přát si rozdělení na pásma Questions 1) According to the text, how can you define a project documentation? 2) How are the drawings usually processed? 3) What can be a project documentation replenished by? 4) What is the aim of the project documentation? 5) What is an appropriate form of the project documentation important for? 6) Who does the archiving of the project documentation? 7) Who is fully responsible for the project documentation? 8) What is processed in case of any changes during the implementation of a construction? Exercises 1) Make questions. Ask for the underlined words in the sentences. a) Drawings and the textual parts are spread in the digital form. b) There are several levels of the project documentation. c) The studies solve the dispositional and proportional designs important for the other grades of the documentation. d) The necessary part of the project documentation are the photos. e) The documentation is usually kept during the whole time of the building existence. 236

238 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 237 (celkem 270) f) The project documentation is stored in the special files. g) Each picture is usually followed by a description and a small plan. 2) Put these sentences into the opposite form the positive sentences into a negative form and the negative sentences into a positive form. a) These studies were carried out in the specialized office. b) The builder didn t buy all needed material for the construction. c) Our company has already reached the target. d) The investor adjusted the implementation according to his wishes. e) The documentation for the planning permission has not been processed yet. f) It was ordered by the building office. g) The construction is in the progress. h) This documentation is important. 3) Put the following words into the gaps in the text. Legislation textual compromise distinguish explanation visualisation precise documentation a) Drawings and the part are added to the documentation. b) According to the, it must be handed in by the end of the year. c) It is very work, you can see here even the smallest details. d) The is in the files over here. Just have a look. e) The company didn t. They only accepted they own way of solution. f) Can you these two projects? I think they are the same, aren t they? g) Look at the bottom of the page. There is an of the used abbreviations. h) For better imagination, we provide a 3D. 237

239 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 238 (celkem 270) 4) Fill in the second column with the noun of the verb in the first column. Look at the example. to complain complaint to explain to consult to draw to demolish to implement to locate to regulate to reflect Solutions Questions 1) According to the text, how can you define a project documentation? Project documentation is a file of drawings and schemes with text describing the construction or its process. 2) How are the drawings usually processed? Drawings are usually processed digitally. 3) What can be a project documentation replenished by? The project documentation can be replenished by the three-dimension models and visualisations. 4) What is the aim of the project documentation? The aim of the project documentation is a correct and precise description of all characteristics of the project. 5) What is an appropriate form of the project documentation important for? It is important for a quick and simple orientation in the text. 6) Who does the archiving of the project documentation? The archiving of the project is usually carried out by the builder and the locally relevant offices. 238

240 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 239 (celkem 270) 7) Who is fully responsible for the project documentation? The designer is usually responsible for it. 8) What is processed in case of any changes during the implementation of a construction? In case of any changes, the documentation of the real implementation of a building is processed. Exercises 1) a) Drawings and the textual parts are spread in the digital form. How are the drawings and the textual parts spread? b) There are several levels of the project documentation. How many levels of the projects documentation are there? c) The studies solve the dispositional and proportional designs important for the other grades of the documentation. What do the studies solve? d) The necessary part of the project documentation are the photos. What is the necessary part of the project documentation? e) The documentation is usually kept during the whole time of the building existence. How long is usually the documentation kept? f) The project documentation is stored in the special files. Where/how is the project documentation stored? g) Each picture is usually followed by a description and a small plan. What is each picture usually followed by? 2) a) These studies were carried out in the specialized office. These studies weren t carried out in the specialized office. 239

241 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 240 (celkem 270) b) The builder didn t buy all needed material for the construction. The builder bought all needed material for the construction. c) Our company has already reached the target. Our company has not reached the target yet. d) The investor adjusted the implementation according to his wishes. The investor didn t adjust the implementation according to his wishes. e) The documentation for the planning permission has not been processed yet. The documentation for the planning permission has been already processed. f) It was ordered by the building office. It wasn t ordered by the building office. g) The construction is in the progress. The construction is not in the progress. h) This documentation is important. This documentation is not important. 3) a) Drawings and the textual part are added to the documentation. b) According to the legislation, it must be handed in by the end of the year. c) It is very precise work, you can see here even the smallest details. d) The documentation is in the files over here. Just have a look. e) The company didn t compromise. They only accepted they own way of solution. f) Can you distinguish these two projects? I think they are the same, aren t they? g) Look at the bottom of the page. There is an explanation of the used abbreviations. h) For better imagination, we provide a 3D visualisation. 4) to complain to explain to consult to draw to demolish to implement to locate complaint explanation consultation drawing demolition implementation location 240

242 Implementace cizojazyčných modulů za účelem profesního rozvoje středoškolských pedagogů v v Českých Budějovicích Strana 241 (celkem 270) to regulate to reflect regulation reflection 241

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