1 7. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT OF BUILDINGS Keywords: Technical equipment of buildings, heating, gas distribution, water pipelines, sewerage, ventilation, lighting, air conditioning, central vacuum, lightning conductor, electricity distribution. Abstract : Building services include the distribution of all necessary media inside and outside of the buildings. Most of the buildings wouldn t be able to fullfill its purpose without technical equipment.
2 Article: Technical equipment in buildings is a very broad discipline that provides the standard of the technical environment in buildings. It deals with the distribution and management of all of the necessary types of energy. These include: - heating, ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration, gas, water and sewer distribution, central vacuums - electrical wiring of force electricity, measuring and regulation, security equipment, telephone wiring, distribution of television signals, computer networks, building security, lightning conductors, lighting and lifts Heating - it is necessary to choose a suitable heating system and energy source for each object. Heating systems - for local heating are used heat sources placed in different rooms (e.g. tiled stoves, fireplaces, gas heaters, electric convectors, etc.). This way of heating is onlz suitable for small flats or vacation properties. Picture: tiles stove
3 - central heating is a more common system, the necessary heat is produced by one source common for the whole system and then the heat is distributed to all rooms by pipelines. Depending on the type of heat carrier, central heating is divided into: - Classic hot water heating where the heat transfer between the boiler and radiators is ensured by circulating water at a temperature of about 90 C. The advantage of water as a medium is its high heat capacity and so a small cross-section of pipes. - Low-temperature heating. These include floor or wall heating. As a result of the fact that they take up large heating surface in a room, they can use a low temperature of the heating water and it is advantageous when using a heat pump, a condensing boiler or a wood boiler with storage tank or solar system. - Steam heating, in which the heating medium is water vapor. Vapor brought by the vapor pipeline condenses in radiators and then the condensation returns by being piped back to the boiler. The disadvantage is the high surface temperature of the radiators and a difficult central regulation of the heating power. Nowadays it is used a little. - warm air heating recently begins to expand in homes that have recovery ventilation, especially in low-energy and passive houses. In these objects there is a little need of heat, and therefore the small heat capacity of the air doesn t matter. We can divide the systems into the following catagories acording to their movement. They are:
4 - Systems with the natural circulation of heating water ( circulation occurs due to the different specific weights of heating water) - Systems with the forced circulation of hot water (forced circulation is ensured by a pump) According to the radiator connection we can divide the systems to one pipe systems and two pipe systéms according to the radiator connectios. Picture: Central heating boiler for wood and the water heater
5 Heat sources: Electricity the conversion to heat is the easiest one. The heaters may be small, the performance is easily controllable, the system does not produce combustion gases. However, the manufacturing of electricity is very difficult and that s why it is the most expensive energy source. Heat pump it is actually a cooling machine that cools the surrounding environment (groundwater, soil or outdoor air) and the resulting heat is transferred to the heating system. The basic benefit is the low cost of the heat but the disadvantage is a relatively high purchase cost (several hundred thousands Czech crowns). Natural gas it is relatively easy to distribute (even though the gas network is not as widespread as the electric one) and regulate the power of the heaters. The construction of the heaters is more demanding than in the case of electric heaters. It is necessary to remove the combustion products and ensure safety when the flame goes out. Liquid fuels it is liquefied petroleum gas or light fuel oil;, the price of energy is higher and it is neessary to have a fuel tank. Coal - it was once the most widely used type of fuel. Nevertheless the used heaters had a relatively little effect and the imperfect combustion of coal has resulted in tremendous local air pollution District-supplied heat - mainly in cities. The disadvantage is often a higher price of the heat. Biomass it is a renewable energy source. Fresh biomass has a large water content and significantly reduces the calorific value. It is necessary to dry up the biomass before burning it. Biomass includes firewood, pellets, chips or briquettes pressed from wood waste, bark and energy plants.
6 Solar energy it is another renewable energy source that is easily used for hot water heating and to a certain extent for heating itself. The primary advantage is the wide availability but a very substantial disadvantage is seasonal and daily fluctuations. Picture: pellets Ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration - air conditioning is a system that ensures the exchange of indoor air. It can be pressurized, vacuum or uniform pressurized air conditioning system. The air conditioning cleans (filters) the air, regulates its temperature and provides the required humidity. Air conditioning is either central (common system for the entire building) or unit (there are separate devices for individual rooms). Picture 68: Sole air conditioning unit
7 Gas Distribution - is used for objects where natural gas is used. Natural gas is used for heating, cooking and hot water heating. Internal distribution of gas are connected to the public network and the gas meter, regulator and caps are always parts of the gas distribution systems. Water Distribution they are connected to the public water supply or domestic water station with its own well and pump. Internal water piping is a system of pipelines with a water meter. Production of hot water depends on the source of the heat. The heating may be local, central or remote. Sewage Distripution it is a system that removes all waste water ( sewage and rainwater), out of the building. This system includes also cesspools, septic tanks and domestic wastewater treatment plants. Central Vacuum Cleaner it is a fixed pipe distribution system built inside the walls of the building completed by wall plugs in each room. It includes a suction aggregate, a filter and a cartridge for the dirt. These are located in the technical room. Impurities are channeled into the stack by pipelines. Picture 69: Wall plug of the central vacuum Picture 70: aggregate of central vacuum
8 Electric power distribution - wiring is used to transfer electrical energy ( power distribution ) or to transfer data and weak signals. For the intended purpose it must comply with the equipment and sizing. Wiring is made up of interconnected wires, control and protection devices. The electro meters and distributor form parts of the system. Lightning conductors - they are established on buildings, where the lightning discharge could endanger the life or health of people, cause malfunction, cause economic or cultural damage. A.lightning rod consists of a catchment system, drains and grounding. Lighting - this is the artificial lighting of workplaces or homes. Lighting by artificial light sources must respect the qualitative and quantitative parameters of light and create conditions for visual comfort. The source of artificial lighting may be light bulbs, discharge tubes, fluorescent lamps or LED bulbs. Light Bulbs they are a heat source, which is the least economical. Only 3-5 % of the electrical energy is converted into light. Another disadvantage is a short service life. Fluorescent Lamps - fluorescent source. 25 % of the energy changes into light. They have a longer service life than light bulbs. Discharge Tubes - used for outdoor lighting. LED Bulbs - have high efficiency, long service life. They are ideal lighting for intelligent buildings because they allow changing very easily the light intensity using regulation systems.
9 Picture 71: Fluorescent lamps Picture 72: LED diods Elevators - are discussed in Module No.8 (Interior Building)
10 Dictionary: air conditioning (n)/eəʳkənˈdɪʃᵊnɪŋ/ calorific value (n) /ˌkæləˈrɪfɪk ˈvæljuː/ cap (n)/kæp/ central vacuum (n) /ˈsentrᵊlˈvækjuːm/ cesspool (n) /ˈsespuːl/ condensing boiler (n) /kənˈdentsɪŋ ˈbɔɪləʳ/ electric convector (n) /ɪˈlektrɪkkənˈvektəʳ/ electricity distribution (n) /ˌelɪkˈtrɪsəti ˌdɪstrɪˈbjuːʃᵊn/ fireplace (n) /ˈfaɪəpleɪs/ gas distribution (n) /gæs ˌdɪstrɪˈbjuːʃᵊn/ gas heater (n) /gæs ˈhiːtəʳ/ gas meter (n) /gæs ˈmiːtəʳ/ heat pump (n) /hiːtpʌmp/ heating (n) /ˈhiːtɪŋ/ lift (n) /lɪft/ lighting (n) /ˈlaɪtɪŋ/ lightning conductor (n) /ˈlaɪtɪŋkənˈdʌktəʳ/ pellet (n) /ˈpelɪ/ recovery ventilation (n) /rɪˈkʌvᵊri ˌventɪˈleɪʃᵊn/ refrigeration (n) /rɪˌfrɪʤᵊrˈeɪʃᵊn/ septic tank (n) /ˈseptɪktæŋk/ sewerage (n) /ˈsʊərɪʤ/ storage tank (n) /ˈstɔːrɪʤtæŋk/ tiled stove (n) /taɪldstəʊv/ vacation property (n) /vəˈkeɪʃᵊn ˈprɒpəti/ ventilation (n) /ˌventɪˈleɪʃᵊn/ klimatizace výhřevnost uzávěrka centrální vysavač žumpa kondenzační kotel elektrický konvektor elektrorozvody krb rozvod plynu karma plynoměr tepelné čerpadlo vytápění výtah osvětlení hromosvod peleta rekuperační větrání chlazení septic kanalizace akumulační nádrž kachlová kamna rekreační object vzduchotechnika
11 wall plug (n) /wɔːlplʌg/ wastewater treatment plant (n) /weɪstˈwɔːtəʳˈtriːtməntplɑːnt/ water pipeline (n) /ˈwɔːtəʳ ˈpaɪplaɪn/ water meter (n) /ˈwɔːtəʳˈmiːtəʳ/ wood boiler (n) /wʊd ˈbɔɪləʳ/ zásuvka čistírna odpadní vody svodovody vodoměr kotel na dřevo Questions: 1) How does central heating work? 2) What are the types of central heating? 3) What is electric power distribution used for? 4) What are the most common kinds of artificial lighting in buildings? 5) What can natural gas be used for as a part of technical equipment of buildings? Exercises: 1) Put the vocabulary into the correspondent definition. wood boiler refrigeration wall plug ventilation cesspool a) is an electric socket, usually located in a wall. b) is a mechanical system or equipment used to circulate air. c)is a domestic device burning wood to provide hot water, esp for central heating. d) is the process of cooling or freezing. e) is a covered hole or for receiving drainage or sewage from a house. 2) Odd one out. a) fireplace central heating boiler refrigerator b) heating lighting cap sewerage c) gas heater tiled stove ventilation radiator d) cesspool septic tank lightning conductor pellet e) lift petroleum coal biomass
12 3) Choose the correct form. a) We mustn t / don t have to smoke here. It s forbidden. b) You don t have to / shouldn t go to the conference, the boss will go there. c) I go by car to the party, so I mustn t / didn t have to drink any alcohol. d) Do you have to / should be at work on time? e) Had you to / Did you have to have the presentation about last month s sales figures? 4) Complete the sentences using modal verbs of obligation. a) The course is for free you pay. b) I was hopeless, so I ask my colleague for help. c) There are always long queues at the post office, you wait. d) It s very dangerous, you go there alone. e) Pete send the report as soon as possible, because the boss is waiting for it. 5) Underline the correct or more likely answer. If both options are not correct, do suggest a correct option. 1) I think she must / has to be very rich. 2) They want us to leave by tomorrow. They mustn t /haven t got to be serious. 3) I heard about Jane s accident. You must / had to have been worried about her. 4) He says he s 50, but he mustn t / hasn t got to be that old. 5) I looked at my watch and must / had to admit that I didn t have much time. 6) To get to Peru, I must / had to borrow money from my sister.
13 7) Being so well-known, you must / have to receive hundreds of letters each week. Source: Hewings, M., 2004 Mind map: Sewage distribution Water distribution Technical equipment Ventilation Heat sources Gas distribution Lighting Heating Gas meter Light bulbs Wood boiler Solutions: 1) Put the vocabulary into the correspondent definition. wood boiler refrigeration wall plug ventilation cesspool a) Wall plug is an electric socket, usually located in a wall. b) Ventilation is a mechanical system or equipment used to circulate air. c) Wood boiler is a domestic device burning wood to provide hot water, esp for central heating. d) Refrigeration is the process of cooling or freezing. e) Cesspool is a covered hole or for receiving drainage or sewage from a house.
14 2) Odd one out. a) fireplace central heating boiler refrigerator b) heating lighting cap sewerage c) gas heater tiled stove ventilation radiator d) cesspool septic tank lightning conductor pellet e) lift petroleum coal biomass 3) Choose the correct form. f) We mustn t / don t have to smoke here. It s forbidden. g) You don t have to / shouldn t go to the conference, the boss will go there. h) I go by car to the party, so I mustn t / didn t have to drink any alcohol. i) Do you have to / should be at work on time? j) Had you to / Did you have to have the presentation about last month s sales figures? 4) Complete the sentences using modal verbs of obligation. f) The course is for free you don t have to pay. g) I was hopeless, so I had to ask my colleague for help. h) There are always long queues at the post office, you will have to wait. i) It s very dangerous, you shouldn t go there alone. j) Pete should send the report as soon as possible, because the boss is waiting for it.
15 5) Underline the correct or more likely answer. If both options are not correct, do suggest a correct option. 1) I think she must / has to be very rich. MUST 2) They want us to leave by tomorrow. They mustn t / haven t got to be serious. BOTH WRONG (can t) 3) I heard about Jane s accident. You must / had to have been worried about her. MUST 4) He says he s 50, but he mustn t / hasn t got to be that old. BOTH WRONG (can t, couldn t) 5) I looked at my watch and must / had to admit that I didn t have much time. HAD TO 6) To get to Peru, I must / had to borrow money from my sister. HAD TO 7) Being so well-known, you must / have to receive hundreds of letters each week. MUST Bibliography HEWINGS, M. Advanced Grammar in Use. CUP. Cambridge, p. ISBN
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